Social networking service
A social networking service (also called SNS) is a platform to build social networks or social relations among people who share interests, activities, backgrounds or real-life connections. A social network service consists of a representation of each user (often a profile), his or her social links, and a variety of additional services. Social networks are web-based services that allow individuals to create a public profile, to create a list of users with whom to share connections, and view and cross the connections within the system.1 Most social network services are web-based and provide means for users to interact over the Internet, such as e-mail and instant messaging. Social network sites are varied and they incorporate new information and communication tools such as mobile connectivity, photo/video/sharing and blogging.2 Online community services are sometimes considered as a social network service, though in a broader sense, social network service usually means an individual-centered service whereas online community services are group-centered. Social networking sites allow users to share ideas, pictures, posts, activities, events, interests with people in their network.
The main types of social networking services are those that contain category places (such as former school year or classmates), means to connect with friends (usually with self-description pages), and a recommendation system linked to trust. Popular methods now combine many of these, with American-based services such as Facebook, Google+, YouTube, LinkedIn, Instagram, Pinterest, Vine, Tumblr, and Twitter widely used worldwide; Nexopia in Canada;3 Badoo,4 Bebo,5 Vkontakte (Russia), Delphi, Draugiem.lv (mostly in Latvia), Hyves (mostly in The Netherlands), iWiW (mostly in Hungary), Nasza-Klasa, Soup (mostly in Poland), Glocals in Switzerland, Skyrock, The Sphere, StudiVZ (mostly in Germany), Tagged, Tuenti (mostly in Spain), Myspace, Xanga and XING6 in parts of Europe;7 Hi5 and Orkut in South America and Central America;8 Mxit in Africa;9 Cyworld, Mixi, Orkut, Renren, Friendster, Sina Weibo and Wretch in Asia and the Pacific Islands.
There have been attempts to standardize these services to avoid the need to duplicate entries of friends and interests (see the FOAF standard and the Open Source Initiativeclarification needed). A study reveals that India has recorded world's largest growth in terms of Social Media users in 2013.10 A 2013 survey found that 73% of U.S adults use social networking sites.11
- 1 History
- 2 Social impact
- 3 Features
- 4 Emerging trends
- 4.1 Social networks and science
- 4.2 Social networks and education
- 4.3 Social networks and grassroots organizing
- 4.4 Social networks and employment
- 4.5 Social network hosting service
- 4.6 Social trading networks
- 4.7 Business model
- 4.8 Social interaction
- 5 Issues
- 5.1 Privacy
- 5.2 Data mining
- 5.3 Notifications on websites
- 5.4 Access to information
- 5.5 Impact on employability
- 5.6 Potential for misuse
- 5.7 Unauthorized access
- 5.8 Risk for child safety
- 5.9 Trolling
- 5.10 Online bullying
- 5.11 Interpersonal communication
- 5.12 Psychological effects of social networking
- 5.13 Patents
- 5.14 Worker's rights
- 5.15 Decentralized architecture
- 5.16 Virtual identity suicide
- 5.17 Breaking up
- 5.18 The 'dark side' of social networking sites: social overload138
- 6 Investigations
- 7 Application domains
- 8 Open source software
- 9 Market share
- 10 In the media
- 11 See also
- 12 References
- 13 Further reading
The potential for computer networking to facilitate newly improved forms of computer-mediated social interaction was suggested early on.12 Efforts to support social networks via computer-mediated communication were made in many early online services, including Usenet,13 ARPANET, LISTSERV, and bulletin board services (BBS). Many prototypical features of social networking sites were also present in online services such as America Online, Prodigy, CompuServe, ChatNet, and The WELL.14 Early social networking on the World Wide Web began in the form of generalized online communities such as Theglobe.com (1995),15 Geocities (1994) and Tripod.com (1995). Many of these early communities focused on bringing people together to interact with each other through chat rooms, and encouraged users to share personal information and ideas via personal webpages by providing easy-to-use publishing tools and free or inexpensive webspace. Some communities - such as Classmates.com - took a different approach by simply having people link to each other via email addresses. PlanetAll started in 1996. In the late 1990s, user profiles became a central feature of social networking sites, allowing users to compile lists of "friends" and search for other users with similar interests. New social networking methods were developed by the end of the 1990s, and many sites began to develop more advanced features for users to find and manage friends.16 This newer generation of social networking sites began to flourish with the emergence of SixDegrees.com in 1997,17 followed by Makeoutclub in 2000,1819 Hub Culture and Friendster in 2002,20 and soon became part of the Internet mainstream. Friendster was followed by MySpace and LinkedIn a year later, and eventually Bebo. Friendster became very popular in the Pacific Island. Orkut became the first social networking in Brazil and than also grow fast in India (Madhavan, 2007).21 Attesting to the rapid increase in social networking sites' popularity, by 2005, it was reported that MySpace was getting more page views than Google. Facebook,22 launched in 2004, became the largest social networking site in the world23 in early 2009.24 Facebook was first introduced (in 2004) as a Harvard social networking site,21 expanding to other universities and eventually, anyone.
Web-based social networking services make it possible to connect people who share interests and activities across political, economic, and geographic borders.25 Through e-mail and instant messaging, online communities are created where a gift economy and reciprocal altruism are encouraged through cooperation. Information is suited to a gift economy, as information is a nonrival good and can be gifted at practically no cost.2627
Companies are using social media as a basis to learn about peoples' lively hoods. Many companies are also using Facebook and other social media site to target people and look into their pasts' to see if they would be a good candidate. There have been a large number of situations where companies would hire a potential employee but their facebook said that they would be a bad employee based on photos, comments, feelings they posted or just a simple News feed update saying something at the wrong time.
Facebook and other social networking tools are increasingly the object of scholarly research. Scholars in many fields have begun to investigate the impact of social-networking sites, investigating how such sites may play into issues of identity, privacy,28 social capital, youth culture, and education.29
Several websites are beginning to tap into the power of the social networking model for philanthropy. Such models provide a means for connecting otherwise fragmented industries and small organizations without the resources to reach a broader audience with interested users.30 Social networks are providing a different way for individuals to communicate digitally. These communities of hypertexts allow for the sharing of information and ideas, an old concept placed in a digital environment.
According to Boyd and Ellison's (2007) article, "Why Youth (Heart) Social Network Sites: The Role of Networked Publics in Teenage Social Life", social networking sites share a variety of technical features that allow individuals to: construct a public/semi-public profile, articulate a list of other users that they share a connection with, and view their list of connections within the system. The most basic of these are visible profiles with a list of "friends" who are also users of the site. In an article entitled "Social Network Sites: Definition, History, and Scholarship," Boyd and Ellison adopt Sunden's (2003) description of profiles as unique pages where one can "type oneself into being."33 A profile is generated from answers to questions, such as age, location, interests, etc. Some sites allow users to upload pictures, add multimedia content or modify the look and feel of the profile. Others, e.g., Facebook, allow users to enhance their profile by adding modules or "Applications."33 Many sites allow users to post blog entries, search for others with similar interests and compile and share lists of contacts. User profiles often have a section dedicated to comments from friends and other users. To protect user privacy, social networks typically have controls that allow users to choose who can view their profile, contact them, add them to their list of contacts, and so on.
There is a trend towards more interoperability between social networks led by technologies such as OpenID and OpenSocial. In most mobile communities, mobile phone users can now create their own profiles, make friends, participate in chat rooms, create chat rooms, hold private conversations, share photos and videos, and share blogs by using their mobile phone. Some companies provide wireless services that allow their customers to build their own mobile community and brand it; one of the most popular wireless services for social networking in North America and Nepal is Facebook Mobile.
|“||The things you share are things that make you look good, things which you are happy to tie into your identity.||”|
While the popularity of social networking consistently rises,35 new uses for the technology are frequently being observed.
At the forefront of emerging trends in social networking sites is the concept of "real-time web" and "location-based." Real-time allows users to contribute contents, which is then broadcast as it is being uploaded - the concept is analogous to live radio and television broadcasts. Twitter set the trend for "real-time" services, wherein users can broadcast to the world what they are doing, or what is on their minds within a 140-character limit. Facebook followed suit with their "Live Feed" where users' activities are streamed as soon as it happens. While Twitter focuses on words, Clixtr, another real-time service, focuses on group photo sharing wherein users can update their photo streams with photos while at an event. Facebook, however, remains the largest photo sharing site - Facebook application and photo aggregator Pixable estimates that Facebook will have 100 billion photos by Summer 2012 .36 In April, 2012, the image-based social media network Pinterest had become the third largest social network in the United States.37
Companies have begun to merge business technologies and solutions, such as cloud computing, with social networking concepts. Instead of connecting individuals based on social interest, companies are developing interactive communities that connect individuals based on shared business needs or experiences. Many provide specialized networking tools and applications that can be accessed via their websites, such as LinkedIn. Others companies, such as Monster.com, have been steadily developing a more "socialized" feel to their career center sites to harness some of the power of social networking sites. These more business related sites have their own nomenclature for the most part but the most common naming conventions are "Vocational Networking Sites" or "Vocational Media Networks", with the former more closely tied to individual networking relationships based on social networking principles.
Foursquare gained popularity as it allowed for users to "check-in" to places that they are frequenting at that moment. Gowalla is another such service that functions in much the same way that Foursquare does, leveraging the GPS in phones to create a location-based user experience. Clixtr, though in the real-time space, is also a location-based social networking site, since events created by users are automatically geotagged, and users can view events occurring nearby through the Clixtr iPhone app. Recently, Yelp announced its entrance into the location-based social networking space through check-ins with their mobile app; whether or not this becomes detrimental to Foursquare or Gowalla is yet to be seen, as it is still considered a new space in the Internet technology industry.38
One popular use for this new technology is social networking between businesses. Companies have found that social networking sites such as Facebook and Twitter are great ways to build their brand image. According to Jody Nimetz, author of Marketing Jive,39 there are five major uses for businesses and social media: to create brand awareness, as an online reputation management tool, for recruiting, to learn about new technologies and competitors, and as a lead generation tool to intercept potential prospects.39 These companies are able to drive traffic to their own online sites while encouraging their consumers and clients to have discussions on how to improve or change products or services.
As of September 2013, 71% of online adults use Facebook, 17% use Instagram, 21% use Pinterest, and 22% use LinkedIn. 40
Social networking services have also become a mainstream topic of academic study in various disciplines. For example, social networking services are highly relevant to technoself studies which focus on all aspects of human identity in a technological society.
One other use that is being discussed is the use of social networks in the science communities. Julia Porter Liebeskind et al. have published a study on how new biotechnology firms are using social networking sites to share exchanges in scientific knowledge.41 They state in their study that by sharing information and knowledge with one another, they are able to "increase both their learning and their flexibility in ways that would not be possible within a self-contained hierarchical organization." Social networking is allowing scientific groups to expand their knowledge base and share ideas, and without these new means of communicating their theories might become "isolated and irrelevant".
In fact, researchers use social networks frequently to maintain and develop professional relationships.42 They are interested in consolidating social ties and professional contact, keeping in touch with friends and colleagues and seeing what their own contacts are doing. This can be related to their need to keep updated on the activities and events of their friends and colleagues in order to establish collaborations on common fields of interest and knowledge sharing.43 Social Networks are used also to communicate scientists research results44 and as a public communication tool and to connect people who share the same professional interests, their benefits can vary according to the discipline.45 The most interesting aspects of social networks for professional purposes are their potentialities in terms of dissemination of information and the ability to reach and multiply professional contacts exponentially. Social networks like LinkedIn, Facebook, and ResearchGate give the possibility to join professional groups and pages, to share papers and results, publicise events, to discuss issues and create debates.43
The advent of social networking platforms may also be impacting the way(s) in which learners engage with technology in general. For a number of years, Prensky's (2001) dichotomy between Digital Natives and Digital Immigrants has been considered a relatively accurate representation of the ease with which people of a certain age range—in particular those born before and after 1980—use technology. Prensky's theory has been largely disproved, however, and not least on account of the burgeoning popularity of social networking sites and other metaphors such as White and Le Cornu's "Visitors" and "Residents" (2011) are greater currency.
The use of online social networks by school libraries is also increasingly prevalent and they are being used to communicate with potential library users, as well as extending the services provided by individual school libraries.
Social networks and their educational uses are of interest to many researchers. According to Livingstone and Brake (2010), “Social networking sites, like much else on the Internet, represent a moving target for researchers and policy makers.”47 Pew Research Center project, called Pew Internet, did a USA-wide survey in 2009 and in 2010 February published that 47% of American adults use a social networking website.48 Same survey found that 73% of online teenagers use SNS, which is an increase from 65% in 2008, 55% in 2006.48 Recent studies have shown that social network services provide opportunities within professional education, curriculum education, and learning. However, there are constraints in this area. Researches, especially in Africa, have disclosed that the use of social networks among students have been known to negatively affect their academic life. This is buttressed by the fact that their use constitutes distractions, as well as that the students tend to invest a good deal of time in the use of such technologies.
Professional use of social networking services refers to the employment of a network site to connect with other professionals within a given field of interest. SNSs like LinkedIn, a social networking website geared towards companies and industry professionals looking to make new business contacts or keep in touch with previous co-workers, affiliates, and clients. Not only does LinkedIn provide a professional social use, but it also encourages people to inject their personality into their profile–making it more personal than a resume. 49Other network sites are now being used in this manner, Twitter has become [a] mainstay for professional development as well as promotion50 and online SNSs support both the maintenance of existing social ties and the formation of new connections. Much of the early research on online communities assume that individuals using these systems would be connecting with others outside their preexisting social group or location, liberating them to form communities around shared interests, as opposed to shared geography.51 Other researchers have suggested that the professional use of network sites produce “social capital.” For individuals, social capital allows a person to draw on resources from other members of the networks to which he or she belongs. These resources can take the form of useful information, personal relationships, or the capacity to organize groups. As well, networks within these services also can be established or built by joining special interest groups that others have made, or creating one and asking others to join.52
According to Doering, Beach and O’Brien, a future English curriculum needs to recognize a major shift in how adolescents are communicating with each other.53 Curriculum uses of social networking services also can include sharing curriculum-related resources. Educators tap into user-generated content to find and discuss curriculum-related content for students. Responding to the popularity of social networking services among many students, teachers are increasingly using social networks to supplement teaching and learning in traditional classroom environments as they can provide new opportunities for enriching existing curriculum through creative, authentic and flexible, non-linear learning experiences.54 Some social networks, such as English, baby! and LiveMocha, are explicitly education-focused and couple instructional content with an educational peer environment.55 The new Web 2.0 technologies built into most social networking services promote conferencing, interaction, creation, research on a global scale, enabling educators to share, remix, and repurpose curriculum resources. In short, social networking services can become research networks as well as learning networks.56
Educators and advocates of new digital literacies are confident that social networking encourages the development of transferable, technical, and social skills of value in formal and informal learning.47 In a formal learning environment, goals or objectives are determined by an outside department or agency. Tweeting, instant messaging, or blogging enhances student involvement. Students who would not normally participate in class are more apt to partake through social network services. Networking allows participants the opportunity for just-in-time learning and higher levels of engagement.57 The use of SNSs allow educators to enhance the prescribed curriculum. When learning experiences are infused into a website, students utilize everyday for fun, students realize that learning can and should be a part of everyday life.citation needed It does not have to be separate and unattached.58 Informal learning consists of the learner setting the goals and objectives. It has been claimed that media no longer just influence our culture. They are our culture.59 With such a high number of users between the ages of 13-18, a number of skills are developed. Participants hone technical skills in choosing to navigate through social networking services. This includes elementary items such as sending an instant message or updating a status. The development of new media skills are paramount in helping youth navigate the digital world with confidence. Social networking services foster learning through what Jenkins (2006) describes as a "Participatory Culture."60 A participatory culture consists of a space that allows engagement, sharing, mentoring, and an opportunity for social interaction. Participants of social network services avail of this opportunity. Informal learning, in the forms of participatory and social learning online, is an excellent tool for teachers to sneak in material and ideas that students will identify with and therefore, in a secondary manner, students will learn skills that would normally be taught in a formal setting in the more interesting and engaging environment of social learning.61 Sites like Twitter provide students with the opportunity to converse and collaborate with others in real time. Social networking services provide a virtual “space” for learners. James Gee (2004) suggests that affinity spaces instantiate participation, collaboration, distribution, dispersion of expertise, and relatedness.62 Registered users share and search for knowledge which contributes to informal learning.
In the past, social networking services were viewed as a distraction and offered no educational benefit. Blocking these social networks was a form of protection for students against wasting time, bullying, and invasions of privacy. In an educational setting, Facebook, for example, is seen by many instructors and educators as a frivolous, time-wasting distraction from schoolwork, and it is not uncommon to be banned in junior high or high school computer labs.58 Cyberbullying has become an issue of concern with social networking services. According to the UK Children Go Online survey of 9-19 year olds, it was found that a third have received bullying comments online.63 To avoid this problem, many school districts/boards have blocked access to social networking services such as Facebook, MySpace, and Twitter within the school environment. Social networking services often include a lot of personal information posted publicly, and many believe that sharing personal information is a window into privacy theft. Schools have taken action to protect students from this. It is believed that this outpouring of identifiable information and the easy communication vehicle that social networking services opens the door to sexual predators, cyberbullying, and cyberstalking.64 In contrast, however, 70% of social media using teens and 85% of adults believe that people are mostly kind to one another on social network sites. 48 Recent research suggests that there has been a shift in blocking the use of social networking services. In many cases, the opposite is occurring as the potential of online networking services is being realized. It has been suggested that if schools block them [social networking services], they’re preventing students from learning the skills they need.50 Banning social networking […] is not only inappropriate but also borderline irresponsible when it comes to providing the best educational experiences for students.65 Schools and school districts have the option of educating safe media usage as well as incorporating digital media into the classroom experience, thus preparing students for the literacy they will encounter in the future.
Social networks are being used by activists as a means of low-cost grassroots organizing. Extensive use of an array of social networking sites enabled organizers of the 2009 National Equality March to mobilize an estimated 200,000 participants to march on Washington with a cost savings of up to 85% per participant over previous methods.66 The August 2011 England riots were similarly considered to have escalated and been fuelled by this type of grassroots organization.
A final rise in social network use is being driven by college students using the services to network with professionals for internship and job opportunities. Many studies have been done on the effectiveness of networking online in a college setting, and one notable one is by Phipps Arabie and Yoram Wind published in Advances in Social Network Analysis.67
Many schools have implemented online alumni directories which serve as makeshift social networks that current and former students can turn to for career advice. However, these alumni directories tend to suffer from an oversupply of advice-seekers and an undersupply of advice providers. One new social networking service, Ask-a-peer, aims to solve this problem by enabling advice seekers to offer modest compensation to advisers for their time.
A social network hosting service is a web hosting service that specifically hosts the user creation of web-based social networking services, alongside related applications.
A social trading network is a service that allows traders of financial derivatives such as Contracts for Difference or Foreign Exchange Contracts to share their trading activity via trading profiles online. Such services are created by financial brokers.
Few social networks charge money for membership. In part, this may be because social networking is a relatively new service, and the value of using them has not been firmly established in customers' minds. Companies such as MySpace and Facebook sell online advertising on their site. Their business model is based upon large membership count, and charging for membership would be counterproductive.68 Some believe that the deeper information that the sites have on each user will allow much better targeted advertising than any other site can currently provide.69 In recent times, Apple has been critical of the Google and Facebook model, in which users are defined as product and a commodity, and their data being sold for marketing revenue.70
Social networks operate under an autonomous business model, in which a social network's members serve dual roles as both the suppliers and the consumers of content. This is in contrast to a traditional business model, where the suppliers and consumers are distinct agents. Revenue is typically gained in the autonomous business model via advertisements, but subscription-based revenue is possible when membership and content levels are sufficiently high.71
Put simply, social networking is a way for one person to meet up with other people on the Internet. People use social networking sites for meeting new friends, finding old friends, or locating people who have the same problems or interests they have, called niche networking.
More and more relationships and friendships are being formed online and then carried to an offline setting. Psychologist and University of Hamburg professor Erich H. Witte says that relationships which start online are much more likely to succeed. Witte has said that in less than 10 years, online dating will be the predominant way for people to start a relationship.72 One online dating site claims that 2% of all marriages begin at its site, the equivalent of 236 marriages a day. Other sites claim one in five relationships begin online.
Social networking sites play a vital role in this area as well. Being able to meet someone as a "friend" and see what common interests you share and how you have built up your friend base and "likes" you can truly see a fuller picture of the person you are talking with. Most sites are free instead of being pay based which allows younger people with stricter budgets to enjoy some of the same features as those of adults who are more likely to be able to afford pay based sites. While not the intended or original use for these social sites, a large area of their current function has stemmed from people wanting to meet other people in person and with the extremely busy schedules of most people, it is a fast, reliable and easy way in which to do so that costs you little time and money (if any). Users do not necessarily share with others the content which is of most interest to them, but rather that which projects a good impression of themselves.34
While everyone agrees that social networking has had a significant impact on social interaction, there remains a substantial disagreement as to whether the nature of this impact is completely positive. A number of scholars have done research on the negative effects of internet communication as well. These researchers have contended that this form of communication is an impoverished version of conventional face-to-face social interactions, and therefore produce negative outcomes such as loneliness and depression for users who rely on social networking entirely. By engaging solely in online communication, interactions between communities, families, and other social groups are weakened.73
Privacy concerns with social networking services have been raised growing concerns amongst users on the dangers of giving out too much personal information and the threat of sexual predators. Users of these services also need to be aware of data theft or viruses. However, large services, such as MySpace and Netlog, often work with law enforcement to try to prevent such incidents.citation needed
In addition, there is a perceived privacy threat in relation to placing too much personal information in the hands of large corporations or governmental bodies, allowing a profile to be produced on an individual's behavior on which decisions, detrimental to an individual, may be taken.
Furthermore, there is an issue over the control of data—information that was altered or removed by the user may in fact be retained and passed to third parties. This danger was highlighted when the controversial social networking site Quechup harvested e-mail addresses from users' e-mail accounts for use in a spamming operation.74
In medical and scientific research, asking subjects for information about their behaviors is normally strictly scrutinized by institutional review boards, for example, to ensure that adolescents and their parents have informed consent. It is not clear whether the same rules apply to researchers who collect data from social networking sites. These sites often contain a great deal of data that is hard to obtain via traditional means. Even though the data are public, republishing it in a research paper might be considered invasion of privacy.75
Privacy on social networking sites can be undermined by many factors. For example, users may disclose personal information, sites may not take adequate steps to protect user privacy, and third parties frequently use information posted on social networks for a variety of purposes. "For the Net generation, social networking sites have become the preferred forum for social interactions, from posturing and role playing to simply sounding off. However, because such forums are relatively easy to access, posted content can be reviewed by anyone with an interest in the users' personal information".767778
Following plans by the UK government to monitor traffic on social networks79 schemes similar to e-mail jamming have been proposed for networks such as Twitter and Facebook. These would involve "friending" and "following" large numbers of random people to thwart attempts at network analysis.
Privacy concerns have been found to differ between users according to gender and personality. Women are less likely to publish information that reveals methods of contacting them. Personality measures openness, extraversion, and conscientiousness were found to positively affect the willingness to disclose data, while neuroticism decreases the willingness to disclose personal information.80
Through data mining, companies are able to improve their sales and profitability. With this data, companies create customer profiles that contain customer demographics and online behavior. A recent strategy has been the purchase and production of "network analysis software". This software is able to sort out through the influx of social networking data for any specific company.81 Facebook has been especially important to marketing strategists. Facebook's controversial "Social Ads" program gives companies access to the millions of profiles in order to tailor their ads to a Facebook user's own interests and hobbies. However, rather than sell actual user information, Facebook sells tracked "social actions". That is, they track the websites a user uses outside of Facebook through a program called Facebook Beacon.82
There has been a trend for social networking sites to send out only "positive" notifications to users. For example sites such as Bebo, Facebook, and MySpace will not send notifications to users when they are removed from a person's friends list. Likewise, Bebo will send out a notification if a user is moved to the top of another user's friends list but no notification is sent if they are moved down the list.
This allows users to purge undesirables from their list extremely easily and often without confrontation since a user will rarely notice if one person disappears from their friends list. It also enforces the general positive atmosphere of the website without drawing attention to unpleasant happenings such as friends falling out, rejection and failed relationships.
Many social networking services, such as Facebook, provide the user with a choice of who can view their profile. This is supposed to prevent unauthorized users from accessing their information.83 Parents who want to access their child's MySpace or Facebook account have become a big problem for teenagers who do not want their profile seen by their parents. By making their profile private, teens can select who may see their page, allowing only people added as "friends" to view their profile and preventing unwanted viewing of the profile by parents. Most teens are constantly trying to create a structural barrier between their private life and their parents.84
To edit information on a certain social networking service account, the social networking sites require you to login or provide a password. This is deigned to prevent unauthorized users from adding, changing, or removing personal information, pictures, or other data.
Social networking sites have created issues among getting hired for jobs and losing jobs because of exposing inappropriate content. Social networking sites are places on the Internet where users can update their statuses and express their personal opinions about life issues to their friends. This is controversial because employers can access their employee’s profiles, and judge them based on their social behavior. According to Silicon Republic’s statistics, 17,000 young people in six countries were interviewed in a survey. 1 in 10 people aged 16 to 34 have been rejected for a job because of comments on an online profile.85 This shows the effects that social networks have had one people's lives.
There have been numerous cases where employees have lost jobs because their opinions represented their companies negatively. In September 2013, there was a case when a woman got fired over Facebook because she posted disruptive information about her company stating that military patrons should not receive special treatment or discounts. A manager of the company found her opinion online, disagreed with it, and fired her because it completely went against the companies mission statement.86 In November 2012 there was a case in which a woman posted a racist remark about the President of the United States and mentioned content about a possible assassination. She lost her job, and was put under investigation by the secret service.87
Not only have employees lost their jobs in the United States, but it has happened with social network users internationally. In April 2011, a Lloyd’s banking group employee in the United Kingdom was fired for making a sarcastic post about the higher salary of her boss in relation to hers.88 In February 2013 there was another case where a flight attendant working for a Russian airline lost her job because she posted a photo of herself giving the middle finger to a plane full of passengers. The photo went viral exposing it all over the Internet.89 In November 2009, a women working for IBM in Quebec, Canada, lost her company’s health insurance benefits because she posted photos displaying her mental health problem. The company decided to cut her benefits because it was costing them additional funds.90
Cases like these have created some privacy implications as to whether or not companies should have the right to look at employee’s social network profiles. In March 2012, Facebook decided they might take legal action against employers for gaining access to employee’s profiles through their passwords.91 According to Facebook Chief Privacy Officer for policy, Erin Egan, the company has worked hard to give its’ users the tools to control who sees their information. He also said users shouldn’t be forced to share private information and communications just to get a job. According to the network’s Statement of Rights and Responsibilities, sharing or soliciting a password is a violation to Facebook. Employees may still give their password information out to get a job, but according to Erin Egan, Facebook will continue to do their part to protect the privacy and security of their users.92
The relative freedom afforded by social networking services has caused concern regarding the potential of its misuse by individual patrons. In October 2006, a fake MySpace profile created in the name of Josh Evans by Lori Janine Drew led to the suicide of Megan Meier.93not in citation given94 The event incited global concern regarding the use of social networking services for bullying purposes.
In July 2008, a Briton, Grant Raphael, was ordered to pay a total of GBP £22,000 (about USD $44,000) for libel and breach of privacy. Raphael had posted a fake page on Facebook purporting to be that of a former schoolfriend Matthew Firsht, with whom Raphael had fallen out in 2000. The page falsely claimed that Firsht was homosexual and that he was dishonest.citation needed
There are different forms where user data in social networks are accessed and updated without a user's permission. One study96 highlighted that the most common incidents included inappropriate comments posted on social networking sites (43%), messages sent to contacts that were never authored (25%) and change of personal details (24%). The most incidents97 are carried out by the victim's friends (36%) or partners (21%) and one in ten victims say their ex-partner has logged into their account without prior consent.9899 The survey found that online social network accounts had been subject to unauthorised access in 60 million cases in 2011.100
Citizens and governments have been concerned with misuse of social networking services by children and teenagers, in particular in relation to online sexual predators. Overuse of social networking may also make children more susceptible to depression and anxiety.101
A certain number of actions have been engaged by governments to better understand the problem and find some solutions.specify A 2008 panel concluded that technological fixes such as age verification and scans are relatively ineffective means of apprehending online predators.102 In May 2010, a child pornography social networking site with hundreds of members was dismantled by law enforcement. It was deemed "the largest crimes against children case brought anywhere by anyone".103 Girls in particular are also known to be at more of a risk online using social networks than boys. According to the article, High Tech or High Risks: Moral Panics About Girls Online, it suggests that young girls are more at risks because they are often represented through "products of play" in transgressive poses because they often manipulate other users online by making themselves look older than what they actually appear which can attract sexual predators. Also girls are at a higher risk than boys because they are more vulnerable and naive to becoming victims of assault or harassment from any sexual predators online. Many parents of teenage girls worry about their safety online because of the many manipulations there are online and on social networking sites.104
Social networking can also be a risk to child safety in another way; parents can get addicted to games and neglect their children. One instance in South Korea resulted in the death of a child from starvation.105
A common misuse of social networking sites such as Facebook is that it is occasionally used to emotionally abuse individuals. Such actions are often referred to as trolling. It is not rare for confrontations in the real world to be translated online.citation needed Trolling can occur in many different forms, such as (but not limited to) defacement of deceased person(s) tribute pages, name calling, playing online pranks on volatile individuals and controversial comments with the intention to cause anger and cause arguments.
Online bullying, also called cyber-bullying, is a relatively common occurrence and it can often result in emotional trauma for the victim. Depending on the networking outlet, up to 39% of users admit to being “cyber-bullied”.108 danah boyd, a researcher of social networks quotes a teenager in her article, "Why Youth (Heart) Social Network Sites". The teenager expresses frustration towards networking sites like MySpace because it causes drama and too much emotional stress.109 There are not many limitations as to what individuals can post when online. Individuals are given the power to post offensive remarks or pictures that could potentially cause a great amount of emotional pain for another individual.
Interpersonal communication has been a growing issue as more and more people have turned to social networking as a means of communication. "Benniger (1987) describes how mass media has gradually replaced interpersonal communication as a socializing force. Further, social networking sites have become popular sites for youth culture to explore themselves, relationships, and share cultural artifacts".110
Many teens and social networking users may be harming their interpersonal communication by using sites such as Facebook and MySpace. Stated by Baroness Greenfield, an Oxford University neuroscientist, "My fear is that these technologies are infantilizing the brain into the state of small children who are attracted by buzzing noises and bright lights, who have a small attention span and who live for the moment".111
The convenience that social network sites give users to communicate with one another can also damage their interpersonal communication. Sherry Turkle, the founder and director of the MIT Initiative on Technology and Self, stated, “Networked, we are together, but so lessened are our expectations of each other that we feel utterly alone. And there is the risk that we come to see others as objects to be accessed--and only for the parts we find useful, comforting, or amusing”.112 Furthermore, social network sites can create insincere friendships, Turkle also noted, “They nurture friendships on social-networking sites and then wonder if they are among friends. They become confused about companionship”.113
As social networking sites have risen in popularity over the past years, people have been spending an excessive amount of time on the Internet in general and social networking sites in specific. This has led researchers to debate the establishment of Internet addiction as an actual clinical disorder.114 Social networking can also affect the extent to which a person feels lonely. In a Newsweek article, Johannah Cornblatt explains “Social-networking sites like Facebook and MySpace may provide people with a false sense of connection that ultimately increases loneliness in people who feel alone”. John T. Cacioppo, a neuroscientist at the University of Chicago, claims that social networking can foster feelings of sensitivity to disconnection, which can lead to loneliness.115 Fabio Sabatini and Francesco Sarracino found that if an individual tends to (a) trust people and (b) have a significant number of face-to-face interactions, the individual is likely to assess their own well-being as relatively high. The researchers found that online social networking plays a positive role in subjective well-being when the networking is used to facilitate physical interactions, but networking activities that do not facilitate face-to-face interactions tend to erode trust, and this erosion can then negatively affect subjective well-being (independent of the online social interaction itself). Sabatini and Sarracino conclude that “The overall effect of networking on individual welfare is significantly negative.”116 However, some scholars have expressed that concerns about social networking are often exaggerated and poorly researched .117
There has been rapid growth in the number of U.S. patent applications that cover new technologies related to social networking. The number of published applications has been growing rapidly since 2003. There are now over 3,500 published applications. As many as 7,000 applications may be currently on file including those that haven't been published yet.118 Only about 400 of these applications have issued as patents,119 however, due largely to the multi-year backlog in examination of business method patents and the difficulty in getting these patent applications allowed.120
It has been reported that social networking patents are important for the establishment of new start-up companies.121 It has also been reported, however, that social networking patents inhibit innovation.122 On June 15, 2010, the United States Patent and Trademark Office awarded Amazon.com a patent for a "Social Networking System" based on its ownership of PlanetAll.123 The patent describes a Social Networking System as
A networked computer system provides various services for assisting users in locating, and establishing contact relationships with, other users. For example, in one embodiment, users can identify other users based on their affiliations with particular schools or other organizations. The system also provides a mechanism for a user to selectively establish contact relationships or connections with other users, and to grant permissions for such other users to view personal information of the user. The system may also include features for enabling users to identify contacts of their respective contacts. In addition, the system may automatically notify users of personal information updates made by their respective contacts.124
The patent has garnered attention due to its similarity to the popular social networking site Facebook.125
What types of speech workers are protected from being fired for on social networking websites has been an issue for American companies with over 100 complaints as of 2011 on this topic having been made to the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB).126 The National Labor Relations Act protects workers from being fired for "protected concerted activity", which prevents workers from being fired for collective action, while allowing companies the right to fire workers for individual actions they take against the company.126 Companies are concerned with the potential damage comments online can do to public image due to their visibility and accessibility, but despite over 100 cases being presented thus far to NLRB only one has led to a formal ruling, leaving uncertainty as to the boundaries of what types of speech the NLRB will ultimately put in place.126
Most of the existing SNS sites use one or multiple dedicated data centers to serve all its users. Such infrastructure-based systems faces over-provisioning during non-peak hours, while may encounter service outage during peak hours, due to the highly dynamic of SNS users' activities. There are several proposals, leveraging a decentralized architecture to ensure the scalability of SNS sites with low infrastructure cost. These proposals include Fethr127 uaOSN,128 and Cuckoo.129
There is a growing number of social network users who decide to quit their user account by committing a so-called virtual identity suicide or Web 2.0 suicide. A 2013 study in the journal CyberPsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking investigated this phenomenon from the perspective of Facebook users. The number one reason for these users was privacy concerns (48%), being followed by a general dissatisfaction with the social networking website (14%), negative aspects regarding social network friends (13%) and the feeling of getting addicted to the social networking website (6%). Facebook quitters were found to be more concerned about privacy, more addicted to the Internet and more conscientious.130
Breaking-up with a significant other is never easy to do, and new technologies are starting to make the process easier, but also less personal. Sites such as Facebook are becoming increasingly popular tools for methods of ending relationships, proving that although new media is being used as a tool for connecting with individuals, it is now creating new problems associated with disconnecting from others.131 Instead of the traditional phone call or face-to-face interaction between individuals, people are now starting to end relationships by simply changing their relationship status, knowing full-well that their significant other will see it shortly. The problem with that is that you are left with no closure and the entire online world now knows you are no longer in a relationship.132 In a 2010 study conducted online, nearly one-quarter of the 1,000 individuals surveyed found out that their own relationship was over by seeing it on Facebook.133 New media websites have made our private lives much more public, especially when it comes to breaking up, since updates are able to be immediately viewed by everyone in our networks (which tend to be more people than we would normally tell personally); for example, having friends comment on your newly changed “single” relationship status, and having to explain what happened can be distressing.
This creates further problems, as it is even more crucial to ‘save face’ after one’s relationship has been broken when one is connected to new media technologies. Erving Goffman argues that all social life boils down to face-to-face interactions. These interpersonal interactions are mediated by what Goffman terms as “face-work”, which are the actions undertaken to maintain consistency with one’s face, and to uphold the expressive order of social situations. Individuals attempt to keep a positive image of the self when interacting with others, and in order to do so, they may have to alter their appearance or manner in some way.134 Such face-work can also be seen in new technologies, especially social media websites such as Facebook. If someone breaks-up with you, you can actively choose what "face" you want to present to your friends, including your ex. You can choose to either post sad updates, which is the most natural thing you would want to do, or you can "save face" by posting happy updates and pictures of you going out with your friends. Even though you may be absolutely heartbroken within, Facebook allows you to hide your true feelings from the online world, and from your ex, by manipulating your profile. New media is being utilized as a tool for helping users present a desirable image of themselves, enabling them to save face in difficult situations. Nearly 35% of respondents in a study admitted to using their Facebook status to make someone think that they had plans, even if they did not.133
Many people find that the only way to really move on from a past relationship is to cut the person out of their life completely. Social media has made this process much more complicated and difficult. In a 2012 study, 48% of the participants stated they had remained friends with their ex on Facebook, and of these people, 88% stated they ‘creeped’ their ex after the breakup.135 Keeping your ex on Facebook can cause much distress, as you are forced to see what they are doing (and often, it can be with a new partner). Moreover, the fact that Facebook acts as a digital archive can also make it difficult to move on after a breakup, as re-reading and over-analyzing old messages and wall posts, and looking through tagged photos with an ex can be a major source of distress. This is due to the fact it often causes one to remember the good parts of a relationship, leading to feelings of confusion about the breakup.135 These digital social networking sites leave behind a trail of one’s interactions,136 so deleting content it is an arduous process, and it forces us to re-read the content, thus re-creating the memories. This is much more difficult than simply burning or throwing away an entire box of letters, photos, and mementos.137 Additionally, this content can still remain online; for example, after you un-tag yourself from a photo, the photo may still remain in a mutual friend’s photo album that is easily accessible. These digital traces make it extremely difficult to forget the relationship and leave it behind. For those who do wish to remove their ex from Facebook without going through the hassle of sifting through their content can turn to the Killswitch application, which removes all traces of your relationship with your ex for a fee. This does not ensure the complete removal of your ex from your life though, as 70% of those who deleted their ex still attempted to creep their page in other ways, such as through using a friend’s account.135
There are several proposed reasons behind why some individuals choose to keep their ex-partner as a friend on Facebook, such as: it is hard to re-add them later, your ex could be offended, it could be socially awkward if you run into them, it feels very final, you still may hear about your ex through friends, and concerns about what your mutual friends will think.135
In her 2012 study, Lukacs suggests there are multiple strategies one can use to cope with a breakup in the age of social media:135
- Deleting/blocking one's ex
- Unsubscribing from posts by one's ex
- Deleting mutual friends
- Using self-restraint
- Purging old photos from Facebook
- Not specifying an individual in one's relationship status
- Removing one's relationship status altogether
- Staying busy; minimizing computer usage
- Changing one's password
- Deactivating or deleting one's Facebook account
The increasing number of messages and social relationships embedded in SNS also increases the amount of social information demanding a reaction from SNS users. Consequently SNS users perceive they are giving too much social support to other SNS friends. This dark side of SNS usage is called ‘social overload’. It is caused by the extent of usage, number of friends, subjective social support norms, and type of relationship (online-only vs offline friends) while age has only an indirect effect. The psychological and behavioral consequences of social overload include perceptions of SNS exhaustion, low user satisfaction, and high intentions to reduce or stop using SNS.138
Social networking services are increasingly being used in legal and criminal investigations. Information posted on sites such as MySpace and Facebook has been used by police (forensic profiling), probation, and university officials to prosecute users of said sites. In some situations, content posted on MySpace has been used in court.139
Facebook is increasingly being used by school administrations and law enforcement agencies as a source of evidence against student users. This site being the number one online destination for college students, allows users to create profile pages with personal details. These pages can be viewed by other registered users from the same school, which often include resident assistants and campus police who have signed up for the service.140 One UK police force has sifted pictures from Facebook and arrested some people who had been photographed in a public place holding a weapon such as a knife (having a weapon in a public place is illegal).141
Social networking is more recently being used by various government agencies. Social networking tools serve as a quick and easy way for the government to get the opinion of the public and to keep the public updated on their activity, however this comes with a significant risk of abuse, for example to cultivate a culture of fear such as that outlined in Nineteen Eighty-Four or THX-1138.
The Centers for Disease Control demonstrated the importance of vaccinations on the popular children's site Whyville and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration has a virtual island on Second Life where people can explore underground caves or explore the effects of global warming.142 Likewise, NASA has taken advantage of a few social networking tools, including Twitter and Flickr. The NSA is taking advantage of them all.143 NASA is using such tools to aid the Review of U.S. Human Space Flight Plans Committee, whose goal it is to ensure that the nation is on a vigorous and sustainable path to achieving its boldest aspirations in space.144
The use of social networking services in an enterprise context presents the potential of having a major impact on the world of business and work (Fraser & Dutta 2008).
Social networks connect people at low cost; this can be beneficial for entrepreneurs and small businesses looking to expand their contact bases. These networks often act as a customer relationship management tool for companies selling products and services. Companies can also use social networks for advertising in the form of banners and text ads. Since businesses operate globally, social networks can make it easier to keep in touch with contacts around the world.
Applications for social networking sites have extended toward businesses and brands are creating their own, high functioning sites, a sector known as brand networking. It is the idea that a brand can build its consumer relationship by connecting their consumers to the brand image on a platform that provides them relative content, elements of participation, and a ranking or score system. Brand networking is a new way to capitalize on social trends as a marketing tool.
The power of social networks it beginning to permeate into internal culture of businesses where they are finding uses for collaboration, file sharing and knowledge transfer. The term Enterprise Social Software is becoming increasingly popular for these types of applications.
Many social networks provide an online environment for people to communicate and exchange personal information for dating purposes. Intentions can vary from looking for a one time date, short-term relationships, and long-term relationships.145
Most of these social networks, just like online dating services, require users to give out certain pieces of information. This usually includes a user's age, gender, location, interests, and perhaps a picture. Releasing very personal information is usually discouraged for safety reasons.146 This allows other users to search or be searched by some sort of criteria, but at the same time people can maintain a degree of anonymity similar to most online dating services. Online dating sites are similar to social networks in the sense that users create profiles to meet and communicate with others, but their activities on such sites are for the sole purpose of finding a person of interest to date. Social networks do not necessarily have to be for dating; many users simply use it for keeping in touch with friends, and colleagues.147
However, an important difference between social networks and online dating services is the fact that online dating sites usually require a fee, where social networks are free.148 This difference is one of the reasons the online dating industry is seeing a massive decrease in revenue due to many users opting to use social networking services instead. Many popular online dating services such as Match.com, Yahoo Personals, and eHarmony.com are seeing a decrease in users, where social networks like MySpace and Facebook are experiencing an increase in users.149
The number of Internet users in the United States that visit online dating sites has fallen from a peak of 21% in 2003 to 10% in 2006.150 Whether its the cost of the services, the variety of users with different intentions, or any other reason, it is undeniable that social networking sites are quickly becoming the new way to find dates online.
The National School Boards Association reports that almost 60% of students who use social networking talk about education topics online, and more than 50% talk specifically about schoolwork. Yet the vast majority of school districts have stringent rules against nearly all forms of social networking during the school day—even though students and parents report few problem behaviors online.
Social networks focused on supporting relationships between teachers and their students are now used for learning, educator professional development, and content sharing. Ning for teachers, TermWiki, Learn Central,151 TeachStreet and other sites are being built to foster relationships that include educational blogs, eportfolios, formal and ad hoc communities, as well as communication such as chats, discussion threads, and synchronous forums. These sites also have content sharing and rating features.
Social networks are also emerging as online yearbooks, both public and private. One such service is MyYearbook, which allows anyone from the general public to register and connect. A new trend emerging is private label yearbooks accessible only by students, parents, and teachers of a particular school, similar to Facebook's beginning within Harvard.citation needed
The use of virtual currency systems inside social networks create new opportunities for global finance. Hub Culture operates a virtual currency Ven used for global transactions among members, product sales152 and financial trades in commodities and carbon credits.153154 In May 2010, Carbon pricing contracts were introduced to the weighted basket of currencies and commodities that determine the floating exchange value of Ven. The introduction of carbon to the calculation price of the currency made Ven the first and only currency that is linked to the environment.155
Social networks are beginning to be adopted by healthcare professionals as a means to manage institutional knowledge, disseminate peer to peer knowledge and to highlight individual physicians and institutions. The advantage of using a dedicated medical social networking site is that all the members are screened against the state licensing board list of practitioners.156
A new trend is emerging with social networks created to help its members with various physical and mental ailments.157 For people suffering from life altering diseases, PatientsLikeMe offers its members the chance to connect with others dealing with similar issues and research patient data related to their condition. For alcoholics and addicts, SoberCircle gives people in recovery the ability to communicate with one another and strengthen their recovery through the encouragement of others who can relate to their situation. DailyStrength is also a website that offers support groups for a wide array of topics and conditions, including the support topics offered by PatientsLikeMe and SoberCircle.
Some social networks aim to encourage healthy lifestyles in their users. SparkPeople offers community and social networking tools for peer support during weight loss. Fitocracy and QUENTIQ are focused on exercise, enabling users to share their own workouts and comment on those of other users.
Social networking sites have recently showed a value in social and political movements.158 In the Egyptian revolution, Facebook and Twitter both played an allegedly pivotal role in keeping people connected to the revolt. Egyptian activists have credited social networking sites with providing a platform for planning protest and sharing news from Tahrir Square in real time. By presenting a platform for thousands of people to instantaneously share videos of mainly events featuring brutality, social networking can be a vital tool in revolutions.159 On the flip side, social networks enable government authorities to easily identify, and repress, protestors and dissidents.citation needed
Crowdsourcing social media platform, such as Design Contest, Arcbazar, Tongal, combined group of professional freelancers, such as designers, and help them communicate with business owners interested in their suggestion. This process is often used to subdivide tedious work or to fund-raise startup companies and charities, and can also occur offline.160
There are a number of projects that aim to develop free and open source software to use for social networking services. The projects include Anahita,161 Diaspora, Appleseed Project,162 OneSocialWeb,163 Kune, and Friendica. These technologies are often referred to as Social engine or Social networking engine software.
- In December 2010, Time Magazine named Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg as person of the year.
- Released in 2010, The Social Network is a film dramatizing the origin of Facebook.
- Collective intelligence
- Comparison of Research Networking Tools and Research Profiling Systems
- Distributed social network
- Enterprise bookmarking
- Gender differences in social network service use
- Geosocial networking
- Internet think tanks
- Lateral diffusion
- List of social networking websites
- List of virtual communities with more than 100 million users
- Mass collaboration
- Mobile social network
- Personal Network
- Professional network service
- Social aspects of television
- Social bookmark link generator
- Social identity
- Social media
- Social network aggregation
- Social software
- Social television
- Virtual community
- boyd, danah; Ellison, Nicole (2008). "Social Network Sites: Definition, History, and Scholarship". Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 13: 210-230.
- Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication Volume 13, Issue 1, pages 210–230, October 2007
- "Nexopia stats on". Alexa.com. Retrieved 2011-03-13.
- Elevator Pitch: Why Badoo wants to be the next word in social networking, Mark Sweney, The Guardian, December 24, 2007. Retrieved March 2008.
- Bebo - most popular of its kind in UK,(August 2007): TechCrunch website. Retrieved January 15, 2008.
- German Xing Plans Invasion of LinkedIn Turf: article from the MarketingVox website.
- Hi5 popular in Europe: article from the PBS MediaShift website. Retrieved January 18, 2008.
- "Why Users Love Orkut" - 55% of users are Brazilian. Retrieved January 15, 2008
- Kucera, Von Gregor (August 9, 2012). "Wundersame Welt der Netzwerke". Wiener Zeitung.
- "India records highest social networking growth Rate: Study". news.biharprabha.com. IANS. 26 July 2014. Retrieved 26 July 2014.
- The Network Nation 2 by S. Roxanne Hiltz and Murray Turoff (Addison-Wesley, 1978, 1993)
- Michael Hauben, Ronda Hauben, and Thomas Truscott (1997-04-27). Netizens: On the History and Impact of Usenet and the Internet (Perspectives). Wiley-IEEE Computer Society P. ISBN 0-8186-7706-6
- Katie Hafner, The WELL: A Story of Love, Death and Real Life in the Seminal Online Community (2001) Carroll & Graf Publishers ISBN 0-7867-0846-8
- Cotriss, David (2008-05-29). "Where are they now: TheGlobe.com". The Industry Standard.
- Romm-Livermore, C. & Setzekorn, K. (2008). Social Networking Communities and E-Dating Services: Concepts and Implications. IGI Global. p.271
- "mcmc.indiana.edu". Jcmc.indiana.edu. Retrieved 2013-08-07.
- Island, Long (2010-09-30). "ACTUAL ARTICLE TITLE BELONGS HERE!". longislandpress.com. Retrieved 2013-08-07.
- "ACTUAL ARTICLE TITLE BELONGS HERE!". bnet.com. 2008-10-06. Retrieved 2013-08-07.
- Knapp, E. (2005). A Parent's Guide to MySpace. DayDream Publishers. ISBN 1-4196-4146-8
- Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication Volume 13, Issue 1, pages 210–230, October 2007/
- Steve Rosenbush (2005). News Corp.'s Place in MySpace, Bloomberg BusinessWeek, July 19, 2005. (MySpace Page Views figures)
- "Social graph-iti": Facebook's social network graphing: article from The Economist's website. Retrieved January 19, 2008.
- Kazeniac, Andy (2009-02-09). "Social Networks: Facebook Takes Over Top Spot, Twitter Climbs". Blog.compete.com. Retrieved 2013-08-07.
- "Social networking goes global". Reston, VAR: comscore.com. 2007. Retrieved September 9, 2007.
- Mackaay, Ejan (1990). "Economic Incentives in Markets for Information and Innovation". Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy 13 (909): 867–910.
- Heylighen, Francis (2007). "Why is Open Access Development so Successful?". In B. Lutterbeck, M. Barwolff, and R. A. Gehring. Open Source Jahrbuch. Lehmanns Media.
- Gross, R and Acquisti, A (2005). Information Revelation and Privacy in Online Social Networks (The Facebook case). Pre-proceedings version. ACM Workshop on Privacy in the Electronic Society (WPES)
- Danah Boyd, (2007), Why Youth (Heart) Social Network Sites, MacArthur Foundation Series on Digital Learning - Youth, Identity, and Digital Media Volume (ed. David Buckingham). MIT Press
- "A New Generation Reinvents Philanthropy", The Wall Street Journal website.
- "Half of employees banned from Facebook at work". The Daily Telegraph (London). 2011-05-11.
- "news.searchofficespace.com". news.searchofficespace.com. 2011-05-11. Retrieved 2013-08-07.
- boyd, D. M., & Ellison, N. B. (2007). Social Network Sites: Definition, History, and Scholarship. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 13(1), article 11. Retrieved 2012-01-30.
- Byrne, Ciara (23 August 2012). "What you read is not what you share". VentureBeat. Retrieved 10 September 2012.
- Search for "e-commerce, social networking". Google Trends. Retrieved 26 October 2009.
- Sarah Kessler2011-02-14 13:17:47 UTC (2011-02-14). "ACTUAL ARTICLE TITLE BELONGS HERE!". mashable.com. Retrieved 2013-08-07.
-  Pinterest is Now the No. 3 Social Network in the U.S via Mashable.com
- MG Siegler Jan 15, 2010 (2010-01-15). "Yelp Enables Check-Ins On Its iPhone App; Foursquare, Gowalla Ousted As Mayors". Techcrunch.com. Retrieved 2011-03-13.
- Nimetz, Jody. "Jody Nimetz on Emerging Trends in B2B Social Networking". Marketing Jive, November 18, 2007. Retrieved 26 October 2009.
- jordanejacoby Oct 23, 2014. http://www.pewinternet.org/fact-sheets/social-networking-fact-sheet/. Missing or empty
- Liebeskind, Julia Porter, et al. "Social Networks, Learning, and Flexibility: Sourcing Scientific Knowledge in New Biotechnology Firms". Organization Science, Vol. 7, No. 4 (July–August 1996), pp. 428–443.
- Bianchini, Laurence (May 14, 2012). "Social Networks for Scientists". MyScienceWork. Retrieved 22 April 2014.
- Ferri F., Grifoni P., Guzzo T. (2012). “New forms of social and professional digital relationships: the case of Facebook”. Social Network Analysis and Mining Journal, Vol. 2, pp. 121-137.
- Van Eperen L., and Marincola F. (2011). How scientists use social media to communicate their research. Journal of Translational Medicine 9:199.
- "Choose What the VLT Observes & Tweet Your Way to the VLT!". ESO Press Release. Retrieved 8 August 2012.
- Livingstone, Sonia; Brake, David R (December 2010). "On the Rapid Rise of Social Networking Sites: New Findings and Policy Implications". Children & Society 24 (1): 75–83. doi:10.1111/j.1099-0860.2009.00243.x. Retrieved July 16, 2012.
- Lenhart, Amanda; Purcell, Kristen; Smith, Aaron; Zickuhr, Kathryn (2010-02-03). Social Media & Mobile Internet Use among Teens and Young Adults. Millennials. Pew Internet & American Life Project. Retrieved 2014-11-07.
- Davis, Michelle R. "Social Networking Goes to School". Education Week. Retrieved July 17, 2012.
- Ellison, Nicole B.; Steinfield, Charles; Lampe, Cliff (2007). "The Benefits of Facebook "Friends:" Social Capital and College Student's Use of Online Social Network Sites". Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 12: 1143–1168. doi:10.1111/j.1083-6101.2007.00367.x. Retrieved July 16, 2012.
- Knobel, Michelle., Lankshear, Colin (2008). Digital Literacy and Participation in Online Social Networking Spaces. New York: Peter Lang. pp. 249–278.
- Doering, Aaron; Beach, Richard and O'Brien, David (October 2007). "Infusing Multimodal Tools and Digital Literacies into an English Education Program". National Council of Teachers of English 40 (1): 41–60.
- Buzzetto-More, Nicole A. (2010). "Social Networking in Undergraduate Education". Interdisciplinary Journal of Information, Knowledge, and Management 7: 63–90.
- "2012 Learn English Comparisons". Top Ten Reviews. Retrieved 3 September 2012.
- Mason, Robin, and Rennie, Frank (2008). E-Learning and Social Networking Handbook Resources for Higher Education. Hoboken: Rutledge. pp. 1–24. ISBN 9780203927762.
- Luo, Tian; Gao, Fei (2012). "Enhancing Classroom Learning Experience by Providing Structures to Microblogging Based Activities". Journal of Information Technical Education 11.
- Gardner, J. Clark. "Facebooks Potential in the Classroom".
- Graber, Dianna; mentored by Mendoza, Kelly (2012). "New Media Literacy Education (NMLE): A Developmental Approach". Journal of Media Literacy Education 4 (1): 82–92. Retrieved July 16, 2012.
- Jenkins, Henry (2006). Confronting the challenges of participatory culture: Media education for the 21st century. Chicago: The John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation. ISBN 9780262513623.
- Taylor, Gina, Rozi, Kristina. "Current Issues and Trends: Social Networking". Northern Illinois University.
- Gee, James Paul (2004). Situated Language and Learning: A Critique of Traditional Schooling. London: Routledge.
- Livingstone, Sonia, and Bober, Magdalena. "UK Children Go Online: Surveying the Experiences of Young People and Their Parents".
- Munoz, Caroline Lego; Towner, Terri (Dec 5, 2011). "Back to the "Wall": Facebook in the College Classroom". First Monday 16 (12).
- Waddington, Jayme (May 2011). "Social Networking: The Unharnessed Educational Tool". Undergraduate Research Journal at UCCS 4.1: 12–18.
- Carlson, Ben (April 28, 2010). "March 2.0: Success of the National Equality March relied on social media tools". Media Bullseye. Retrieved 2010-04-29.
- Arabie, Phipps, and Yoram Wind. "Marketing and Social Networks". In Stanley Wasserman and Joseph Galaskiewicz, Advances in Social Network Analysis: Research in the Social and Behavioral Sciences. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications, 1994, pp. 254–273. ISBN 0-8039-4302-4
- Chambers, Clem. "Murdoch Will Earn a Payday from MySpace". Forbes, March 30, 2006. Retrieved 26 October 2009.
- Tynan, Dan. "As Applications Blossom, Facebook Is Open for Business" Wired, July 30, 2007. Retrieved 26 October 2009.
- Tim Cook ripped apart Google's Business Model in Two Paragraphs. http://www.businessinsider.com.au/tim-cook-privacy-letter-2014-9
- Flor, Nick V. (2000). Web Business Engineering: Using Offline Activities to Drive Internet Strategies. Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley. ISBN 0-201-60468-X; Flor, Nick V. "Week 1: The Business Model Approach to Web Site Design". InformIT, March 2, 2001. Retrieved 26 October 2009. Description of the autonomous business model used in social networking services.
- "Online Dating: The Relationship Status Update". bitrebels.com.
- Bargh, John A., and McKenna, Katelyn. The Internet and Social Life. Psychology, Vol. 55, p.573-590.
- Social network launches worldwide spam campaign E-consultancy.com. Retrieved 10 September 2007
- Moreno MA, Fost NC, Christakis DA (2008). "Research ethics in the MySpace era". Pediatrics 121 (1): 157–61. doi:10.1542/peds.2007-3015. PMID 18166570.
- David Rosenblum (2007). "What Anyone Can Know: The Privacy Risks of Social Networking Sites".
- Henry Jenkins and Danah Boyd (2006-05-24). "Discussion: MySpace and Deleting Online Predators Act (DOPA)". Retrieved 2006-05-26.
- Susan B. Barnes (2006-09-04). "A privacy paradox: Social networking in the United States".
- "Social Network Sites 'Monitored'". BBC News. 2009-03-25. Retrieved 2009-03-25.
- Schaar, A. K., Valdez, A. C., & Ziefle, M. (2013). The Impact of User Diversity on the Willingness to Disclose Personal Information in Social Network Services. In Human Factors in Computing and Informatics (pp. 174-193). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
- Miller, Andy (2010-09-02). "Mining Social Networks: Untangling the Social Web". The Economist.
- Elkins, Sarah. "A Social Network's Faux Pas?". Newsweek.
- "Niet compatibele browser". Facebook. Retrieved 2011-03-13.
- boyd, danah. "Why Youth (Heart) Social Network Sites: The Role of Networked Publics in Teenage Social Life"
- Silicon Republic, Careers. 'Young People Losing out on Jobs'
- WRCB T.V.
- New York Daily News
- News.Finance. 'Women gets fired over social network'
- Huffington post. 'Flight Attendant Fired for Giving Middle Finger Gets Job Back'
- CBC News, Montreal, Canada. 'Depressed Women Loses benefits over photos'
- Next Web, Social Media. 'Facebook Says It May Launch Legal Action Against Employess'
- Facebook Privacy
- May 22, 2007 12:00AM (2007-05-22). "Fatal MySpace internet hoax mother is charged, Herald Sun, 17 May 2008". News.com.au. Retrieved 2011-03-13.
- "Parents: Cyber Bullying Led to Teen's Suicide: Megan Meier's Parents Now Want Measures to Protect Children Online". ABC News. 29 November 2007.
- "Banned for keeps on Facebook for odd name, The Sydney Morning Herald, 24 September 2008". The Sydney Morning Herald. 2008-09-25. Retrieved 2011-03-13.
- "PC Advisor – Unauthorised access of social networking profiles surge". Pcadvisor.co.uk. 2013-07-30. Retrieved 2013-08-07.
- Terrelonge, Zen. "ME Mobile Entertainment – Over 60m UK 'smugging' incidents in the past year". Mobile-ent.biz. Retrieved 2013-08-07.
- Skinner, Carrie-Ann (October 19, 2011). "Unauthorised access of social networking profiles surge". Retrieved May 3, 2012.
- Tricia Phillips (2011-10-19). "– ID Fraud Continues to Rise as 80,000 hit crooks this year". Daily Mirror. Retrieved 2013-08-07.
- Joanna Robinson. "Money Magpie – Identity fraud: How to stay safe online". Moneymagpie.com. Retrieved 2013-08-07.
- "Social Networking's Good and Bad Impacts on Kids". American Psychological Association. August 6, 2011.
- "Enhancing Child Safety and Online Technologies". Internet Safety Technical Task Force, Final Report of the Internet Safety Technical Task Force to the Multi-State Working Group on Social Networking of State Attorneys General of the United States (published 31 December 2008). 2008.
- Wilson, Charles (May 27, 2010). "Child porn 'social networking site' busted by feds". Associated Press.
- Mark Tran, , "The Guardian", March 5, 2010
- Computer Science Illuminated
- Boyd, Danah. "Why Youth (Heart) Social Networking Sites: The Role of Networked Publics in Teenage Social Life". eres.ucsc.edu.
- "A Privacy Paradox".
- Derbyshire, David (24 February 2009). "Social websites harm children's brains: Chilling warning to parents from top neuroscientist". Daily Mail (London).
- Turkle, Sherry (2011). Alone Together: Why We Expect More from Technology and Less from Each Other. Basic Books. p. 154. ISBN 978-0-465-02234-2.
- Turkle, Sherry (2011). Alone Together: Why We Expect More from Technology and Less from Each Other. Basic Books. p. 17. ISBN 978-0-465-02234-2.
- "CBS "Social Networking: An Internet Addiction?", CBS News, June 24, 2008". CBS News. 2008-06-24. Retrieved 2011-05-13.
- "Cornblatt, Johannah, "Lonely Planet", Newsweek, August 21, 2009". Newsweek. 2009-08-29. Retrieved 2011-05-13.
- Evidence Grows That Online Social Networks Have Insidious Negative Effects, MIT Technology Review
- "Magid, Larry, "Is there really 'Facebook depression?'"". CNET. 2011-03-29. Retrieved 2011-10-18.
- "Mark Nowotarski, "Don't Steal My Avatar! Challenges of Social Network Patents, IP Watchdog, January 23, 2011". Ipwatchdog.com. Retrieved 2011-03-13.
- "USPTO search on issued patents mentioning 'social network'". Patft.uspto.gov. Retrieved 2011-03-13.
- "Nowotarski, Mark "Reducing Patent Backlog and Prosecution Costs Using PAIR data", IP Watchdog, August 16, 2010". Ipwatchdog.com. Retrieved 2011-03-13.
- Added by Mikk Putk on July 30, 2009 at 6:48am View Videos (2009-07-30). "News 12 'On the Money' interview of Mark Nowotarski, July 30, 2009". Ipestonia.ning.com. Retrieved 2011-03-13.
- "USPTO Lets Amazon Patent the Social Networking System". yro.slashdot.org. 2010-06-16. Retrieved 2011-03-13.
- Gold, Kimberly. "Amazon Secures Patent For Social Networking System". Forbes.
- US Patent and Trademark Office Patent number 7,739,139
- "Network World". Network World. Retrieved 2011-03-13.
- "Facebook policies tricky for employers, workers". japantoday.com. Retrieved 28 September 2011.
- D. R. Sandler and D. S. Wallach (April 2009). "Birds of a FETHR: Open, decentralized micropublishing" (PDF). Proc. of the 8th International Workshop on Peer-to-Peer Systems (IPTPS‘09).
- Michal Kryczka, Ruben Cuevas, Carmen Guerrero, Eiko Yoneki, Arturo Azcorra (April 2010). "A first step towards user assisted online social networks". Proc. of the 3rd Workshop on Social Network Systems (SNS'10).
- Tianyin Xu, Yang Chen, Lei Jiao, Ben Y. Zhao, Pan Hui, and Xiaoming Fu (December 2011). "Scaling Microblogging Services with Divergent Traffic Demands" (PDF). Proc. of the ACM/IFIP/USENIX 12th International Middleware Conference (Middleware'11).
- "Who Commits Virtual Identity Suicide? Differences in Privacy Concerns, Internet Addiction, and Personality Between Facebook Users and Quitters". Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking.
- Gershon, Ilana (2010). The Breakup 2.0: Disconnecting Over New Media. Cornell University Press.
- Vlahakis, George. "The Breakup 2.0': A Look at How New Media Is Used to End Relationships". Indiana University.
- O'Dell, Jolie. "Would You Break Up via Facebook?". Mashable.
- Goffman, Erving (1967). On Face-Work: Interactions Ritual: Essays on Face-to-Face Behavior. Garden City, NY: Anchor. pp. 5–45.
- Lukacs, Veronika. "It's Complicated: Romantic Breakups and Their Aftermath on Facebook". The School of Graduate and Postdoctoral Studies, The University of Western Ontario.
- Melander, L.A. (2010). "College students’ perceptions of intimate partner cyber harassment". CyberPsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking 13 (3): 263–268. doi:10.1089/cyber.2009.0221.
- Van Dijck, Jose (2007). Mediated memories in the digital age. Stanford University Press.
- Maier, C., Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. Giving too much Social Support: Social Overload on Social Networking Sites, European Journal of Information Systems (EJIS). 2014 doi: 10.1057/ejis.2014.3
- "MySpace exposes sex predators", use of its content in the courtroom: Herald and Weekly Times (Australia) website. Retrieved January 19, 2008.
- "Getting booked by Facebook", courtesy of campus police: Milwaukee Journal Sentinel website. Retrieved January 19, 2008.
- "Police use Facebook to identify weapon carriers" The Journal (Edinburgh) website. Retrieved May 11, 2009
- "Government Agencies Establishing Presence on Social-Networking Sites". Itbusinessedge.com. Retrieved 2011-03-13.
- "NSA Collecting Social Media Information from Citizens". Liberty Voice. Retrieved 2014-09-03.
- "OSTP Press Release Announcing Review (pdf, 50k)" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-03-13.
- MySpace, Facebook Add Opportunity for Love, Trouble to Online Dating, FoxNews.com website.
- MySpace Adds a Security Monitor, NPR.com website.
- Online Dating: Can Social Networks Cut In?, internetnews.com website.
- "Online Dating vs. Social Networking – Which Will Emerge as Premier Matchmaker?". localtechwire.com.
- Social networks vs. dating sites Commentary: Fragmenting may save online dating sites, marketwatch.com website.
- Seeking Love Around The Web , Forbes website.
- Jordan, Andy (2009-09-09). "Wall street journal blog article about Ven". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2013-08-07.
- "ACTUAL ARTICLE TITLE BELONGS HERE!". finextra.com. Retrieved 2013-08-07.
- "ACTUAL ARTICLE TITLE BELONGS HERE!". hubculture.com. 2010-07-05. Retrieved 2013-08-07.
- "Social Networking: Now Professionally Ready". primarypsychiatry.com.
- Comprehensive listing of medical applications using social networking via Dose of Digital
- Auer, Matthew R. (July 17, 2011). "'The Policy Sciences of Social Media'. '''39'''". Policy Studies Journal, 39 (4): 709–736. Retrieved 24 April 2012.
- Sutter, John D. (21 Feb 2011). "The faces of Egypt's 'Revolution 2.0'". CNN. Retrieved 13 May 2011.
- Howe, Jeff (2006). "The Rise of Crowdsourcing". Wired.
- Anahita Project. "The Anahita Social Networking Platform and Framework". GetAnahita.com. Retrieved 2014-09-23.
- The Appleseed Project. "The Appleseed Project - Open Source Social Networking". Opensource.appleseedproject.org. Retrieved 2011-03-13.
- "Creating a free, open, and decentralized social networking platform". OneSocialWeb. Retrieved 2011-03-13.
- "ComScore: Google+ Grows Worldwide Users From 65 Million In October To 67 Million In November". December 22, 2011.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Social networking services.|
- Alemán, Ana M. Martínez; Wartman, Katherine Lynk, "Online social networking on campus: understanding what matters in student culture", New York and London : Routledge, 1st edition, 2009. ISBN 0-415-99019-X
- Barham, Nick, Disconnected: Why our kids are turning their backs on everything we thought we knew, 1st ed., Ebury Press, 2004. ISBN 0-09-189586-3
- Baron, Naomi S., Always on : language in an online and mobile world, Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 2008. ISBN 978-0-19-531305-5
- Cockrell, Cathy, "Plumbing the mysterious practices of 'digital youth': In first public report from a 'seminal' study, UC Berkeley scholars shed light on kids' use of Web 2.0 tools", UC Berkeley News, University of California, Berkeley, NewsCenter, 28 April 2008
- Kelsey, Todd (2010), Social Networking Spaces: From Facebook to Twitter and Everything In Between, Springer-Verlag, ISBN 978-1-4302-2596-6
- Davis, Donald Carrington, "MySpace Isn't Your Space: Expanding the Fair Credit Reporting Act to Ensure Accountability and Fairness in Employer Searches of Online Social Networking Services", 16 Kan. J.L. & Pub. Pol'y 237 (2007).
- Else, Liz; Turkle, Sherry. "Living online: I'll have to ask my friends", New Scientist, issue 2569, 20 September 2006. (interview)
- Glaser, Mark, Your Guide to Social Networking Online," PBS MediaShift, August 2007
- Powers, William, Hamlet’s Blackberry : a practical philosophy for building a good life in the digital age, 1st ed., New York : Harper, 2010. ISBN 978-0-06-168716-7
- Video on the History of social networks by WikiLecture
- C. Infant Louis Richards, "Advanced Techniques to overcome privacy issues and SNS threats"  October, 2011
- Sharples, Mike; Graber, Rebecca; Harrison, Colin; Logan, Kit (2009) E-Safety and Web2.0 for children aged 11–16. Journal of Computer-Assisted Learning, 25, 70-84.
Content from Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia
What Is This Site? The Ultimate Study Guide is a mirror of English Wikipedia. It exists in order to provide Wikipedia content to those who are unable to access the main Wikipedia site due to draconian government, employer, or school restrictions. The site displays all the text content from Wikipedia. Our sponsors generously cover part of the cost of hosting this site, and their ads are shown as part of this agreement. We regret that we are unable to display certain controversial images on some pages the site at the request of the sponsors. If you need to see images which we are unable to show, we encourage you to view Wikipedia directly if possible, and apologize for this inconvenience.
A product of XPR Content Systems. 47 Union St #9K, Grand Falls-Windsor NL A2A 2C9 CANADA