Ozark English is a dialect of American English, spoken in the Ozark Mountain region of northern Arkansas and southern Missouri, that is more closely related to Appalachian English than to the North Midland and South Midland dialects of the surrounding regions.1 Its distinctive features include phonological idiosyncrasies (many of which it shares with Appalachian English);2 certain syntactic patterns, such as the use of for to, rather than to, before infinitives in some constructions;3 and a number of lexical peculiarities.4
- Linda L. Blanton, "Southern Appalachia: Social Considerations of Speech", in J. L. Dillard, Toward a Social History of American English (Berlin: Mouton, 1985), p. 83
- A. Lynn Williams, Speech Disorders: Resource Guide for Preschool Children (Clifton Park: Thomson/Delmar, 2003), p. 43
- Alison Henry, Belfast English and Standard English: Dialect Variation and Parameter Setting (New York: Oxford UP, 1995), p. 81
- Vance Randolph, "More Words from the Ozarks", Dialect Notes 5.10 (1927), p. 472
- Donna Christian, Walt Wolfram, and Nanjo Dube (1988). Variation and Change in Geographically Isolated Communities: Appalachian English and Ozark English. Tuscaloosa, AL: American Dialect Society. ISBN 0-8173-0419-3.
- Bethany K. Dumas (1976). "The Morphology of Newton County, Arkansas: An Exercise in Studying Ozark Dialect". Mid–South Folklore 3: 115–125.
- Bethany K. Dumas (1999). "Southern Mountain English: The Language of the Ozarks and Southern Appalachia". In R. S. Wheeler, ed. The Workings of Language: From Prescriptions to Perspectives. Westport, CT: Praeger. pp. 67–79. ISBN 0-275-96246-6.
- Suzette H. Elgin (1981). "The Ozark WHICH/THAT". The Lonesome Node 1 (2): 2–7.
- Suzette H. Elgin (1983). "On Cows and the Ozark English Auxiliary". The Lonesome Node 3 (2): 9–16.
- Rebecca Haden (1993). "Notes on the For–To Complement in Ozark English". Ozark English Quarterly 1: 7–8.
- "Appalachian English and Ozark English" in the Encyclopedia of Appalachia
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