List of private spaceflight companies

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This page is a list of non-governmental entities that currently offer – or are planning to offer – equipment and services geared towards spaceflight, both robotic and human spaceflight.

List of abbreviations used in this article

LEO: Low Earth orbit
GTO: Geostationary transfer orbit
VTOL: Vertical take-off and landing
SSTO: Single-stage-to-orbit
TSTO: Two-stage-to-orbit
SSTSO: Single-stage-to-sub-orbit

Manufacturers of space vehicles

Crew and cargo transport vehicles

Company name Craft name Craft type Launcher
Craft status Notes
Romania ARCA Haas 2b capsule Haas 2b rocket sub-orbit 2 development 1
Romania ARCA Super Haas capsule Super Haas rocket orbit 2 development 2
United States Armadillo Aerospace Black Armadillo rocket self-powered self-powered sub-orbit 1-3 testing 3
United States Bigelow Aerospace and Boeing CST-100 capsule Atlas V4 rocket LEO 7 testing First use is planned for 20155
United States Bigelow Aerospace and Lockheed Martin Orion Lite capsule Atlas 5 CTS or Falcon 9 rocket LEO 6-7 cancelled 6
United States Blue Origin New Shepard rocket self-powered (SSTSO) self-powered (SSTSO) sub-orbit 3 testing 7
Denmark Copenhagen Suborbitals Tycho Brahe cylinder HEAT-1X rocket sub-orbit 1 cancelled 8
Denmark Copenhagen Suborbitals Tycho Deep Space I and II capsule - rocket sub-orbit 1 development 8
European UnionEADS Astrium unnamed craft spaceplane self-powered (SSTSO) self-powered (SSTSO) sub-orbit 4 development 9
Isle of ManExcalibur Almaz TKS derivative capsule multiple rocket LEO 3 development 1011
United States Interorbital Systems Solaris X capsule self-powered (SSTSO) self-powered (SSTSO) sub-orbit 6 cancelled 12
United States Interorbital Systems Crew Module capsule Neptune TSAAHTO rocket lunar orbit 6 development 13
Japan Japanese Rocket Society Kankoh-maru rocket self-powered (SSTO) self-powered (SSTO) LEO 50 proposed Sponsors needed14
United StatesOrbital Sciences Corp. Cygnus capsule Antares (rocket) rocket LEO - operational (2/2) 2 spacecraft have entered orbit and returned to earth15
United StatesOrbital Sciences Corp. Prometheus spaceplane Atlas V rocket LEO 4 development 16
United StatesPlanetSpace Canadian Arrow rocket self-powered self-powered sub-orbit 3 testing
United StatesPlanetSpace Silver Dart spaceplane Canadian Arrow rocket LEO 8 development 17
United Kingdom Reaction Engines Ltd. HOTOL spaceplane self-powered (SSTO) self-powered (SSTO) LEO - cancelled 18full citation needed
United Kingdom Reaction Engines Ltd. HOTOL 2 spaceplane An 225 airplane LEO - proposed 19
United Kingdom Reaction Engines Ltd. Skylon spaceplane self-powered (SSTO) self-powered (SSTO) LEO 5-20 development 19
Rocketplane Kistler K-1 rocket self-powered (TSTO) self-powered (TSTO) LEO - cancelled 20full citation needed
Rocketplane Kistler Rocketplane XP spaceplane self-powered (SSTSO) self-powered (SSTSO) sub-orbit 6 cancelled 21full citation needed
Rotary Rocket Roton rocket self-powered (SSTO) self-powered (SSTO) LEO 2 cancelled 22
Scaled Composites SpaceShipOne spaceplane WhiteKnightOne airplane sub-orbit 2 retired (3/3) 23
United KingdomUnited StatesScaled Composites and Virgin Galactic
(The Spaceship Company)
SpaceShipTwo spaceplane WhiteKnightTwo airplane sub-orbit 8 testing First use planned for 201424
United KingdomUnited StatesScaled Composites and Virgin Galactic
(The Spaceship Company)
SpaceShipThree spaceplane WhiteKnightTwo airplane LEO (or suborbital passenger-delivery)  ? proposed 25
Space Adventures and Myasishchev Design Bureau Explorer (Cosmopolis XXI, C-21) spaceplane M-55X airplane sub-orbit 5 development 26
Space Transport Corp. Rubicon I rocket self-powered (SSTSO) self-powered (SSTSO) sub-orbit 3 cancelled 27
SpaceDev Dream Chaser spaceplane Atlas V rocket LEO 7 testing 28
United States SpaceX Dragon (cargo) capsule Falcon 9 rocket LEO 0 operational (5/5) Five spacecraft have entered orbit and returned to earth.29
United States SpaceX Dragon (V2) capsule Falcon 9 rocket LEO 7 development unveiled 29 May 2014
United Kingdom Starchaser Industries NOVA capsule Starchaser 4 rocket sub-orbit - testing 30
United Kingdom Starchaser Industries Thunderstar capsule Starchaser 5 rocket sub-orbit 3 development 31
United Kingdom Starchaser Industries Thunderbird capsule Starchaser 5 rocket sub-orbit 6 development 31
Truax Engineering, Inc. X-3 Volksrocket capsule Private Enterprise rocket sub-orbit 1 cancelledcitation needed
t/Space CXV capsule QuickReach rocket LEO and lunar orbit 6 development 32
Venturer Aerospace S-550 capsule Falcon 9 rocket LEO 6 cancelled 33
XCOR Xerus spaceplane self-powered (SSTSO) self-powered (SSTSO) sub-orbit 2 cancelled 34
XCOR Lynx spaceplane self-powered (SSTSO) self-powered (SSTSO) sub-orbit 1 development First test flight now planned for winter 2014-2015.353637

Space stations

Private Company name Space Craft name Space Craft type Internal
Craft status Ref
Bigelow Aerospace Genesis I Inflatable module 11.5 m3 (406 cu ft)38 unmanned currently in LEO 39
Bigelow Aerospace Genesis II Inflatable module 11.5 m3 (406 cu ft)40 unmanned currently in LEO 41
Bigelow Aerospace Galaxy Inflatable module 16.7 m3 (590 cu ft)42 unmanned cancelled 43
Bigelow Aerospace Sundancer Inflatable module 180 m3 (6,357 cu ft) 3 cancelled 44
Bigelow Aerospace BA 330 Inflatable module 330 m3 (11,654 cu ft) 6 testing 45
Bigelow Aerospace BA 2100 Inflatable module 2,100 m3 (74,161 cu ft) 16 proposed
Excalibur Almaz Almaz derivative Rigid module  ? 3 development 1011
Galactic Suite Ltd. Galactic Suite Rigid module  ? 6 proposed 46
Global Space Organization GSO Lunar Station One 3D Printed  ? 10 proposed 47
Orbital Technologies/RSC Energia Orbital Technologies Commercial Space Station Rigid Module The first module CSS will be volume about 20 m³. 7 development 48

Launch vehicles

Further information: List of orbital launch systems
Company name Launcher
No. of
AirLaunch LLC QuickReach rocket 2 LEO development  ? 49
ARCA Haas 2b small rocket 1 suborbit development  ? 1
ARCA Super Haas medium rocket 2 LEO development  ? 2
Beal Aerospace BA-2 medium rocket 3 GTO cancelled  ? 50
Canadian Arrow Canadian Arrow rocket 2 LEO testing  ? citation needed
DIRECT Leviathan-140 rocket 2 GTO development  ? 51
Galaxy Express GX medium rocket 2 SSO cancelled  ? 52
Interorbital Systems Sea Star TSAAHTO light rocket LEO development  ? 53
Interorbital Systems Neptune 30 light rocket multi LEO proposed  ? 13
Interorbital Systems Neptune 1000 medium rocket multi lunar orbit proposed  ? 13
Interorbital Systems Neptune TSAAHTO heavy rocket lunar orbit proposed  ? 13
Lockheed Martin VentureStar medium rocket 1 LEO cancelled  ? 54
Orbital Sciences Corp. Minotaur-C, formerly Taurus light rocket 4 LEO operational (6/9) 1994 555657
Orbital Sciences Corp. Antares medium rocket 3 LEO operational (4/5) 2013 58
Orbital Transport & Raketen AG OTRAG medium rocket variable LEO retired 1977 citation needed
Rocket Lab ATEA-1 light rocket 2 suborbit operational (1/1) 2009 5960
Scorpius Space Launch Company
(Spin-off of Microcosm)
SR-M light rocket 1 suborbit operational  ? 61
Scorpius Space Launch Company
(Spin-off of Microcosm)
Sprite light rocket - - testing  ? 61
Scorpius Space Launch Company
(Spin-off of Microcosm)
Liberty light rocket - - development  ? 61
Scorpius Space Launch Company
(Spin-off of Microcosm)
Exodus medium rocket - - development  ? 61
Scorpius Space Launch Company
(Spin-off of Microcosm)
Space Freighter medium rocket - - proposed  ? 61
Space Services Inc. of America Percheron light rocket 1 suborbit cancelled  ? 62
Space Services Inc. of America Conestoga 1620 medium rocket 4 LEO cancelled  ? 62
Space Transport Corp. Spartan light rocket 3 suborbit cancelled  ?
SpaceX Falcon 1 light rocket 2 LEO retired (2/5) 2008 63
SpaceX Falcon 1e light rocket 2 LEO proposed  ? 63
SpaceX Falcon 5 medium rocket 2 GTO cancelled  ? 64
SpaceX Falcon 9 medium rocket 2 GTO operational (8/9) 2010 65
SpaceX Falcon Heavy heavy rocket 2+boosters lunar orbit development 2015 (planned) 65
Firefly Space Systems Firefly Alpha light rocket 2 LEO development  ? 66
Texas Spacelines Inc / TSI. Sol Cazador light rocket 7 HEO/lunar/escape development  ? 67
Ventions VR-1 Nanosat Launch Vehicle (NLV) development 2012 68
Mishaal Aerospace M-SV Suborbital Vehicle 1 Suborbital development 2014 69
Mishaal Aerospace M-OV Small Sat (<=500 kg) Orbital Vehicle 1+2-10 Boosters LEO development 2016 69

Landers, rovers and probes

Company name Craft name Craft type Craft status Ref
Armadillo Aerospace unnamed craft rocket module testing 70
BlastOff! Corporation Lunar 1 rover cancelled 71
Odyssey Moon MoonOne (M-1) rover development 72
Astrobotic Technology Artemis Lander lander development 73
Astrobotic Technology Red Rover rover development 74
Astrobotic Technology Griffin lunar lander negotiating 75
Masten Space Systems XEUS lunar lander negotiating 75
Moon Express MX-1 family lunar lander negotiating 75
Team Italia rover development 76
Mars One unnamed lander development 77
Team FREDNET development 78
TransOrbital TrailBlazer lunar orbiter cancelled 79
ARCASPACE ELE lunar orbiter development 80
STELLAR development 81
Omega Envoy development 82
Independence-X development 83
SYNERGY MOON development 84
Euroluna ROMIT development 85
Puli Space Technologies Puli rover fundraising 86
Golden Spike Company Moon lander proposed 87

Research craft and tech demonstrators

Further information: List of sounding rockets
Company name Craft name Craft purpose Craft status Ref
ARCA Demonstrator 2b demonstrate reusable monopropellant engine retired
Armadillo Aerospace Quad demonstrate VTOL operational
Blue Origin Goddard demonstrate VTOL operational
Interorbital Systems Neutrino systems testing operational
Interorbital Systems Tachyon systems testing operational 88
Lockheed Martin X-33 demonstrate SSTO cancelled
Masten Space Systems XA-0.1 demonstrate VTOL retired
Masten Space Systems XA-0.1B Lunar Lander Challenge Level 1 operational
Masten Space Systems XA-0.1E Lunar Lander Challenge Level 2, commercial precursor flights operational
Masten Space Systems XA-0.1E2 commercial flights development
McDonnell Douglas DC-X demonstrate VTOL retired (11 test flights)
Rotary Rocket Roton ATV demonstrate VTOL retired (3 test flights)
Space Services Inc. Conestoga I systems testing retired (1 test) 62
SpaceX Grasshopper demonstrate VTOL retired (8 tests) 89
SpaceX F9R Dev1 refine VTOL (low altitude) destroyed (5 flights) 90
SpaceX F9R Dev2 refine VTOL (high altitude) development
Swedish Space Corp. Maxus payload to 700 km operational
Swedish Space Corp. Maser payload to 300 km operational
UP Aerospace SpaceLoft XL payload to 140 km operational 91

Space mining

Company name Body to be mined Mining craft Mining status Ref
Infinite Space Dynamics Near-Earth Asteroids, Moon, Asteroid Belt Development Development
Shackleton Energy Company Moon Architecture Architecture
Moon Express Moon Unknown Unknown
Planetary Resources Near-Earth asteroids Arkyd Series 100, 200, 300 development 92
Deep Space Industries Near-Earth asteroids press conference
Global Space Organization Moon, Near-Earth asteroids Robotic Systems proposed 93
Stott Space Inc. Near-Earth asteroids fundraising 94

Space manufacturing

Company name Products Manufacturing craft status Ref
Infinite Space Dynamics Propellant, Space Infrastructure, Propellant depot, communications platforms, space solar power satellites
Shackleton Energy Company propellant, space infrastructure, Propellant depot
Deep Space Industries propellant, communications platforms, space solar power satellites

Space Colonization

Company name Colony location Status Ref
Mars One Mars Fundraising and assessing astronaut applications 95

Propulsion manufacturers

Company name Engine Engine type Applications Ref
Ad Astra Rocket Company VASIMR magnetoplasma may be used for future Mars missions96
AE Aerospace HIRE9798 hybrid ion rocket
AE Aerospace Scearamjet99full citation needed Electric Scramjet
American Rocket Company hybrid rocket The company became insolvent and was shut down in May 1996. Its lineage is part of SpaceShipOne.
ARCA Executor (rocket engine) LOX/RP-1 IAR 111, Haas 2, Haas 2b, Super Haas
CU Aerospace PUC, CHIPS, PPT-11 MCD100 / Resistojet / PPT101 Small satellite / CubeSat missions102
Reaction Engines Ltd. SABRE precooled air-breathing rocket planned to be used in Skylon 103
Virgin Galactic RocketMotorTwo hybrid rocket SpaceShipTwo
SpaceDev hybrid rocket SpaceShipOnecitation needed
SpaceX Kestrel (rocket engine) LOX/RP-1 Falcon 1 second stage
SpaceX Merlin (rocket engine) LOX/RP-1 Falcon 1,104 Falcon 9,105 Falcon 9 Heavy first stagecitation needed
SpaceX Merlin Vacuum LOX/RP-1 Falcon 9, Falcon 9 Heavy second stagecitation needed
SpaceX Raptor (rocket engine) LOX/Liquid methane "a highly reusable methane staged-combustion engine that will power the next generation of SpaceX launch vehicles designed for the exploration and colonization of Mars."106

Satellite launchers

Spaceliner companies

Company name Contracts for Craft utilised Status
Benson Space Company SpaceDev Dream Chaser waiting for hardwarecitation needed
MirCorp none Soyuz TM, Progress M1 and Mir defunct, Mir deorbited
Space Adventures none Soyuz and the ISS active (7 tourists sent)
RocketShip Tours XCOR Lynx rocketplane waiting for hardware
Virgin Galactic Scaled Composites SpaceShipTwo waiting for hardware

Spacecraft component developers and manufacturers

See also


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  2. ^ a b Super haas Specifications ARCA
  3. ^ Armadillo Aerospace Armadillo Aerospace
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  5. ^ Boeing: Boeing CST-100 Spacecraft to Provide Commercial Crew Transportation Services
  6. ^ Klamper, Amy (2009-08-14). "Company pitches 'lite' spaceship to NASA : Stripped down version of NASA's future spaceship could be ready 2013". Retrieved 2014-05-15. 
  7. ^ Blue's Rocket Clues (MSNBC's Cosmic Log, June 24, 2006)
  8. ^ a b Copenhagen Suborbitals Copenhagen Suborbitals
  9. ^ Spaceplane – Rocketing into the future EADS-Astrium
  10. ^ a b Spaceflight Now | Breaking News | Beating swords into plough shares with Soviet Almaz
  11. ^ a b Excalibur Almaz to Pioneer Private Orbital Manned Space Flight In cooperation with NPOM of Russia | OnOrbit
  12. ^ Space racers set sights on orbital frontier MSNBC
  13. ^ a b c d Interorbital Systems Neptune Interorbital Systems
  14. ^ 準軌道宇宙旅行 宇宙丸プロジェクト Kankoh-maru
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  29. ^ Completed Missions - SpaceX Launch Manifest
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  31. ^ a b Industries Starchaser Industries
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  65. ^ a b Space Exploration Technologies Corporation - Falcon 9
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  107. ^ Biggs, John (2013-08-14). "Made In Space, Makers Of The Only 3D Printer In Orbit, Answer Some Pressing Questions About Manufacturing And Yoda". TechCrunch. Retrieved 2013-09-25. 

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