||This article needs additional citations for verification. (December 2012)|
The Wadiyar dynasty was an Indian Hindu dynasty that ruled the Kingdom of Mysore from 1399 to 1947, until the independence of India from British rule and the subsequent unification of the Indian dominion and princely states into the Republic of India.
The word "Wadiyar" is pronounced to start with a vowel sound and not with a consonant. Odeyar (ಒಡೆಯರ್) in Kannada and means the king or the owner.
The dynasty was established by Vijaya. Vijaya took on the name and ruled Mysore, then a small town, from 1399 CE to 1423 CE. The Mysore kingdom was ruled by a succession of Wadiyar rulers for the next couple of centuries. However, the kingdom remained fairly small during this early period and was a part of the Vijayanagara Empire. Later, after the fall of the Vijayanagara Empire in 1565, the Kingdom of Mysore became independent and remained so until 1799. The Kingdom of Mysore came under the British during the reign of King Krishnaraja Wadiyar III (1799–1868). His successors changed the English spelling of their royal name to Wadiyar, and took the title of Bahadur. The last two monarchs also accepted the British decoration G.B.E.
The Vijayanagara Empire disintegrated in 1565. The power vacuum created soon after was utilized by Raja Wadiyar, who ruled Mysore from 1578 to 1617. He expanded the borders of the Mysore kingdom and also shifted the capital from the city of Mysore in 1610 to Srirangapatna, a rare island formed by the river Cauvery, which provided natural protection against military attacks.
Subsequent famous rulers of the dynasty include Kanthirava Narasaraja I (ruled 1638–1659) who expanded the frontiers of the Mysore Kingdom to Trichy in Tamil Nadu. The dynasty reached its peak under Chikka Devaraja (ruled 1673–1704), who widely reformed the administration of the empire by dividing it into 18 departments (called Chavadis) and also introduced a coherent system of taxation.
From 1760 to 1799, the rule of the dynasty was essentially nominal, with real power in the hands of the successive dalwai, or commanders-in-chief, Hyder Ali and his son Tipu Sultan, who expanded the kingdom aggressively, but clashed with the East India Company. After Tipu Sultan was killed when the British stormed Seringapatam in 1799, the Wadiyars were restored to a reduced kingdom.
After restoring the Wadiyars to the throne of Mysore the British shifted the capital back to the city of Mysore from Srirangapatna. The four-year-old boy (Mummudi) Krishna Raja Wadiyar III, son of the last Wadiyar King Khasa Chamaraja Wadiyar VIII, was anointed as the King of Mysore. Wadiyars were now subsidiaries of the British Raj and had to pay annual subsidy to the British. However British took over the administration of the Kingdom on a specious plea of non-payment of subsidy amount from Mummudi Krishna Raja Wadiyar in 1831 and British appointed commissioners were in charge of the Kingdom.
British Commissioners administered Mysore from 1831 to 1881. Mark Cubbon (1834–1861) and L. B. Bowring (1861–1870) are among the well-known Commissioners of the period.
But in 1868, the British Parliament upheld the King's plea and decided to restore the Kingdom back to his adopted son Chamaraja Wadiyar IX. In 1881, transfer of power back to the Wadiyars heralded an important phase in the making of modern Mysore. For the first time in India, democratic experiments were introduced by the constitution of the representative assembly. His son Nalvadi Krishna Raja Wadiyar earned great fame as a saintly King-Rajarishi and his Kingdom was hailed as Ramarajya by Mahatma Gandhi; an ideal kingdom comparable to the one ruled by the historical hero Lord Rama.citation needed
Under British hegemony, the Wadiyars, freed from security concerns, shifted attention to the patronage of the fine arts. Under their patronage, Mysore became a cultural centre of Karnataka, fostering a number of famous musicians, writers and painters.
The last king of the Wadiyar dynasty was Jayachamaraja Wodeyar, who ruled from 1940 until Indian independence from British rule. In the year 1947, after India attained independence, he acceded his Kingdom to the dominion of India, but continued as the Maharaja until India became a Republic in 1950. He became the Raja Pramukh—a constitutional position—as the head of Mysore State within the Republic of India from 1950-1956. After the re-organization of Indian States on linguistic basis, he was appointed as the Governor of the integrated Mysore State (present Karnataka state) in 1956, which post he held until 1964. After that he was Governor of Madras state (now Tamil Nadu) for two years. But the Indian Constitution continued to recognize him as the Maharaja of Mysore until 1971, when Mrs. Indira Gandhi, then Prime Minister of India abolished the titles and Privy Purse of well over 560 Maharajas spread over different parts of India. The Maharaja died in 1974. His only son Srikanta Datta Narasimha Raja Wadiyar (b. 1953) was a member of the Indian Parliament for many years.
- Yaduraya (1399–1423)
- Hiriya Bettada Chamaraja Wadiyar I (1423–1459)
- Thimmaraja Wadiyar I (1459–1478)
- Hiriya Chamaraja Wadiyar II (1478–1513)
- Hiriya bettada Chamaraja III Wadiyar (1513–1553)
- Thimmaraja Wadiyar II (1553–1572)
- Bola Chamaraja Wadiyar IV (1572–1576)
- Bettada Chamaraja Wadiyar V(1576–1578)1
- Raja Wadiyar I (1578–1617)
- Chamaraja Wadiyar VI (1617–1637).
- Raja Wadiyar II (1637–1638)
- (Ranadhira Kantheerava) Narasaraja Wadiyar I (1638–1659)
- Dodda Devaraja Wadiyar (1659–1673)
- Chikka Devaraja Wadiyar (1673–1704)
- Narasaraja Wodeyar II (1704–1714)
- Dodda Krishnaraja Wodeyar I (1714–1732)
- Chamaraja Wadiyar VII (1732–1734)
- (Immadi) Krishnaraja Wadiyar II (1734–1766)
- Nanajaraja Wadiyar (1766–1770)
- Bettada Chamaraja Wadiyar VIII(1770–1776)
- Khasa Chamaraja Wadiyar IX (1766–1796)
- Krishnaraja Wadiyar III (1799–1868)
- Chamarajendra Wadiyar X (1868–1894)
- Vani Vilas Sannidhana, queen of Chamarajendra Wadiyar X, was Regent from 1894–1902.
- Krishnaraja Wadiyar IV (1894–1940)
- Jayachamarajendra Wadiyar (1940–1950)
- Srikanta Wadiyar, (b-1953, ascended the throne in 1974- though a private affair)
The Mysore kingdom, founded by Yaduraya in the year 1399, consisted of only the areas surrounding the Present Mysore City. In fact, the original fort was supposed to have been at a place known as haDadana — an extant small village on the southern side of Chamundi Hill. Wadiyars, like all others at that time, were under the suzerainty of the Vijayanagar Empire. The viceroy of the Vijayanagar kingdom was headquartered at Srirangapatna. Wadiyars after Yaduraya slowly and steadily increased their influence and territory over the next 200 years. Raja Wadiyar the ninth ruler of the dynasty was a remarkable man known for his valor and patronage of art and culture. He ruled from 1578 to 1617. In 1610, he conquered the fort of Srirangapatna from Tirumala, the then Viceroy of Vijayanagar. Tirumala is said to have retired to Talakad along with his two wives. One of them Alamelamma was known to be a staunch devotee of Sri Ranganayaki — consort of Sri Ranganatha the presiding deity of the famous Adi-Ranga temple in the island fortress of Srirangapatna.
Tirumala was afflicted with a deadly disease on his back which was known as the disease of the kings. But the condition of Srirangaraya deteriorated and he died. Alamelamma had large amount of precious jewellery. Of them was a fine nose ring studded with a big pearl. As Alamelamma was a widow, she had no use of these jewels . Since she was known to be a staunch devotee of Sri Ranganayaki, every Friday and Tuesday, Sri Ranaganayaki was decorated with a big pearl studded nose ring and other precious jewelry. These jewels were in the safe custody of Alamelamma otherwise. Temple authorities requested Raja Wadiyar to provide them with the custody of these jewels as was the practice. Treasury officials informed the king about truth. Raja Wadiyar thought what is the use of these jewels for Alamelamma as she is a widow now and she no longer needs them. Raja Wadiyar sent emissaries to malangi where Alamelamma was staying, with a request to return the jewels. Alamelamma returned only the pearl studded nose ring. Then Raja Wadiyar sent his army to Talakad to request her once again and, if she refused, to get them by force. To escape the wrath of the Mysore Army, Alamelamma uttered the legendary curse on Raja Wadiyar and jumped into the whirlpool in the river Cauvery at Talakadu with the rest of the jewels, and escaped unscathed. The curse which has survived the folklore of last 400 years is:
|“||ತಲಕಾಡು ಮರಳಾಗಲಿ, ಮಾಲಂಗಿ ಮಡುವಾಗಲಿ, ಮೈಸೂರು ದೊರೆಗಳಿಗೆ ಮಕ್ಕಳಿಲ್ಲದೆ ಹೋಗಲಿ||”|
|“||Talakadu maralagali, Malangi maduvagali, Mysuru doregalige makkalilllade hogali||”|
|“||May Talakad turn into a barren expanse of sand, May Malangi turn into an unfathomed whirlpool, May the Rajas of Mysore not have children for all time to eternity.||”|
Hearing of this step taken by Alamelamma, Raja Wadiyar was repentant. In grief, he had an idol of Alamelamma made in gold, installed it in the palace and worshipped it as a deity. Some remnants of her hair is preserved in a box. To this day, Alamelamma’s idol is in the Mysore Palace. The pearl nose-stud adorns Ranganayaki and Alamelamma today.2
- According to Court Historian and Chief Editor of Mysore Gazeeteer - Mr C. Hayavadana Rao, this Ruler's name as Bettada Devaraja Wadiyar. But as the Annals of Mysore Royal Family a book published by the Royal House sticks to this version, the same is adopted here as authentic<
- Sivaramakrishna, Sashi. The Curse of Talakad - A Legend in History. Roopa & Co. ISBN 81-291-0836-4
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Wadiyar dynasty|
- The Wodeyars of Mysore (1578 A.D. to 1947 A.D.)
- History of Mysore Wodeyars
- Mysore - Imperial City of Karnataka
- Genealogy of the Wodeyar Dynasty
- Curse on Wodeyars: Documenting a Legend
- Curse on Wodeyars: ORAL TRADITIONS -Legend and history
- Coins of the Wodeyars
Content from Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia
What Is This Site? The Ultimate Study Guide is a mirror of English Wikipedia. It exists in order to provide Wikipedia content to those who are unable to access the main Wikipedia site due to draconian government, employer, or school restrictions. The site displays all the text content from Wikipedia. Our sponsors generously cover part of the cost of hosting this site, and their ads are shown as part of this agreement. We regret that we are unable to display certain controversial images on some pages the site at the request of the sponsors. If you need to see images which we are unable to show, we encourage you to view Wikipedia directly if possible, and apologize for this inconvenience.
A product of XPR Content Systems. 47 Union St #9K, Grand Falls-Windsor NL A2A 2C9 CANADA