W. S. Merwin
|W. S. Merwin|
September 30, 1927 |
New York City
|Education||Wyoming Seminary, Kingston, PA 1944|
|Alma mater||Princeton University|
|Genres||Poetry, prose, translation|
|Notable award(s)||PEN Translation Prize
Pulitzer Prize for Poetry
Aiken Taylor Award for Modern American Poetry
Lenore Marshall Poetry Prize
National Book Award
United States Poet Laureate
|Spouse(s)||Dorothy Jeanne Ferry
Paula Schwartz (1983–present)
William Stanley Merwin (born September 30, 1927) is an American poet, credited with over fifty books of poetry, translation and prose.1 During the 1960s anti-war movement, Merwin's unique craft was thematically characterized by indirect, unpunctuated narration. In the 1980s and 1990s, Merwin's writing influence derived from his interest in Buddhist philosophy and deep ecology. Residing in Hawaii, he writes prolifically and is dedicated to the restoration of the islands' rainforests.
Merwin has received many honors, including the Pulitzer Prize for Poetry (in both 1971 and 2009)2 and the Tanning Prize, one of the highest honors bestowed by the Academy of American Poets, as well as the Golden Wreath of the Struga Poetry Evenings. In 2010, the Library of Congress named Merwin the seventeenth United States Poet Laureate to replace the outgoing Kay Ryan.34
W. S. Merwin was born in New York City on September 30, 1927. He grew up on the corner of Fourth Street and New York Avenue in Union City, New Jersey until 1936, when his family moved to Scranton, Pennsylvania. As a child, he was enamored of the natural world, sometimes finding himself talking to the large tree in his back yard. He was also fascinated with things that he saw as links to the past, such as the building behind his home that had once been a barn that housed a horse and carriage.5 At the age of five he started writing out hymns for his father.4
After attending Princeton University, Merwin married his first wife, Dorothy Jeanne Ferry, and moved to Spain. During his stay there, while visiting the renowned poet Robert Graves at his homestead on the island of Majorca, he served as tutor to Graves's son. There, he met Dido Milroy — fifteen years older than he — with whom he collaborated on a play and whom he later married and lived with in London. In 1956, Merwin moved to Boston for a fellowship at the Poets' Theater. He returned to London where he was friends with Sylvia Plath and Ted Hughes. In 1968, Merwin moved to New York City, separating from his wife who stayed at their home in France. In the late 1970s, Merwin moved to Hawaii and eventually was divorced from Dido Milroy. He married Paula Schwartz in 1983.6
In 1952 Merwin's first book of poetry, A Mask for Janus, was published in the Yale Younger Poets Series. W. H. Auden selected the work for that distinction. Later, in 1971 Auden and Merwin would exchange harsh words in the pages of The New York Review of Books. Merwin had published "On Being Awarded the Pulitzer Prize" in the June 3, 1971, issue of The New York Review of Books outlining his objections to the Vietnam War and stating that he was donating his prize money to the draft resistance movement.
From 1956 to 1957 Merwin was also playwright-in-residence at the Poet's Theatre in Cambridge, Massachusetts; he became poetry editor at The Nation in 1962. Besides being a prolific poet (he has published over fifteen volumes of his works), he is also a respected translator of Spanish, French, Latin and Italian poetry (including Dante's Purgatorio) as well as poetry from Sanskrit, Yiddish, Middle English, Japanese and Quechua. He also served as selector of poems of the late American poet Craig Arnold (1967–2009).citation needed
Merwin is probably best known for his poetry about the Vietnam War, and can be included among the canon of Vietnam War-era poets which includes such luminaries as Robert Bly, Adrienne Rich; Denise Levertov; Robert Lowell; Allen Ginsberg and Yusef Komunyakaa. In 1998, Merwin wrote Folding Cliffs: A Narrative, an ambitious novel-in-verse about Hawai`i in history and legend.original research?
Merwin's early subjects were frequently tied to mythological or legendary themes, while many of his poems featured animals. A volume called The Drunk in the Furnace (1960) marked a change for Merwin, in that he began to write in a much more autobiographical way.citation needed The title-poem is about Orpheus, seen as an old drunk. 'Where he gets his spirits / it's a mystery', Merwin writes; 'But the stuff keeps him musical'. Another poem of this period — 'Odysseus' — reworks the traditional theme in a way that plays off poems by Stevens and Graves on the same topic.
In the 1960s, Merwin lived in a small apartment in New York City's Greenwich Village,5 and began to experiment boldly with metrical irregularity. His poems became much less tidy and controlled. He played with the forms of indirect narration typical of this period, a self-conscious experimentation explained in an essay called 'On Open Form' (1969). The Lice (1967) and The Carrier of Ladders (1970) remain his most influential volumes. These poems often used legendary subjects (as in 'The Hydra' or 'The Judgment of Paris') to explore highly personal themes.
In Merwin's later volumes — such as The Compass Flower (1977), Opening the Hand (1983), and The Rain in the Trees (1988) — one sees him transforming earlier themes in fresh ways, developing an almost Zen-like indirection. His latest poems are densely imagistic, dream-like, and full of praise for the natural world. He has lived in Hawaii since the 1970s, and one sees the influence of this tropical landscape everywhere in the recent poems, though the landscape remains emblematic and personal. Migration7 (Copper Canyon Press, 2005) won the 2005 National Book Award for poetry.8 A lifelong friend of James Wright, Merwin wrote an elegy to him that appears in the 2008 volume From the Other World: Poems in Memory of James Wright.original research?
Each year links to its corresponding "[year] in poetry" or "[year] in literature" article:
- 1952: Yale Younger Poets Prize for A Mask for Janus10
- 1954: Kenyon Review Fellowship in Poetry11
- 1956: Rockefeller Fellowship11
- 1957: National Institute of Arts and Letters grant11
- 1957: Playwrighting Bursary, Arts Council of Great Britain11
- 1961: Rabinowitz Foundation Grant11
- 1962: Bess Hokin Prize, Poetry magazine11
- 1964/1965: Ford Foundation Grant11
- 1966: Chapelbrook Foundation Fellowship11
- 1967: Harriet Monroe Memorial Prize, Poetry magazine11
- 1969: PEN Translation Prize for Selected Translations 1948-196812
- 1969: Rockefeller Foundation Grant11
- 1971: Pulitzer Prize for Poetry for The Carrier of Ladders (published in 1971)12
- 1973: Academy of American Poets Fellowship11
- 1974: Shelley Memorial Award11
- 1979: Bollingen Prize for Poetry, Yale University Library11
- 1987: Governor's Award for Literature of the state of Hawaii12
- 1990: Maurice English Poetry Award13
- 1993: The Tanning Prize for mastery in the art of poetry12
- 1993: Lenore Marshall Poetry Prize for Travels12
- 1994: Lila Wallace-Reader's Digest Writers' Award12
- 1998: Ruth Lilly Poetry Prize, awarded by The Poetry Foundation
- 1999: Poetry Consultant to the Library of Congress, a jointly-held position with Rita Dove and Louise Glück14
- 2005: National Book Award for Poetry for Migration: New and Selected Poems810
- 2004: Golden Wreath Award of the Struga Poetry Evenings Festival in Macedonia14
- 2004: Lannan Lifetime Achievement Award14
- 2009: Pulitzer Prize for Poetry for The Shadow of Sirius (published in 2008)15
- 2010: Kenyon Review Award for Literary Achievement
- 2010: United States Poet Laureate3
- 2013: The Zbigniew Herbert International Literary Award16
Each year links to its corresponding "[year] in poetry" or "[year] in literature" article:
Poetry - collections
- 1952: A Mask for Janus, New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press; awarded the Yale Younger Poets Prize, 1952 (reprinted as part of The First Four Books of Poems, 1975)10
- 1954: The Dancing Bears, New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press (reprinted as part of The First Four Books of Poems, 1975)10
- 1956: Green with Beasts, New York: Knopf (reprinted as part of The First Four Books of Poems, 1975)10
- 1960: The Drunk in the Furnace, New York: Macmillan (reprinted as part of The First Four Books of Poems, 1975)10
- 1963: The Moving Target, New York: Atheneum10
- 1966: Collected Poems, New York: Atheneum10
- 1967: The Lice, New York: Atheneum
- 1969: Animae, San Francisco: Kayak10
- 1970: The Carrier of Ladders, New York: Atheneum;10 —winner of the Pulitzer Prize2
- 1970: Signs, illustrated by A. D. Moore; Iowa City, Iowa: Stone Wall Press10
- 1973: Writings to an Unfinished Accompaniment, New York: Atheneum10
- 1975: The First Four Books of Poems, containing A Mask for Janus, The Dancing Bears, Green with Beasts, and The Drunk in the Furnace, New York: Atheneum; (reprinted in 2000, Port Townsend, Washington: Copper Canyon Press)10
- 1977: The Compass Flower, New York: Atheneum10
- 1978: Feathers From the Hill, Iowa City, Iowa: Windhover10
- 1982: Finding the Islands, San Francisco: North Point Press10
- 1983: Opening the Hand, New York: Atheneum10
- 1988: The Rain in the Trees, New York: Knopf10
- 1988: Selected Poems, New York: Atheneum10
- 1993: The Second Four Books of Poems, Port Townsend, Washington: Copper Canyon Press
- 1993: Travels: Poems, New York: Knopf10 winner of the 1993 Lenore Marshall Poetry Prize12
- 1996: The Vixen: Poems, New York: Knopf10
- 1997: Flower and Hand: Poems, 1977-1983 Port Townsend, Washington: Copper Canyon Press10
- 1998: The Folding Cliffs: A Narrative, a "novel-in-verse" New York: Knopf17
- 1999: The River Sound: Poems, New York: Knopf10
- 2001: The Pupil, New York: Knopf10
- 2005: Migration: New and Selected Poems, Port Townsend, Washington: Copper Canyon Press10 —winner of the National Book Award for Poetry8
- 2005: Present Company, Port Townsend, Washington: Copper Canyon Press10
- 2008: The Shadow of Sirius, Port Townsend, Washington: Copper Canyon Press18 —winner of the Pulitzer Prize2
- "Alba" The New Yorker 84/35 (3 November 2008) : 86
- "Telephone Ringing in the Labyrinth" The New York Review of Books 59/9 (24 May 2012)
- 1970: The Miner's Pale Children, New York: Atheneum (reprinted in 1994, New York: Holt)10
- 1977: Houses and Travellers, New York: Atheneum (reprinted in 1994, New York: Holt)10
- Regions of Memory
- 1982: Unframed Originals: Recollections
- 1992: The Lost Uplands: Stories of Southwest France, New York: Knopf
- 2002: The Mays of Ventadorn, National Geographic Directions Series; Washington: National Geographic10
- 2004: The Ends of the Earth, essays, Washington: Shoemaker & Hoard10
- 2005: Summer Doorways: A Memoir
- 2007: The Book of Fables, Port Townsend, Washington: Copper Canyon Press
- 1956: Darkling Child (with Dido Milroy), produced this year10
- 1957: Favor Island, produced this year at Poets' Theatre in Cambridge, Massachusetts (broadcast in 1958 by Third Programme, British Broadcasting Corporation)10
- 1961: The Gilded West, produced this year at Belgrade Theatre, Coventry, England10
- 1959: The Poem of the Cid, London: Dent (American edition, 1962, New York: New American Library)10
- 1960: The Satires of Persius, Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press10
- 1961: Some Spanish Ballads, London: Abelard (American edition: Spanish Ballads, 1961, New York: Doubleday Anchor)10
- 1962: The Life of Lazarillo de Tormes: His Fortunes and Adversities, a Spanish novella; New York: Doubleday Anchor10
- 1963: The Song of Roland12
- 1969: Selected Translations, 1948 - 1968, New York: Atheneum;10 winner of the PEN Translation Prize12
- 1969: Twenty Love Poems and a Song of Despair, poems by Pablo Neruda; London: Jonathan Cape (reprinted in 2004 with an introduction by Christina Garcia, New York: Penguin Books)10
- 1969: Products of the Perfected Civilization, Selected Writings of Chamfort, also author of the introduction; New York: Macmillan
- 1969: Voices: Selected Writings of Antonio Porchia, Chicago: Follett (reprinted in 1988 and 2003, Port Townsend, Washington: Copper Canyon Press)10
- 1969: Transparence of the World, poems by Jean Follain, New York: Atheneum (reprinted in 2003, Port Townsend, Washington: Copper Canyon Press)10
- 1971: "Eight Quechua Poems", The Hudson Review19
- 1973: Asian Figures, New York: Atheneum
- 1974: Osip Mandelstam: Selected Poems (with Clarence Brown), New York: Oxford University Press (reprinted in 2004 as The Selected Poems of Osip Mandelstam, New York: New York Review of Books)10
- 1977: Sanskrit Love Poetry (with J. Moussaieff Masson), New York: Columbia University Press (published in 1981 as Peacock's Egg: Love Poems from Ancient India, San Francisco: North Point Press)10
- 1977: Vertical Poetry, poems by Roberto Juarroz; San Francisco: Kayak (reprinted in 1988; San Francisco: North Point Press)10
- 1978: Euripides' Iphigeneia at Aulis (with George E. Dimock, Jr.), New York: Oxford University Press10
- 1979: Selected Translations, 1968-1978, New York: Atheneum10
- 1981: Robert the Devil, an anonymous French play; with an introduction by the translator; Iowa City, Iowa: Windhover10
- 1985: Four French Plays, including Robert the Devil; The Rival of His Master and Turcaret by Alain-René Lesage; and The False Confessions by Pierre de Marivaux; New York: Atheneum
- 1985: From the Spanish Morning, consisting of Spanash Ballads by Lope de Rueda and Eufemia: The Life of Lazarillo de Torres (originally translated in Tulane Drama Review, December 1958); New York: Atheneum
- 1989: Sun at Midnight, poems by Musō Soseki (with Soiku Shigematsu)12
- 1996: Pieces of Shadow: Selected Poems of Jaime Sabines
- 1998: East Window: The Asian Translations, translated poems from earlier collections, Port Townsend, Washington: Copper Canyon Press
- 2000: Purgatorio from The Divine Comedy of Dante; New York: Knopf10
- 2005: Gawain and the Green Knight, a New Verse Translation, New York: Knopf10
- 2013: Selected Translations, translated poems from 1948 - 2010, Port Townsend, Washington: Copper Canyon Press
- 1961: West Wind: Supplement of American Poetry, London: Poetry Book Society10
- 1996: Lament for the Makers: A Memorial Anthology (compiler), Washington: Counterpoint10
- The Union City Reporter March 12, 2006.
Merwin's literary papers are held at the Rare Book & Manuscript Library of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The collection, which is open to researchers, consists of some 5,500 archival items and 450 printed books.2021
- "Amazon.com Official Profile". Retrieved 7 October 2012.
- "Poetry". Past winners & finalists by category. The Pulitzer Prizes. Retrieved 2012-04-08.
- Kennicott, Philip (July 1, 2010). "W.S. Merwin, Hawaii-based poet, will serve as 17th U.S. laureate". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 1, 2010.
- Cohen, Patricia (June 30, 2010). "W. S. Merwin to Be Named Poet Laureate". The New York Times. Retrieved July 9, 2010.
- Diaz, Lana Rose. "Merwin Speaks"; The Union City Reporter; July 11, 2010; Pages 1 & 9
- Smith, Dinitia (February 19, 1995). "A Poet of Their Own". New York Times. Retrieved March 30, 2010.
- "National Book Awards – 2005". National Book Foundation. Retrieved 2012-04-08.
(With acceptance speech by Merwin, essay by Patrick Rosal from the Awards 60-year anniversary blog, and other material.)
- Merwin biography at Poetry Foundation, Accessed October 23, 2010
- Brennan, Elizabeth A. and Elizabeth C. Clarage, "1971: W.S. Merwin" article, p 534, Who's Who of Pulitzer Prize Winners Phoenix, Arizona: The Oryx Press (1999), ISBN 1-57356-111-8, retrieved via Google Books on June 8, 2010
- News release, "Poet W.S. Merwin Reads at Library of Congress October 15, September 22, 1997, Library of Congress website, retrieved June 8, 2010
- Routledge Staff (2003). International Who's Who of Authors and Writers 2004. Routledge. p. 383. ISBN 1-85743-179-0. Retrieved 2008-07-20.
- W. S. Merwin at Barclay Agency, Accessed October 23, 2010
- "The 2009 Pulitzer Prize Winners/Poetry", Pulitzer.org; Accessed October 23, 2010
- "The Folding Cliffs: A Narrative (Hardcover)"; Amazon.com; October 23, 2010
- Farr, Sheila, "Poet ponders life's contrasts in 'The Shadow of Sirius'", book review, October 30, 2010, The Seattle Times, retrieved June 8, 2010
- Archive at Hudson Review Accessed October 23, 2010
- "Finding Aid for the W.S. Merwin Papers, Merwin 1". Rare Book & Manuscript Library, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Retrieved March 29, 2010.
- "Finding Aid for the W.S. Merwin Book Collection (UIU00141)". Rare Book & Manuscript Library, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Retrieved March 29, 2010.
- About. Merwin Studies: Poetry, Poetics, Ecology.
- "For the Anniversary of My Death", Poets.org, The Academy of American Poets, 1966
- Armenti, Peter. W.S. Merwin: Online Resources, Library of Congress, accessed November 25, 2010.
- W.S. Merwin at the Steven Barclay Agency, accessed November 25, 2010.
- Norton, Ingrid. "Second Glance: Today belongs to few and tomorrow to no one" Open Letters Monthly, accessed November 25, 2010.
- Edward Hirsch (Spring 1987). "W. S. Merwin, The Art of Poetry No. 38". The Paris Review.
- Kubota, Gary T. "Catching Up With Maui's Most Famous Poet: At Home and at Peace In a Tropical Landscape, W.S. Merwin Enriches the Literature of Nature", Honolulu Star-Bulletin, April 21, 2001
- Profile and poems of W.S. Merwin, including audio files, at the Poetry Foundation.
- W.S. Merwin--Online Poems, Modern American Poetry, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, accessed November 25, 2010.
- Lerner, Ben. "The Emptiness at the End" Jacket magazine, October 2005
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