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Lohar (Lohara) is an ethnic sub-caste found among Hindus, Sikhs and Muslims in Northern India, Northern Pakistan and Nepal.12 In India the Lohars are also known as Vishwakarma, Sharma, Lohana or Panchals.3 Muslim Lohar in North India are known as Saifi. The Pakistani city of Lahore was once called Loharpur, the city of the Lohar dynasty.
Writers of the Raj period often used the term Lohar as a synonym for blacksmith, although there are other traditional smithing communities, such as the Ramgarhia and Sikligars, and numerous non-traditional communities, including the Yadavs, Kayasthas, Rajputs and even Brahmins.4
Lohar of Uttar Pradesh
The Lohar are one of the most widespread communities in Uttar Pradesh. They are divided along religious lines, with the Hindu Lohar are known as Vishvakarmas, and Muslim Lohars are known as Saifis. The Lohar are further divided into a number of exogamous groupings, the main ones being the Kanaujiya, Purbia, Bahai, Moulia and Magajia. Most Lohar are still engaged in their traditional occupation of metal fabrication, but most the Lohar of western Uttar Pradesh are cultivators. The assimilated Lohar speak Hindi and its various dialects such as Awadhi.6 But others speak Ho7 and some speak Western Pahari.
- ^ Bhattachan included the Lohar among the Madhesi Dalit in his report on minorities in Nepal, listing some 82,000. Bhattachan, Krishna B. (2008), Indigenous Peoples & Minorities of Nepal, Nepal Federation of Indigenous Nationalities (NEFIN), p. 49, archived from the original on 12 March 2013
- ^ In Annex I, Bhattarai lists the Lohar as iron-workers under the Madhesi as 0.36% of the Nepalese population. Bhattarai, Hari Prasad (2004). "Cultural Diversity and Pluralism in Nepal: Emerging Issues and the Search for a New Paradigm". Contributions to Nepalese Studies 31 (2): 293–340, page 339. Archived from the original on 15 May 2011.
- ^ a b Kumar Suresh Singh; Anthropological Survey of India (1998). India's communities 5. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-563354-2. Retrieved 10 May 2011.
- ^ Judge, Paramjit S.; Bal, Gurpreet (1996). Strategies of social change in India. M.D. Publications. p. 54. ISBN 978-81-7533-006-1. Retrieved 21 March 2012.
- ^ India's communities, Volume 6-page-2017
- ^ People of India Uttar Pradesh Volume XLII Part Two edited by A Hasan & J C Das pages 902 to 906 Manohar Publications
- ^ "Ho". Ethnologue. Retrieved 2 May 2013.
- Dr Mahendra Singh Arya, Dharmpal Singh Dudee, Kishan Singh Faujdar & Vijendra Singh Narwar: Ādhunik Jat Itihasa (The modern history of Jats), Agra 1998, p. 280