# Population density

Population density (people per km2) by country, 2006
Population density (people per km2) map of the world in 1994 (detailed).
Population density (people per km2) map of the world in 1994.
Deserts around the world. Compare with maps above.

Population density (in agriculture standing stock and standing crop) is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is frequently applied to living organisms, and particularly to humans. It is a key geographic term.1

## Biological population densities

Population density is population divided by total land area or water volume, as appropriate.1

Low densities may cause an extinction vortex and lead to further reduced fertility. This is called the Allee effect after the scientist who identified it. Examples of the causes in low population densities include:2

• Increased problems with locating sexual mates
• Increased inbreeding

Different species have different expected densities. R-selected species commonly have high population densities, while K-selected species may have lower densities.3 Low densities may be associated with specialized mate location adaptations such as specialized pollinators, as found in the orchid family (Orchidaceae).

## Human population density

Monaco in South Europe, currently holds the record for being the most densely populated nation in the world.
Mongolia is the least densely populated country in the world.
A population cartogram uses areas rather than colors to represent population.

For humans, population density is the number of people per unit of area usually per square kilometer or mile (which may include or exclude cultivated or potentially productive area). Commonly this may be calculated for a county, city, country, another territory, or the entire world.

The world's population is 7 billion,4 and Earth's total area (including land and water) is 510 million square kilometers (197 million square miles).5 Therefore the worldwide human population density is 6.8 billion ÷ 510 million = 13.3 per km2 (34.5 per sq. mile). If only the Earth's land area of 150 million km2 (58 million sq. miles) is taken into account, then human population density increases to 45.3 per km2 (117.2 per sq. mile). This calculation includes all continental and island land area, including Antarctica. If Antarctica is also excluded, then population density rises to 50 people per km2 (129.28 per sq. mile).1 Considering that over half of the Earth's land mass consists of areas inhospitable to human inhabitation, such as deserts and high mountains, and that population tends to cluster around seaports and fresh water sources, this number by itself does not give any meaningful measurement of human population density.

Several of the most densely populated territories in the world are city-states, microstates, or dependencies.67 These territories share a relatively small area and a high urbanization level, with an economically specialized city population drawing also on rural resources outside the area, illustrating the difference between high population density and overpopulation.

Cities with high population densities are, by some, considered to be overpopulated, though the extent to which this is the case depends on factors like quality of housing and infrastructure and access to resources.8 Most of the most densely populated cities are in southern and eastern Asia, though Cairo and Lagos in Africa also fall into this category.9

City population is, however, heavily dependent on the definition of "urban area" used: densities are often higher for the central municipality itself, than when more recently developed and administratively separate suburban communities are included, as in the concepts of agglomeration or metropolitan area, the latter including sometimes neighboring cities. For instance, Milwaukee has a greater population density when just the inner city is measured, and not the surrounding suburbs as well.10

As a comparison, based on a world population of seven billion, the world's inhabitants would, as a loose crowd taking up ten square feet (one square metre) per person (Jacobs Method), would occupy a space a little larger than Delaware's land area.

## Most densely populated countries

With population above 1 million
Rank Country/Region Population Area (km2) Density
(Pop. per km2)
1  Singapore 5,183,700 710 7301
2  Hong Kong 7,061,200 1,104 6396
3  Bahrain 1,234,596 750 1646
5  Taiwan (R.O.C) 22,955,395 36,190 634
6  Mauritius 1,288,000 2,040 631
7  South Korea 48,456,369 99,538 487
8  Rwanda 10,718,379 26,338 407
9  Netherlands 16,760,000 41,526 404
10  Lebanon 4,224,000 10,452 404
With population above 10 million
Rank Country/Region Population Area (km2) Density
(Pop. per km2)
2  Taiwan (R.O.C) 22,955,395 36,190 634
3  South Korea 48,456,369 99,538 487
4  Rwanda 10,718,379 26,338 407
5  Netherlands 16,760,000 41,526 404
6  India 1,210,193,422 3,287,263 368
7  Belgium 11,007,020 30,528 361
8  Japan 127,960,000 377,944 339
9  Sri Lanka 20,653,000 65,610 345

## Other methods of measurement

While arithmetic density is the most common way of measuring population density, several other methods have been developed which aim to provide a more accurate measure of population density over a specific area.

• Arithmetic density: The total number of people / area of land (measured in km2 or sq miles).
• Physiological density: The total population / area of arable land.
• Agricultural density: The total rural population / area of arable land.
• Residential density : The number of people living in an urban area / area of residential land.
• Urban density : The number of people inhabiting an urban area / total area of urban land.
• Ecological optimum: The density of population which can be supported by the natural resources.

Lists:

## References

1. ^ a b c Matt Rosenberg Population Density. Geography.about.com. March 2 2011. Retrieved on 2011-12-10.
2. ^ Minimum viable population size. Eoearth.org (2010-03-06). Retrieved on 2011-12-10.
3. ^ Density-Dependent Selection
4. ^ U.S. & World Population Clocks. Census.gov. Retrieved on 2011-12-10.
5. ^ World. CIA World Handbook
6. ^ Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division (2009). World Population Prospects, Table A.1 (PDF). 2008 revision. United Nations. Retrieved 2009-03-12.
7. ^ The Monaco government uses a smaller surface area figure resulting in a population density of 18,078 per km2
8. ^ Human Population. Global Issues. Retrieved on 2011-12-10.
9. ^ The largest cities in the world by land area, population and density. Citymayors.com. Retrieved on 2011-12-10.
10. ^ The Population of Milwaukee County. Wisconline.com. Retrieved on 2011-12-10.

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