Triplicane Pond and Parthasarthy temple Gopuram
|• Body||Chennai Corporation|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
|Lok Sabha constituency||Chennai Central|
|Civic agency||Chennai Corporation|
Triplicane, also known as Thiruvallikeni, is one of the oldest neighbourhoods of Chennai, India. It is situated on the Bay of Bengal coast and about 0.5 km (0.31 mi) from Fort St George. The average elevation of the neighbourhood is 14 metres above sea level.1
Along with Mylapore and the surrounding regions, Triplicane is historically much older than the city of Chennai itself, with a mention in records as early as the Pallava period.23 Primarily a residential region, it is home to some of the tourist attractions of the city, such as the Marina Beach and Parthasarathy Temple, and several commercial establishments. Triplicane is equally famous for its rich traditional culture, which is prominent in and around the streets (known as "mada veethis" in Tamil) of Parthasarthy Temple.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Location
- 4 Geography
- 5 Neighbourhood
- 6 Housing
- 7 Roads
- 8 Education
- 9 Culture
- 10 Politics
- 11 Public Transport
- 12 Famous Personalities
- 13 References
The name Triplicane is the anglicized version of Thiruvallikeni, which derives from Thiru-Alli-Keni (Sacred Lily Pond, in Tamil), denoting the pond in front of the Parthasarathy temple, which was amidst a big Tulasi forest.24 The place is also referred as Brindaranyam in Brahmanda Purana, owing to the presence of the tulasi (brinda) plants in the area.5 It is also referred to as 'Brindaranya kshetra'6 and 'Southern Brindavana'.7
The early records of the town are rooted to epic rather than history. Thiruvallikeni finds various mentions in Nalayira Divya prabandham in the hymns of Thirumangai Alvar,8 Peyalwar and Thirumazhisai Piran - hymn 2416 in Nanmukan Thiruvanthathi forming part of the divine 4000 divya prabhandam.9 Thirumangai Alvar described Thiruvallikeni as a densely canopied forest with peacocks and koels, where the sun's rays cannot penetrate.5 Peyalwar describes Thiruvallikeni as a place having a beach, where white waves bring precious gems like red corals and white pearls to the shore that which lights up the area with beautiful colours.9
The evidence from stone inscriptions indicates that Parthasarathy temple was built in the 8th century by a Pallava King.101112 The temple was later expanded by the Pallavas, Cholas, Vijayanagara rulers.71113 It has been recorded that a rivulet, Kaivareni, ran across Triplicane and Mylapore.14 The legend has it that the rivulet connected two water bodies: the temple tank of Parthasarathy temple and a sacred well, Mani Kairavani, in the flower garden of Adi Kesava Perumal Temple of Mylapore.14 It is believed that Peyalvar, one of the 12 alvars, was born on a lily flower in this well and that he sailed through the rivulet to worship Lord Krishna in the Parthasarathy temple.151617 To commemorate this, the idol of Peyalwar in Mylapore is brought, as a procession, to Parthasarathy temple every year in the month of September.18 Peyalwar temple was built in 13th century.19
In 1600s, Triplicane was a separate village. After about a century, British found Triplicane to be a good area for settlement and a large number of people moved there. In 1668, Triplicane was annexed to the Madras City.20 In addition, the presence of the Nawab of Arcot increased the economic prosperity of the area, and many Muslims settled in Triplicane. From that time, Triplicane grew in importance, second only to George Town.21 In 1795, the Wallajah Mosque was built.22 During this period, Chepauk Palace and Amir Mahal were also built.20 In the early 20th century, Triplicane became one of the major residential areas of Madras. In 1841, Ice House was built to store the ice bars imported from America through ships. Ice bars were imported to provide the English a temporary relief from the blistering heat.11 This building was renamed Vivekananda house after Swami Vivekananda stayed in the building for a brief while. In mid-19th century, numerous educational institutions were formed in the area. Hindu Higher Secondary School was started in 185323 and Presidency College in 1864-65. In 1870, the college was moved to its present location on Beach Road. In 1884, Marina Beach prominade was built.2425 In 1896, Sri Parthasarathy Swami Sabha (SPSS), the oldest sabha in chennai, was founded and operated from the Hindu High School on Big Street26
The building which currently serves as the Triplicane police station was built around 1891 to guard Madrasapatnam.27 This building is the City's oldest police station.27 Triplicane High Road is one of the roads that had a tram line running through it during the British reign.282930
In 1904, Triplicane Urban Co-Operative Society (TUCS) was started.31 The consumer cooperative society predates even the first Cooperative Credit Societies Act of 1904,32 which officially ushered in the cooperative movement into India. It runs a super market, self-service department stores, sells automobile fuel and cooking gas, and operates more than 200 rations shops for the Public Distribution System.32
In 1916, Star Theatre was built on Triplicane High Road. This age old theatre has been set for demolition in March 2012.33
On 26 December 2004, Indian ocean tsunami hit Triplicane44
Triplicane lies on the banks of the Buckingham Canal which bisects the neighbourhood along the north-south direction. The neighbourhood is bordered by Marina Beach on the east on the shore of the Bay of Bengal, Chepauk on the north, Royapettah on the west and northwest, Mylapore on the southwest, and Santhome on the south.
||Chintadripet||Chepauk||Marina Beach / Bay of Bengal|
|Royapettah||Marina Beach / Bay of Bengal|
|Mylapore||Santhome||Marina Beach / Bay of Bengal|
The neighbourhood is classified as a tropical dry forest bio-zone.1 Being a coastal city, Chennai had many sand ridges. During the 16th century, the sea level rose and inundated lands within the settlements.21 When the sea withdrew, lagoons and ridges were left behind. One such ridge ran from the mouth of River Cooum to the present site of the Presidency College. On the rear side was a huge depression, where the college grounds have been built now. The ridge is the present Marina beach.21 Further south, a U-shaped ridge ran along Besant Road and Lloyds Road enclosing the Ice House. Parthasarathy Temple is just by the northern area of this ridge. Mount Road, now Anna Salai, ran along a tank bund and was at a high level. To the east of it, the land fell gradually, where Triplicane High Road and the Luz were formed.21
Triplicane is succeptable to strong (vi) earthquakes, with occurrences at 5 to 6 Richter. On average, it receives one tremor every 50 years.1 However, the impact may be low. The neighbourhood is prone to periods of extreme droughts. The risk of flooding is medium-high, and chances of cyclones are low.1
With an area of around 5 sq km, Triplicane is home to over 100,000 people, in addition to a floating population of 50,000 to 70,000.4 Average population density of the neighbourhood is 21,329 per square kilometre.1 Being an old neighbourhood of the city, it is congested and chaotic with narrow lanes and streets.45
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Known as 'Bachelor's Paradise', Triplicane is home to about 200 boarding houses (locally known as mansions) out of the 700 odd ones in the city,46 many of them with about 30 to 60 rooms.44748 Soon after independence, boarding houses began to appear in the area to cater to the needs of the individual migrants from various parts of the country. The first four boarding houses, known locally as mansions, were built in the 1950s by farmers from the southern parts of Tamil Nadu after successive droughts had threatened their livelihood. They gave out rooms on rent to traders who came to the city from other parts of the state. These are owned today by their progeny, without much change in their structures. Famous people who have at one time or another lived in the bachelor pads of Triplicane include political figures Periyar, Annadurai and Karunanidhi.4
Availability of low-cost rentals and different affordable cuisines in the area is said to be the reason behind the constant patronage to these mansions for decades.4649 Recently, these boarding houses have started attracting a more gentrified crowd.4
The main roads of Triplicane include Beach Road (Kamarajar Salai), Pycrofts Road (Bharathi Salai), Triplicane High Road, and Besant Road. Pycrofts Road, also known as Bharathi Salai, is known for its numerous book shops, including pavement shops selling old and used books.5051 Zam Bazaar is one of the oldest bazaar in the city and was set up in the pre-Independence era. The western end of the market is bordered by an old monument known as the Amir Mahal, the palace of the Nawab of Arcot two centuries ago. The building is currently being renovated by the government.5253
The famous colleges in the locality are Queen Mary's College, Presidency College and Madras University on the Beach Road. The popular schools in this area include Hindu Senior Secondary School, the Kellett higher secondary school, NKT, Rex, Hindu High School, Lady Wellington school, etc. Some of these schools are very old and even dating back to the British Era, like the latter two schools.23
Libraries in this area include Kasthuri Srinivasan Library on Besant Road, one on Peyalwar Koil street, Muhammadan Public Library56 and one on Big street. The Kasturi Srinivasan library is more than 50 years old.57
Triplicane has a rich culture. The culture associated with Parthasarathy temple and its mada veethis is a traditional and an age old one.58 Triplicane also has a sizeable Muslim population in Chepauk and Big street areas on the other side of pycrofts road, and triplicane high road and Zam bazaar, where there is Islamic religion based culture.
||This paragraph appears to contain unverifiable speculation and unjustified claims. Information must be verifiable and based on reliable published sources. (February 2014)|
Rooted in tradition, Triplicane is also known for its fine artistic taste in music, dance and arts.59 An annual community even known as the Thiruvallikeni Thiruvizha (literally Triplicane Festival) is celebrated in January.5960 Other festivals include Triplicane Music Festival and Marghazhi (winter) festival.36162 Triplicane is known for some of the traditionally famous cuisines of Chennai, with age-old restaurants, such as the Rathna Cafe,636465 being based here.
Triplicane, similar to few other areas in the city such as Mylapore and West Mambalam, is known for its traditional row houses, known as agraharams.66 Typically, these can be seen where an entire street is occupied by Brahmins, particularly surrounding a temple. The architecture is distinctive with Madras terraces, country tile roofing, Burma teak rafters and lime plastering. The longish homes consisted of the mudhal kattu (receiving quarters), irandaam kattu (living quarters), moondram kattu (kitchen and backyard) and so on. Most houses had an open to sky space in the centre called the mitham, large platforms lining the outside of the house called the thinnai and a private well in the backyard. The floors were often coated with red oxide and sometimes the roofs had glass tiles to let in light. The agraharam quadrangle seen in Triplicane is around the Parthasarathy Temple and its tank.67
About 50 families continue to live in the agraharams in Triplicane.66 However, many of these houses are being replaced with modern multi-storied apartments, resulting in a reduction in their numbers.67
Although Parthasarathy Temple remains the most important temple of Triplicane, there exists indeed several other temples in the neighbourhood, including Ellai Amman Temple and nearby Sundaramurthy vinayaka temple, Kulathangarai Anjeneya Temple (on the steps on the Parthasarathy temple tank), Anjeneya Temple on Tank Street, Tula Singa Perumal Temple, Ahobila Mutt Temple on Car Street, Kaama Kala Kameshwari Temple on Hanumantha Rayan street, Muthu Vinayakar Temple on Muthu Kallathy Street, Anjeneya Temple on Besant Road, Ettampadai Murugan Temple, Raghavendra Temple and Mutt on T.P Koil Street, Temples on Raja Hanumantha Lala Lane, Udupi Sri Krishna Temple and Mutt, Peyalwar Temple built on the 13th century.19 and Thiruveteeswarar Temple. The thevaram has a reference of Thiruvateeswarar temple, which suggests its existence since the 7th century.
Mutts in the region include Uttradi Mutt on Singrachari Street, Ahobila Mutt and Temple on Car Street, Vanamamalai Mutt on East Tank Square Street,68 Raghavendra Mutt and Temple on T. P. Koil Street, Vysaraja Mutt, Yadugiri Yathiraja Mutt, and few others situated around Parthasarathy Temple or mada veethis.
The Wallajah Mosque, also known as the Big Mosque, is one of the famous historical mosques in the city.69 Built in 1795 in remembrance of Nawab Wallajah, the mosque was constructed with grey granite, without the use of wood or steel.22
Vaikunta Ekadesi Festival is very famous in this temple and huge crowds gather to visit the temple on this day.707172 Vaikunta Ekadesi vrata is observed on Dhanur Masa Shukla Paksha Ekadasi or on the 11th day of bright fortnight during Dhanur Masam. This festival is celebrated with lot of devotion in many Vaishnavaite temples including Parthasarathy temple in South India. Vaikunta Dwara lies in the North side of the temple. Vaikunta Ekadesi is also observed as Mukkoti Ekadesi.
Unmindful of the chill, the streets of Triplicane would be milling with people as early as 2 am on Vaikunta Ekadesi. Women adorning the traditional nine yards or a silk sari would be seen hurrying towards the Parthasarathy Temple to find a place in the long winding queues that stretched infinitely even in those wee hours.
Jostling against each other people at a snail's space towards the shrine. It was obvious that they want to cross the Paramapadavaasal along with the presiding deity. More than one lakh devotees visit the temple who are helped by volunteers, temple authorities and police personnel, to move around the prakarams. Police would be stationed around the temple and atop watchtowers at the junction of the Mada Streets to maintain strict vigil.7374
Triplicane was also once the seat of Carnatic music. Many famous personalities in this industry visited or resided in triplicane.75 Triplicane was not only known for weekend visits by famous musicians, but also for resident legends such as G.N. Balasubramaniam and M.S. Subbulakshmi. The right atmosphere for music and dance permeated Triplicane. A proliferation of sabhas – Triplicane Arts Academy, Thiruvateeswarar Sabha, N.K.T. Muthu Sabha and Parthasarathy Swami Sabha – drew these heavyweights in the classical arts to the locality.76 Once musicians used to talk of how they had sung at the Hindu High School or heard GNB at some other Triplicane venue. Sadly, with time, that kind of talk died out. Legends M.S. Subbulakshmi and GNB lived in Triplicane once, and it was said that this was where vidwans would spend afternoons discussing music over hot rava pongal at the Krishna Iyer Hotel. The 1965s and 1970s saw music and dance pervade the area in various sabhas. From the concerts of M.S. and GNB to Manakkal Rangarajan; from the stage plays of M.G. Ramachandran and Sivaji Ganesan to actor Sivakumar’s debut play – this place has hosted leading artists of those days. You name them and they have been performed here. Thus Triplicane was the central locality where all the cultural happenings of the city took place, and all the famous personalities used to come down to perform.77
The Triplicane assembly constituency is part of Chennai South constituency.78 The MLA Hostel is located on Wallajah Road. Rajaji Hall in the same campus, which was built between 1800 and 1802,79 used to have a role in state administration. At present, it houses the offices of the Tamil Nadu State Raffle.80
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Being situated in the central region of the city, Triplicane is well connected to various places in Chennai. The MTC has bus termini such as the Ice House and Triplicane (located at Pycrofts Road). The MRTS has a station Thiruvallikeni on the Chennai Beach–Velachery elevated rail corridor serving the neighbourhood. In addition, the neighbourhood is served by private auto rickshaws.
Triplicane is famous for the various personalities it has produced over the years. Mathematician Srinivasa Ramanujan,818283 Writer Sujatha Rangarajan, and cricketers M.J. Gopalan, Krish Srikkanth and W.V. Raman all hailed from Triplicane. Nobel prize winner Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar did his schooling in the Hindu High School (1922–1925) in Triplicane. Subramanya Bharathy, a freedom fighter and poet, lived his last years in the house opposite the parthasarathy temple's western entrance; the house has since been bought and renovated by the Government of Tamil Nadu in 1993, and it was named Bharathiyar Illam (Home of Bharathiyar).
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