Third officer (civil aviation)
Third officer is a lesser used civil aviation rank. It was primarily used by Pan American World Airways, particularly on its "Clippers" during the infancy of extended range airline routes. The third officer served as a relief pilot and aircrew member and could move between pilot, co-pilot, radio officer, and flight engineer positions to provide a rest period for the primary crews (Flying The World In Clipper Ships). Third officers in modern civil aviation are often not formally titled as such. Rather, these relief pilots take on a junior first officer rank or in some cases a second officer rank.
- Flying the World in Clipper Ships at flightjournal.com
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