|Native to||Afghanistan, Tajikistan|
|Native speakers||(15,000 in Tajikistan cited 1975)1|
Rushani is notable for having a transitive case – a so-called double-oblique clause structure – in the past tense. That is, in the past tense,2 the agent and object of a transitive verb are both marked, while the subject of an intransitive verb is not. In the present tense, the object of the transitive verb is marked, the other two roles are not – that is, a typical nominative–accusative alignment.3
az-um pa Xaraɣ sut I(ABS)-1sg to Xorog went
- 'I went to Xorog'
mu tā wunt me(OBL) you(OBL) saw
- 'I saw you'
- (double oblique: literally 'me saw you')
az tā wun-um I(ABS) you(OBL) see-1sg
- 'I see you'
According to Payne, it's clear what happened here: Rushani once had a split-ergative alignment, as is common in the area, where the object was marked (oblique) in the present tense, but the agent was marked in the past. The case forms of the object were then leveled, and with the marking applied to the past tense as well. However, this resulted in a complication, the typologically unusual situation where the agent and object are treated the same, and different from the intransitive subject. Given its rarity, one might expect such a system to be unstable, and indeed it appears to be changing. Payne reports that younger speakers change the past-tense construction to one of the following, either using the absolutive (= nominative) inflection for the agent:
az-um tā wunt I(ABS)-1sg you(OBL) saw
- 'I saw you'
or secondarily marking the object as an object, using the preposition az (literally 'from'):
mu az taw wunt I(OBL) ACC you(OBL) saw
- 'I saw you'
- (effectively, accusative and double-accusative)
- Zarubin, I.I.. Bartangskie i rushanskie teksty i slovar. Moskva : Izd-vo Akademii nauk SSSR, 1937.
- Payne, John, "Pamir languages" in Compendium Linguarum Iranicarum, ed. Schmitt (1989), 417–444.
- Ethnologue report: Shughni
|This Indo-European languages-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.|
Content from Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia
What Is This Site? The Ultimate Study Guide is a mirror of English Wikipedia. It exists in order to provide Wikipedia content to those who are unable to access the main Wikipedia site due to draconian government, employer, or school restrictions. The site displays all the text content from Wikipedia. Our sponsors generously cover part of the cost of hosting this site, and their ads are shown as part of this agreement. We regret that we are unable to display certain controversial images on some pages the site at the request of the sponsors. If you need to see images which we are unable to show, we encourage you to view Wikipedia directly if possible, and apologize for this inconvenience.
A product of XPR Content Systems. 47 Union St #9K, Grand Falls-Windsor NL A2A 2C9 CANADA