Political ideologies in the United States

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A multi-axis political spectrum chart; a variant of the Nolan chart

Political ideologies in the United States vary considerably. Persons in the U.S. generally classify themselves either as adhering to positions along the political spectrum as liberal-progressive, moderate, or conservative. Modern American liberalism aims at the preservation and extension of human, social and civil rights as well as the government guaranteed provision of positive rights. It combines social progressivism and to some extent, ordoliberalism and is highly similar to European social liberalism. American conservatism commonly refers to a combination of economic liberalism and libertarianism, and to an extent, social conservatism. It aims at protecting the concept of small government, while promoting traditional values on some social issues.

The ideological position a person or party takes may be explained in terms of social and economic policy. The ideological positions a person assumes on social and economic policy issues may differ in their position on the political spectrum. Milton Friedman, for example, was left-of-center on social issues but right-of-center on fiscal matters.1 Several ideological demographics may be identified in addition to or as subgroups of liberals and conservatives with nearly every possible ideology being found in the general population.

In the U.S., the Democratic Party generally represents liberal ideals, while the Republican Party commonly represents conservative ideals. Smaller parties such as the Libertarian Party play a minor role in American politics.

The size of ideological groups varies slightly depending on the poll. Gallup/USA Today polling in June 2010 revealed that 42% of those surveyed identify as conservative, 35% as moderate, while 20% identify as liberal.2 In another polling in June 2010, 40% of American voters identify themselves as conservatives, 36% as moderates and 22% as liberals, with a strong majority of both liberals and conservatives describing themselves as closer to the center than to the extremes.3 As of 2013, self-identified conservatives stand at 34%, moderates at 38%, and liberals at 23%.4

In a 2005 study, the Pew Research Center identified nine typological groups. Three groups were identified as part of each, "the left," "the middle," and "the right." In this categorization system, "the right" roughly represents the Republican base, those on "the left" the Democratic base and those in "the middle" independents. Within the left are the largely secular and anti-war "Liberals", the socially conservative but economically left "Conservative Democrats", and the economically "Disadvantaged Democrats" who favor extended government assistance to the needy.5 In "the middle" are the optimistic and upwardly mobile "Upbeats", the discouraged and mistrusting "Disaffecteds," and the disenfranchised "Bystanders." The right compromises the highly pro-business "Enterprisers," the highly religious "Social Conservatives" (also known as the Christian right), and the "Pro-Government Conservatives" who are largely conservative on social issues but support government intervention to better their economic disposition.5

Typological groups

From this report:

The Right Persons (%) Voters (%) Income of $75k+ College degree Married with Children Voted for Bush (%) Voted for Kerry (%)
Enterprisers 9% 11% 41% 46% 40% 92% 1%
Social Conservatives 11% 13% 30% 28% 28% 86% 4%
Pro-Government Conservatives 9% 10% 10% 15% 34% 61% 12%
The Middle Persons (%) Voters (%) Income of $75k+ College degree Married with Children Voted for Bush (%) Voted for Kerry (%)
Upbeats 11% 13% 39% 37% 28% 63% 14%
Disaffecteds 9% 10% 13% 11% 22% 42% 21%
Bystanders 10% 0% 8% 13% 28% * *
The Left Persons (%) Voters (%) Income of $75k+ College degree Married with Children Voted for Bush (%) Voted for Kerry (%)
Conservative Democrats 14% 15% 15% 16% 28% 14% 65%
Disadvantaged Democrats 10% 10% 8% 13% 23% 2% 82%
Liberals 17% 19% 41% 49% 20% 2% 81%
Demographic Total The Right The Middle The Left Bystanders
Enterprisers Social Conservatives Pro-Government Conservatives Upbeats Disaffecteds Conservative Democrats Disadvantaged Democrats Liberals
Race
White 80% 91% 91% 85% 87% 81% 64% 58% 83% 80%
Black 12% 1% 4% 10% 7% 7% 30% 32% 6% 7%
Hispanic 10% 5% 7% 12% 7% 8% 11% 14% 9% 20%
Other 6% 4% 7% 3% 6% 9% 5% 9% 9% 11%
Region
East 19% 17% 14% 18% 21% 21% 21% 19% 24% 16%
Midwest 24% 22% 22% 23% 28% 27% 23% 32% 20% 19%
South 35% 34% 47% 42% 33% 30% 41% 35% 22% 35%
West 22% 27% 17% 17% 18% 22% 15% 14% 34% 30%
Sex
Male 48% 76% 42% 38% 50% 57% 44% 40% 46% 48%
Female 52% 24% 58% 62% 50% 43% 56% 60% 54% 52%
Age
18–29 21% 10% 13% 24% 26% 12% 17% 17% 28% 39%
30–49 39% 46% 37% 39% 36% 34% 37% 37% 40% 40%
50–64 22% 24% 21% 22% 21% 27% 23% 30% 21% 12%
65 and older 16% 18% 26% 14% 16% 15% 23% 13% 10% 8%

Prominent ideologies

Typological groups according to the Pew Research Center.

Liberalism and conservatism are the most common ideologies in the U.S. apart from those who identify as moderate. Individuals embrace each ideology to widely varying extents. Liberals and progressives commonly advocate strong civil liberties, social progressivism, cultural pluralism, government ensuring of positive rights (education, health care, etc...) and a mixed economy.6 Conservatives commonly defend the notional status quo of some point in the past, believing that the Nation has deviated significantly from it and advocating more traditional stands on social issues, protection of gun rights and much less government intervention.5

Moderates, who may be left or right leaning, incorporate different aspects from liberalism and conservatism into their personal perspective. According to recent polls moderates are commonly identified as the second largest group, closely trailing conservatives, constituting between 36% and 39% of the population.78 Moderates are commonly defined through limiting the extent to which they adopt liberal and conservative ideas. CNN exit polls have found moderates to be rather evenly divided between the country's two main parties.91011

Even though liberals as a whole tend to be the most educated ideological demographic (as indicated by Pew research), moderates tend to become increasingly conservative with increased economic prosperity,5 causing the professional class to be split between Republicans and Democrats.12 Among those who do identify as either liberal or conservative few identify as "far left" or "far right." Most Americans either identify as "moderate" or as "somewhat" liberal or conservative.7

While often not mentioned in major polls and less organized than liberal or conservatives, libertarians are a significant minority, constituting roughly 13% of the electorate. Libertarians commonly hold liberal views on social issues but conservative views on economic issues. Since the 1980s a majority of libertarians have favored the Republican Party, although in recent years, the margin favoring the Republicans has begun to shrink because of the libertarians' opposition to many recent Republican supported social issues.13

Conservatism

In the United States modern conservatism coalesced in the latter half of the 20th century, responding over time to the political and social change associated with events such as the Great Depression, tension with the Soviet Union in the Cold War, the American Civil Rights Movement, the counterculture of the 1960s, the deregulation of the economy in the late 1970s and early 1980s, the overthrow of the New Deal Coalition in the 1980s, and the terrorist threat of the 21st century. Some of the most supported political issues among conservatives are economic liberalism, fiscal conservatism, and a form of social conservatism that is more appealing to the Christian Right.

Conservatives tend to believe in a higher level of independence and self-reliance, and believe that the government should not get involved in private economic matters. Conservatives generally believe that having more economic freedom and a less social government will lead to a more responsible and efficient society. For this reason, most American conservatives believe in economic liberalism and fiscal conservatism.

The word "conservative" comes from "conserve," hence describing those who generally wish to conserve the status quo, conserve morality, or conserve money. Views on individual policies vary among different sub-groups. Overall, a majority of conservatives support tax-cuts and other Laissez-faire(reduced governmental interference) policies, oppose same-sex marriage, oppose abortion, oppose stricter gun control laws on the grounds of the Second Amendment and public safety, and favor increased military spending as opposed to other federal expenditures. Conservatives tend to favor (racial) color-blindness and oppose affirmative action/positive discrimination quotas. Nationalist Conservatives are more likely to allow torture on suspected terrorists for interrogation, while some Social Conservatives oppose secularism and atheism in public schools. Conservatives tend to favor state governments over the federal, reserving the federal for matters of national security.

Roughly one third, 36%, to 42%2 of the American public self-identify as "conservative." Conservatives commonly outnumber liberals in the general public with both ideological groupings being outnumbered by centrists.7 The military-industrial complex in particular remains a conservative bastion.1415 A 2003 survey by the Military Times found that the "military considers itself clearly more conservative and Republican." In a December 2006 poll, 46% of active personnel identified as Republican, down from 60% in 2004.16 In the 2000, 2004 and 2006 elections CNN exit polls found that roughly 80% of self-described conservatives voted Republican.91011

A study by the Pew Research Center, where research assigned typological classifications based on responses to policy and ideological questions, found that a significant percentage of Democratic voters were social conservatives who only voted for the Democratic party due to their more left-leaning economic methods, as well as their longtime affiliation with the party especially among Dixiecrats and blacks. This study divided conservatives into four groups: Enterprisers, Social Conservatives, Pro-Government Conservatives, and Conservative Democrats. Of the conservative groups, Conservative Democrats were the most common typological group comprising 14% of respondents while Enterprisers and Pro-Government Conservatives were the least common among the conservative groups at 9%. Enterprisers had the second highest percentage of college graduates (46%) behind Liberals, and were tied with Liberals percentage wise on those who have household incomes of $75,000 or more (41%), while actually having a higher percentage of people who have household incomes of $50,000 or more (62%). All conservative demographics were religious with less than 10% of respondents identifying as "secular," compared to 22% among liberals.5

The value gaps for the GOP are, perhaps surprisingly, greatest with respect to the role of government. The Republicans' bigger tent now includes more lower-income voters than it once did, and many of these voters favor an activist government to help working class people. Government regulation to protect the environment is an issue with particular potential to divide Republicans. On this issue, wide divisions exist both within the GOP and among right-of-center voters more generally... Yet Republicans also have much in common beyond their overwhelming support for a muscular foreign policy and broad agreement on social issues. – Pew Research Center, 20055

Liberalism

Opinions of liberals in a 2005 Pew Research Center study.17

Liberalism in the U.S. is most commonly characterized by a mixture of social liberalism and progressivism, with a strong (if frequently unrecognized) ordoliberal streak. Less frequently it may also describe forms of classic and neoliberalism. Liberals in the United States advocate strong civil liberties and social progressivism according to which societal practices need to be changed whenever necessary for the greater good of society or the benefits of those who wish to engage in those social arrangements. They believe that government action is needed in order for people to be as free as possible. Government must thereby ensure the provision of positive rights, protect civil liberties and ensure equality. American liberals commonly reject both laissez-faire capitalism and socialism as means to distribute economic resources. A mixed economy, that is a capitalist free market economy with limited government regulation and intervention is seen as the ideal. Recently, there has been a strong movement among liberals against corporate welfare, which is generally favored by pro-government conservatives. Cultural pluralism is quite common among American liberals.6

A majority of liberals favor diplomacy over military action, stem-cell research, the legalization of same-sex marriage, secular government, stricter gun control and environmental protection laws as well as the preservation of abortion rights. They tend to be rather divided on free trade agreements and organizations such as the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). Most liberals oppose increased military standing and the display of the Ten Commandments in public buildings. Immigration and cultural diversity is deemed positive. As a result liberals favor cultural pluralism, a system in which immigrants retain aspects of their native culture in addition to adopting their new culture.

Liberalism wagers that a state... can be strong but constrained – strong because constrained... Rights to education and other requirements for human development and security aim to advance equal opportunity and personal dignity and to promote a creative and productive society. To guarantee those rights, liberals have supported a wider social and economic role for the state, counterbalanced by more robust guarantees of civil liberties and a wider social system of checks and balances anchored in an independent press and pluralistic society. – Paul Starr, sociologist at Princeton University, The New Republic, March 2007

According to the Pew Research Center liberals are particularly distinguished from any other typographic group by their socially progressive viewpoints. In 2004, liberals were the only group to advocate same sex marriage and euthanasia, policies regarded as left of the Democratic Party. Among the most prominent liberal periodicals are The Nation, The American Prospect, and The New Republic. The New Republic described its political standing, giving a brief overview of contemporary American liberalism, in a June 2006 editorial stating it was "very much against the Bush tax programs, against Bush Social Security 'reform,' against cutting the inheritance tax, for radical health care changes, passionate about Gore-type environmentalism, for a woman's entitlement to an abortion, for gay marriage, for an increase in the minimum wage, for pursuing aggressively alternatives to our present reliance on oil and our present tax preferences for gas-guzzling automobiles."18

[Liberals are] Predominantly white (83%), most highly educated group (49% have a college degree or more), and youngest group after Bystanders. Least religious group in typology: 43% report they seldom or never attend religious services; nearly a quarter (22%) are seculars. More than one-third never married (36%). Largest group residing in urban areas (42%) and in the western half the country (34%). Wealthiest Democratic group (41% earn at least $75,000). – Pew Research Center

Roughly 19% to 26% of the American public is liberal depending on survey and method.7 Liberals vote mostly in favor of the Democratic Party, constituting roughly 43% of the Democratic base.591011 Liberalism tends to be most prominent in academia and among those with higher levels of education.19 In 2004, 72% of full-time faculty members at four-year colleges identified as liberal.20 In a 2004 survey of 1,000 economists, registered Democrats outnumbered registered Republicans by a 2.5 to 1 ratio. The majority of economists favored "safety regulations, gun control, redistribution, public schooling, and anti-discrimination laws", while opposing "tighter immigration controls, government ownership of enterprise and tariffs."21 Among sociologists and anthropologists, Democrats outnumber Republicans 20 to 1.22

Over the past decades,when? the political outlook of Americans has become more progressive, with those below the age of thirty being considerably more liberal than the overall population. According to recent polls, 56% of those age 18 to 29 favor gay marriage, 68% state environmental protection to be as important as job creation, 52% "think immigrants 'strengthen the country with their hard work and talents,'" 62% favor a "tax financed, government-administrated universal health care" program and 74% "say 'people's will' should have more influence on U.S. laws than the Bible, compared to 37%, 49%, 38%, 47% and 58% among the general population.23

[Enterprisers are] Predominantly white (91%), male (76%) and financially well-off (62% have household incomes of at least $50,000, compared with 40% nationwide). Nearly half (46%) have a college degree, and 77% are married. Nearly a quarter (23%) are themselves military veterans. Only 10% are under age 30. – Pew Research Center, 2005
[Social Conservatives are] Predominantly white (91%), female (58%) and the oldest of all groups (average age is 52; 47% are 50 or older); nearly half live in the South. Most (53%) attend church weekly; 43% are white evangelical Protestants (double the national average of 21%). – Pew Research Center, 2005
[Pro-Government Conservatives are] Predominately female (62%) and relatively young; highest percentage of minority members of any Republican-leaning group (10% black, 12% Hispanic). Most (59%) have no more than a high school diploma. Poorer than other Republican groups; nearly half (49%) have household incomes of less than $30,000 (about on par with Disadvantaged Democrats). Nearly half (47%) are parents of children living at home; 42% live in the South. – Pew Research Center, 2005
Older women and blacks make up a sizeable proportion of [Conservative Democrats] (27% and 30%, respectively). Somewhat less educated and poorer than the nation overall. Allegiance to the Democratic Party is quite strong (51% describe themselves as "strong" Democrats) but fully 85% describe themselves as either conservative or moderate ideologically. – Pew Research Center, 2005

It is also shown by the Pew Research Center that conservatives tend to have stronger belief in personal empowerment than liberals. Among the wealthiest and most educated group of conservatives, the Enterprisers, 95% believed that most people can get ahead in life if they work hard. Despite having similar income and education levels, only 53% of Liberals agreed with Enterprisers on the issue while 39% disagreed and another 5% refused to answer.24 Even among the poorest and least educated groups of both the conservatives (the Pro-Government Conservatives) and the left-wing (the Disadvantaged Democrats), these differences in opinion about personal empowerment are apparent. While 74% of Pro-Government Conservatives believed that people can get ahead with hard work, only 14% of Disadvantaged Democrats agreed while 79% disagreed and the other 7% refused to answer.25

Demographics of ideological groups

Further information: Demography of the United States
Percent of all survey respondents, voters and college graduates by typological demographic.17

Education and income

The socially progressive Liberals and staunchly conservative Enterprisers are tied as the two most affluent groups, while Liberals are the most educated. Liberals have a slightly higher percentage of college graduates than Enterprisers; 49% of versus 46% of Enterprisers. Bystanders, those who chose not to participate in the political process, have the least percentage of college graduates (11%) and are tied with Disadvantaged Democrats as the most financially distressed.5

Generally, education and affluence increase the chances of an individual to be politically active. The professional class, which is relatively evenly divided among Democrats and Republicans,12 is among the most politically active,26 while those in the lower class – the working poor and underclass – commonly abstain from taking part in the political process.27 The working class has become less politically active, partially due to a decline in the prevalence of labor unions.28 As a result, the American electorate is considerably more affluent and educated than the general population. In the 2006 mid-term elections, for example, those with graduate degrees, who constitute 9% of the general population age 25 or older, comprised 16% of the electorate.11 All sizable socio-economic groups were relatively split between the two major parties in the 2000, 2004 and 2006 elections.91011

Education, up to the undergraduate level, increased a person's chances of him or her voting Republican. The contradiction is explained through moderate voters who tend to become more conservative as they become more economically prosperous.5 At the post-graduate level, liberals outnumber conservatives and a majority commonly votes Democratic.91011

Religion and marital status

Ideological groups are distinguished by certain societal attributes, such as religion, marital status, education, and gun ownership, yet are relatively similar in terms of race and ethnicity. Generally liberals were more likely to be secular, single and in possession of a college degree, while less likely to own a gun.citation needed Conservatives, most of whom adhere to social as well as fiscal conservatism, tended to be far more religious and more likely to be married and own firearms.citation needed

The majority of Social Conservatives and Pro-Government Conservatives attended church services once a week.citation needed Weekly churchgoers were also in the plurality among the general population and all ideological demographics, except liberals.citation needed Of liberals, a plurality, 43% attended church services "seldom or never," compared to 25% of respondents overall.citation needed Conservatives were also more likely to be married than Liberals or the Democratic voter base in general. The vast majority, 77% of Enterprisers were married compared to 44% of Liberals.citation needed

Disadvantaged and Conservative Democrats had the highest union membership rates, 23% and 18%, compared to an overall 14%, respectively, as well as the highest percentage of minorities (Disadvantaged Democrats 55% Black, Hispanic, and Other; Conservative Democrats 46% Black, Hispanic, and Other).citation neededIn terms of gun ownership, the majority of Enterprisers and Social Conservatives had a gun at home, compared to just 23% of Liberals.citation needed Liberals were the most educated group with 49% being college graduates compared to an average of 26.5% among all the conservative groups (including the Democratic voting Conservative Democrats).citation needed Disadvantaged Democrats were the least educated with only 13% having a college degree.citation needed

Race

In terms of race, conservatives and liberals were fairly similar with more than 80% identifying as white and having been born in the United States. However, Republican voting conservatives like Enterprisers, Social Conservatives, and Pro-Government Conservatives had a higher white percentage than liberals, especially Enterprisers and Social Conservatives who were both 91% white compared to 83% of Liberals. Liberals were also the most likely of every group to be born outside of the United States with 20% of liberal respondents saying that they or their parents were born outside of the United States, while only around 12% of all conservative types answered "yes" to the same question.17

Demographic Total The right The middle The left "Bystanders"
Enterprisers Social Conservatives Pro-Government Conservatives Upbeats Disaffecteds Conservative Democrats Disadvantaged Democrats Liberals
All respondents 100% 11% 12% 8% 12% 9% 13% 8% 18% 8%
Educational attainment
High School dropout 12% 3% 7% 16% 4% 18% 14% 23% 2% 24%
High School 37% 26% 39% 43% 25% 52% 44% 44% 23% 49%
Some college 24% 25% 26% 26% 33% 18% 26% 20% 26% 14%
College graduate 27% 46% 28% 15% 37% 11% 16% 13% 49% 13%
Household income
$20,000 or less 19% 7% 11% 32% 10% 27% 20% 32% 12% 27%
$20,000 to $30,000 16% 6% 15% 17% 8% 17% 22% 20% 12% 26%
$30,000 to $50,000 25% 25% 27% 30% 23% 27% 29% 26% 20% 24%
$50,000 to $75,000 16% 21% 17% 11% 20% 16% 14% 14% 15% 15%
$75,000 or higher 24% 41% 30% 10% 39% 13% 15% 8% 41% 8%
Secular?
Secular 8% 6% 3% 4% 5% 9% 1% 5% 22% 12%
Party lean
Democratic 46% 1% 1% 3% 14% 10% 98% 99% 92% 38%
Republican 45% 98% 97% 86% 73% 60% 0% 0% 2% 39%
Independent 9% 1% 2% 11% 13% 30% 2% 1% 6% 23%

SOURCE: Pew Research Center, 200517

See also

Democratic Party:

Republican Party:

References

  1. ^ "Political Compass. (8 July 2007). The Political Compass.". Retrieved 2007-07-13. 
  2. ^ a b http://www.gallup.com/poll/141032/2010-Conservatives-Outnumber-Moderates-Liberals.aspx
  3. ^ Pew Research Center for the People & the Press, "Voters Rate the Parties' Ideologies" Pew press release July 16, 2010, online
  4. ^ http://www.gallup.com/poll/166787/liberal-self-identification-edges-new-high-2013.aspx
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Pew Research Institute. (May 10, 2005). Beyond Red vs. Blue Republicans Divided About Role of Government – Democrats by Social and Personal Values.". Retrieved 2007-07-13. 
  6. ^ a b Starr, P. (2007). War and Liberalism. The New Republic, 236, 21–24.
  7. ^ a b c d "Ipos Public affairs. (6 June 2007). Associate Press Poll conducted by Ipos Public Affairs: Party Affiliation and Ideology." (PDF). Retrieved 2007-07-13. 
  8. ^ "Ridenour, A. (20 January 2004). Political Philosophy: Are Americans More Liberal Than They Realize? National Center for Public Policy Research.". Retrieved 2007-06-23. 
  9. ^ a b c d e "CNN. (2000). Exit Poll.". Archived from the original on 2007-06-30. Retrieved 2007-07-11. 
  10. ^ a b c d e "CNN. (2004). Exit Poll.". Retrieved 2007-07-11. 
  11. ^ a b c d e f "CNN. (2006). Exit Poll.". Retrieved 2007-07-11. 
  12. ^ a b "Judis, B. J. (11 July 2003). The trouble with Howard Dean. Salon.com.". Retrieved 2007-07-19. 
  13. ^ "Boaz, D. & Kirby, D. (18 October 2006). Policy Analysis: The Libertarian Vote. Cato Institute." (PDF). Retrieved 2007-07-24. 
  14. ^ "Wilson, B. (January 1998). The Conservative Military. Spectacle. accessdate=2007-07-11". 
  15. ^ "Lobe, J. (1 January 2004). Military More Republican, Conservative Than Public – Poll. LewRockwell.com.". Retrieved 2007-07-11. 
  16. ^ Brooks, Rosa (2007-01-05). "Weaning the Military from the GOP". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2007-07-12.  Another 2004 poll found that roughly 66% of military officers identified as Republicans compared to 32% among the general public."Lobe, J. (1 January 2004). Military More Republican, Conservative Than Public – Poll. LewRockwell.com.". Retrieved 2007-07-11. 
  17. ^ a b c d "Pew Research Center, Spreadsheet, 2005 poll". Retrieved 2007-07-13. 
  18. ^ Martin Peretz (2006-06-23). "A Message From TNRS Lieberman-Loving NeoCon Owner". Retrieved 2006-10-29. 
  19. ^ Dixit, Jay. "The Ideological Animal". Psychology Today. Retrieved 2010-06-17. 
  20. ^ "Kurtz, H. (29 March 2005). College Faculties A Most Liberal Lot, Study Finds. The Washington Post.". 2005-03-29. Retrieved 2007-07-02. 
  21. ^ "Klein, D. B. & Stern, C. (6 December 2004) Economists' policy views and voting. Public Choice Journal.". Retrieved 2007-07-02. 
  22. ^ "Stannard, M. B. (29 April 2007). Montgomery McFate's Mission Can one anthropologist possibly steer the course in Iraq?. San Francisco Chronicle.". The San Francisco Chronicle. 2007-04-29. Retrieved 2007-07-11. 
  23. ^ Rosenberg, S. & Leyden, P. (November – December 2007). The 50-Year Strategy: Beyond '08: Can progressives play for keeps? (pp. 63–66) Mother Jones.
  24. ^ "Pew Research Institute. (May 10, 2005). Demographics, Lifestyle and News Consumption – Matters of Faith.". Retrieved 2007-09-01. 
  25. ^ "Pew Research Institute. (May 10, 2005). Demographics, Lifestyle and News Consumption – Personal Optimism a Dividing Line.". Retrieved 2007-09-01. 
  26. ^ Ehrenreich, Barbara (1989). Fear of Falling, The Inner Life of the Middle Class. New York, NY: Harper Collins. 0-06-0973331. 
  27. ^ Gilbert, Dennis (1998). The American Class Structure. New York: Wadsworth Publishing. 0-534-50520-1. 
  28. ^ Zweig, Michael (2004). What's Class Got To Do With It, American Society in the Twenty-First Century. New York, NY: Cornell University Press. 0-8014-8899-0. 

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