||This article needs additional citations for verification. (November 2009)|
A language game (also called secret language or ludling or argot) is a system of manipulating spoken words to render them incomprehensible to the untrained ear. Language games are used primarily by groups attempting to conceal their conversations from others. Some common examples are Pig Latin, which is used all over the globe;1 the Gibberish family, prevalent in the United States and Sweden; and Verlan, spoken in France.
A common difficulty with language games is that they are usually passed down orally. While written translations can be made, they are often imperfect, and thus spelling can vary widely. Some factions argue that words in these spoken tongues should simply be written the way they are pronounced, while others insist that the purity of language demands that the transformation remain visible when the words are imparted to paper.
Language games are primarily used by children, to disguise their speech from others. Some language games, such as Pig Latin, are so widely known that privacy is nearly impossible, as most people at least know how it works, even if they can't speak it themselves. Although language games are not usually used in everyday conversation, some words from language games have made their way into normal speech, such as ilchay in English (from Pig Latin), and loufoque in French (from Louchébem).citation needed
One way in which language games could be organized is by language, for example, Pig Latin, Ubbi Dubbi, and Tutnese could all be in the "English" category, and Jeringonza could be in the "Spanish" category.
An alternate method of classifying language games is by their function. For example, Ubbi Dubbi, Bicycle, and Allspråket all work by inserting a code syllable before the vowel in each syllable. Therefore, these could be classified in the Gibberish family. Also, Double Talk, Língua do Pê, Jeringonza, and B-Sprache all work by adding a consonant after the vowel in each syllable, and then repeating the vowel. Thus, these could be classified in the Double Talk family. Another common type of language game is the spoonerism, in which the onsets of two words are exchanged. Using a standard word for each transformation gives another type, for example, the Finnish "kontinkieli", where kontti is added after each word, and spoonerism applied (kondäntti koonerismspontti koppliedäntti).
|Host Language||Name||Basic Rules||Notes|
|Afrikaans||Emmer-taal||Insert "mer" at the end of each word. Longer words that consists of joined words are often broken into two or more words with the "mer" sound inserted in the middle and at the end.citation needed||Example.
Daar onder in die vlei stap 'n mannetjie → Damer ommer immer diemer vleimer stammer immer mammer-tjiemmer.
|Afrikaans||P-taal||Insert "Əp" before the first vowel of each syllable. Syllables with stacked consonants may follow additional rules.citation needed||Writing generally depicts the sounds instead the original letters.
Daar onder in die vlei stap 'n mannetjie → Depaar epondeper epen depie vlepei stepap epe mepannepekepie.
|Albanian||"Të folurit me f" (Speaking with F)||All vowels are doubled, and "f" is placed between them.citation needed||Spoken mostly by kids and teenagers between their friends. Dialectal patterns are observed in some areas. Example: "Ç'do bëjmë tani? (What are we going to do now? in the Tosk dialect)" becomes "Çdofo bëfëjmëfë tafanifi?".|
|Amharic||Yäwof q'uanq'ua ('bird language') and Yägra quanqua ('language of the left')||Yäwof q'uanq'ua: Duplicate each syllable, replacing the initial consonant with "z" in the duplicate.;2 for Yägra quanqua the last syllable moves to the front of the word.3||Yäwof q'uanq'ua: säbbärä 'he broke' becomes säzäbbäzäräzä; Yägra quanqua: mätt'a 'he came' -> t'ämma|
|Bengali||Insert "faado" at the end of each syllable. Additional rules may apply to note the end of a word.citation needed||Example: the word 'Aami" (I or me) would be stated as Aa-faado-Mi-faado spoken very fast.|
|Bulgarian||Pileshki||Insert "pi" before each syllable. Though simple, when spoken quickly words become nearly incomprehensible. Often called "chicken language" because it mimics the sounds fledgelings make. Pileshko means "chicken" in Bulgarian.citation needed|
|Burmese||Ban Zaga/Thor Zagar||Thor Zagar: Put Thor at the end of each word and change the consonant of the first and last word.citation needed||Example: achit → achor thit|
|Cantonese||S-language||Repeat each syllable changing the initial consonant to /s/citation needed||Used by children and teenagers to avoid understanding by adults.|
|Cebuano||Kinabayo ('horse language')||Mimics the sound of a horse's gallop. For every occurrence of a vowel, the following rule is followed: (the vowel)+'g'+(the vowel)+'d'+(the vowel).citation needed||"Ani-a ang salapi" becomes "Agadanigidi-agada agadang sagadalagadapigidi"|
|Chinese||Huizongyu or Qiekou or Fanqie||Split one syllable into two: the first syllable represents the onset of the original word, the second represents the finalcitation needed||Derives from the fanqie system (a traditional way of indicating the pronunciation of a Chinese character through using two other characters). Example: ni hao → ningni heng hao|
|Danish||"P-language"||All vowels are doubled, and a 'p' inserted between the doubled vowels.citation needed||Rules are identical to Swedish P-language|
|Danish||"Røversprog"||All consonants are doubled, and an 'o' inserted between the doubled consonants.citation needed||Rules are identical to Icelandic Goggamál|
|Dutch||Reversed elements and words.citation needed||A mercantile code|
|Dutch||P-taal||Insert "Əp" before the first vowel of each syllable. Syllables with stacked consonants may follow additional rules.citation needed||Writing generally depicts the sounds instead the original letters.
Daar op straat staat een mannetje → Depaar epop epin depie strepaat stepaat epen mepannepetjepe.
|Dutch||Okki-taal||Add -okki to any consonant, and replace vowels with a number corresponding to the order of vowels in the alphabet (e.g. a → 1, e → 2, etc.)
Ex. example → 2 xokki 1 mokki pokki lokki 2.citation needed
|Popular children's game.|
|Dutch||Panovese Kal||Mixing characters in a particular way.citation needed||Used in Kortessen, Limburg, ca. 1900.
Ex. "Onze vader die in de hemelen zijt" → "Onze zeder die in de vamelen hijt".
|English (etc.)||Pig Latin||Move the onset of the first syllable to the end of each word, and add "ay" (/eɪ/).citation needed||When a word starts with a vowel (there is no onset), you simply add "ay", "way", "yay", or "hay" (depending on the variant) at the end.|
|English (etc.)||Aigy Paigy (or Haigy Paigy, etc.)||Insert "aig" (/ˈeɪɡ/) before the rime of each syllable.citation needed||E.g. "hello" becomes "haigellaigo"|
|English (etc.)||Ubbi Dubbi (or Obby Dobby)||Insert "ob" (/ˈɒb/) or "ub" (/ˈʌb/) before the rime of each syllable.citation needed||Also called Pig Greek; part of the Gibberish family|
|English (etc.)||Jaredian||Reverse the word, and replace the letters with letters and combinations of letters from Cyrillic.citation needed||E.g. "hello" becomes "оллэх" or "olleh"|
|English||Cockney rhyming slang||Canonical rhyming word pairs; speakers often drop the second word of common pairs.citation needed||wife → trouble [and strife]; stairs → apples [and pears]|
|English||Gibberish||Insert ("itherg" for words 1 to 3 letters, "itug" for words with 4 to 6 letters, and "idig" for words with 7+ letters) after the first consonant in each syllable.citation needed||Gibberish is also a family of related language games.|
|English||Inflationary English||Any time a number is present within a word, inflate its value by one.citation needed||"Anyone up for tennis?" becomes "Anytwo up five elevennis?" Originally part of a comedy sketch by Victor Borge.|
|English||-izzle||Insert "-izzle" after a word's last pre-vowel consonant while discarding the remaining letters.citation needed||Mizzlery Christmalizzles. (Merry Christmas)|
|English||Back slang||Formed by speaking words backwards; where necessary, anagrams may be employed to aid pronunciation.citation needed||Used by butchers in Australia to conceal details of shop talk from customers.|
|English||Spoonerism||Formed by swapping prominent sounds, usually the first letters, of consecutive words.citation needed||For example, "The pig is sick" becomes "The sig is pick", "she nicked my pose" becomes "she picked my nose", "light a fire" becomes "fight a liar".|
|English||Tutnese||Spell out words using a lexicon of names for consonants, and special rules for double letters.citation needed||How are you? - Hashowack arure yuckou?|
|Esperanto||Esperant'||Replaces the accusative with the preposition je, and the final -o of nouns with an apostrophe, all while keeping to the letter of official grammar if not actual usage.citation needed||"Oni ĉiam obeu la Fundamenton" becomes "Ĉiamu onia obe' je l' Fundament'"|
|Filipino / Tagalog||Binaliktad ('Inverted')||Exchange first and last syllable of any two-syllable word. Prefix last syllable onto first syllable and affix the first syllable after the second to last one in any word more than two syllables. Sometimes "s" is added to certain words for stylistic effect.citation needed||Ex: Hindi (No) becomes Dehins (e and i are allophones in Philippine languages). S added as stylistic feature.
Sigarilyo (taken from Spanish term Cigarillo) becomes Yosi (last and first syllable, middle syllables omitted). Katulong (Domestic helper) becomes Lóngkatuts (last syllable prefixed, other syllables moved along. t affixed as means of differentiating word from subsequent ones. s is added as stylistic feature. Also applicable to English words like Father and Mother, which become Erpats and Ermats.
|Finnish||Sananmuunnos||Spoonerism: swap first morae of wordscitation needed||Apply vowel harmony according to the initial syllable, repair "broken diphthongs" into permitted diphthongs|
|Finnish||Kontinkieli||Add word 'kontti' after each word and apply the same conversion as in sananmuunnos.5||Finnish counterpart of Pig Latin. This game is also called siansaksa ('Pig German'), which is a common expression for unintelligible gibberish.|
|Finnish||A-Kieli (A-language)||Replace every vowel with the vowel "a".citation needed||For example: "Mitä sä teet" becomes "Mata sa taat"|
|French||Louchébem||Move the initial consonant to the end and add '-em' (the suffix may be different in other varieties). Prepend 'l' ('L') to the base word.citation needed||Initially a Parisian/Lyonnaise butchers' cant. example: parler → larlepem|
|French||Verlan||Inverted syllables, often followed by truncation and other adjustments.||Examples: racaille ʀaˈkaj → caillera kajˈʀa; noir nwaʀ → renoi ʀəˈnwa; arabe aˈʀab → beur bœʀ; femme fam → meuf mœf|
|French||Jargon||Each vowel is replaced by "adaga" for A, "edegue" for E, "odogo" for O etc...citation needed|
|French||Javanais||Insertion of 'av' between consonants and vowels...citation needed|
|French||Loght el V||After every vowel, insertion of 'v', then the vowel.citation needed||An Egyptian "dialect" of Javanais, used by children and teenagers in French speaking schools in Cairo to avoid understanding by adults (specially by teachers).|
|German||'Lav' inserted after some vowel sounds.citation needed|
|German||B-Language||Each vowel or diphthong is reduplicated with a leading 'b'.citation needed||"Deutsche Sprache" → "Deubeutschebe Sprabachebe"|
|German||Löffelsprache (spoon language)||Each (spoken) vowel or diphthong is reduplicated with a leading 'lef', 'lew' or 'lev'.citation needed||"Hallo! Wie geht es dir?" → "Halewallolewo! Wielewie geleweht elewes dilewir?" Also possible with other languages: "Don't try to take me to New York!" → "Dolevon't trylevy tolevo tailevaik meleve tolevo Newlevew/Newlevoo Yolevork!"|
|Greek||Podana||Similar to the Spanish vesre.citation needed|
|Greek||Korakistika||Insert "k" and the vowel(s) of the original syllable after each syllablecitation needed||"Kalimera" → "Kaka liki meke raka"|
|Greek||Splantziana||The vowels of each word are place before the consonants.citation needed||Examples: στόμα → όσταμ ; άριστα → άϊραστ
Also used in Crete and Khania
|Hakka||Yuantang dialect||Each consonant and vowel is replaced by a Hakka word. Similar to fanqie spellings.citation needed||食饭 [sit fan] → 手习花散 [siu jit fa san] → [s(iu) (j)it f(a) (s)an]|
|Hebrew||Bet-Language||Identical to the German B-Language described above.citation needed||A song that won the Eurovision Song Contest was titled "A-Ba-Ni-Bi", based on this game.|
|Hungarian||Madárnyelv (birds' language)||Repeat each vowel and add 'v'citation needed||A variety of Gibberish (e.g. látok I see → lávátovok)|
|Hungarian||madárnyelv (birds' language)||Repeat each vowel and add 'rg'citation needed||(e.g. látok I see → lárgátorgok)|
|Hungarian||Kongarian||Add 'ko' before each syllablecitation needed||(e.g. látok I see → kolákotok)|
|Hungarian||Verzin||Syllable order is inverted.citation needed||Hungarian version of "verlan". (e.g. hátra backwards → rahát)|
|Indonesian||Bahasa G||Repeat each vowel and add G.citation needed||For example, the sentence "Belajar itu susah" becomes "begelagajagar igitugu sugusagah."|
|Indonesian||Bahasa Oke||Take only the first syllable of a word and replace the vowel with oke, oka or oki.citation needed||For example, "Buku" becomes "Bokeku", "Bokaku", or "Bokiku".|
|Italian||Latino Maccheronico||(see below: Romance languages, Macaronic Latin)citation needed|
|Italian||Alfabeto farfallino||Add 'Fx' after all syllables. x is the vowel in the corresponding syllable of the real word. ex.: ciao → ciafaofo (cia-FA-o-FO)citation needed||By applying the same 'rule' to the English word hello, we would obtain: he-FE-llo-FO|
|Icelandic||Goggamál||Consonants are changed to '<consonant> o <consonant>'. The 'o' is pronounced as in "hot".citation needed||Example: Icelandic: "Hvernig hefur þú það?" → "Hohvoverornonigog hohefofuror þoþú þoþaðoð?"
English: "How are you doing?" → "Hohowow arore yoyou dodoinongog?"
|Luo||Dhochi||In two syllable words, the syllables exchanging positions (a), in words of three syllables the second and third syllable exchange positions (b), and in one syllable words the first and last consonants exchange places (c).6||(a) ŋgɛgɛ -> gɛŋgɛ ‘tilapia’, (b) apwɔyɔ -> ayɔpwɔ ‘hare’, (c) čiɛk -> kiɛč ‘short’|
|Japanese||Babigo||Same as Double Talk or Spanish Idioma Fcitation needed||Example: put "b" plus vowel between syllables, "waba taba shibi waba" instead of "watashi-wa"|
|Korean||Gwisin Mal (귀신말; ghost language) / Dokkaebi Mal (도깨비말; Ogre language)||Put "s plus vowel" or "b plus vowel" between syllables.citation needed||Example 1: "Yasa! Neoseo! Jasal gasa (야사! 너서! 자살 가사)" instead of "Ya! Neo! Jal ga (야! 너! 잘 가; Hey! You! Good bye)"
Example 2: "Neoseo neoseomusu yeseppeoseo (너서 너서무수 예세뻐서)" instead of "Neo neomu yeppeo (너 너무 예뻐; you are so pretty)"
|Macedonian||Папагалски / Parrotish||Put "P" (п) after every vowel and repeat the vowel again.citation needed||Example: "Ова е Википедиjа" becomes "Оповапа епе Випикипипедипијапа"|
|Malay||Bahasa F||After each syllable, add 'f' and repeat last vowel.citation needed||"Kau nak pergi mana tu, Linda?" → "Kaufau nakfak perfergifi mafanafa tufu Linfindafa?"
Invented in the early 90s in Malaysian primary schools, it was mostly used by girls for gossiping. In 1998, the Malay romantic comedy film, Puteri Impian 2, pushed this language into the limelight of Malaysian popular culture.
|Malay||Ke-an||Add the circumfix "ke-...-an" to every word rendering them all nouns or noun-like. Words with affixes are stripped to their root words first.citation needed||Used for amusement rather than to encrypt, as results are easily understood and some changes drastically affect meaning.
"Kenapa kau selalu buat begitu? Kau tidak rasa malukah?" → "Kekenapaan kekauan keselaluan kebuatan kebegituan? Kekauan ketidakan kerasaan kemaluan?" ("malu": shame; "kemaluan": private parts)
|Malay||"Half lang"||The last syllable, excluding its first consonant, is dropped from a 2- or 3-syllable word; similarly, the last two are dropped from a 4- or 5-syllable word.citation needed
Variation: Add an 's' to each "halved" word as well.
|"susu besar" → "sus bes"; "gunung tinggi" → "gun ting"; "Kenapa kau selalu buat begitu?" → "Kenaps kau selals buat begits?"|
|Marathi||"Cha-Bhasha"||The first phoneme is replace by "cha" and the dropped sound is added after the word.
Variation: only nouns are encoded.citation needed
|"Dhungan dukhtay kaa?" → "Changandhu chakhtaydu chaak?";
Variation: "Dhungan dukhtay kaa?" → "Changandhu dukhtay kaa?"
|Norwegian||Røverspråk||Write each consonant twice with an "o" in the middle.citation needed||No: "Slik snakker man røverspråk på norsk." → Soslolikok sosnonakokkokeror momanon rorøvoverorsospoproråkok popå nonororsoskok.
En: "This is how you speak røverspråk in Norwegian." → Tothohisos isos hohowow you sospopeakok rorøvoverorsospoproråkok inon nonororwowegogianon.
|Oromo||Afan Sinbira ('bird language')||Two basic kinds: syllable insertion and final syllable fronting7||Syllable insertion, with either "s" or "g" and an echo vowel: dirre 'field' -> disirrese
Syllable fronting, with vowel lengthening: dirre 'field' -> reedi
|Persian||Zargari||Insert the sound [z] and a copy of the previous vowel after the vowel of the syllable: e.g., mazan < man 'I'; azaz < az 'from, of'; tozo < to 'thou' (singular 'you'), etc.citation needed|
|Portuguese||Língua do Pê||After each silable of every word in a phrase add "p" plus the preceding vowel (and a few consonants - like m, n, r, s...)citation needed||"Olá, tudo bem com você?" would rather be: "Opôlapa, tupudopô bempem compom vopocêpe?"|
|Portuguese||Língua do "i"||Each vowel is changed for an "i".citation needed||"Olá, tudo bem?" would rather be: "Ili, tidi bim?"|
|Romance languages||Macaronic Latin||Romance vocabulary is given Latinate endings.citation needed||"de Don Quijote de la Mancha" becomes "Domini Quijoti Manchegui"|
|Romanian||păsărească (birds' language)||After each syllable, add 'p' and repeat last vowelcitation needed||"maşină" becomes "mapaşipinăpă"|
|Romanian||greaca vacească (cow Greek)||After each word, add 'os'citation needed||"istorie" becomes "istorieos"|
|Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian||Šatrovački||Various styles of reordering syllables.citation needed||"zdravo" becomes "vozdra"|
|Serbian||Utrovački||Words are formed using: U + last part + ZA + first part + NJE.citation needed||"zdravo" becomes uvozazdranje|
|Serbian||Pig-Italian||"are" is appended to words or their roots.citation needed||"krava pase travu" becomes "kravare pasare travare"|
|Slovene||papajščina||After each vowel insert P followed by the same vowel; popular among young children.citation needed||"zdravo" becomes "zdrapavopo". Identical to Spanish jeringonza described below.|
|Somali||Af Jinni (Djinni language)||Add a consonant of your choice followed by the preceding vowel after each vowel in the word.citation needed||Example: Ahlan (meaning Hallo) has two syllables, so when used with B, it will be abahlaban (aBAh-laBAn).
En: enjoying → eBEnjoBOyiBIng, eben-jobo-yibing.
|Spanish||Idioma F||Each vowel is reduplicated with a separating 'F'.citation needed||A variant of Jeringonza|
|Spanish||Mexico City slang||Substitute a word for another that begins the same.citation needed; After each vowel, add syllable with an "F" and the vowel||Unas caguamas bien heladas → unas Kawasakis bien elásticas; Nofo sefe sifi safabefes hafablafar cofon lafa efe"|
|Spanish||Add a certain syllable before every original syllable.citation needed||"Perro" → "Tipetirro"|
|Spanish||Jeringonza||Each vowel is reduplicated with a separating 'p'.citation needed||"No sabe nada" → "Nopo sapabepe napadapa"|
|Spanish||Rosarigasino (a.k.a. Gasó)||Add gas after stressed vowel and repeat stressed vowel.citation needed||"Don Quijote de la Mancha" → "Don Quijogasote de la Magasancha"|
|Spanish||Vesre||Syllable order is inverted.citation needed||"Muchacho" → "Chochamu"
Used in Argentina, Uruguay, and Peru
|Swedish||Allspråket||The first consonant in each word ends with 'all'.citation needed||Sv: "Hur är läget?" → Hallur ärall lalläget?
En: "How are you doing?" → Hallow aralle yallou dalloing?
|Swedish||Fikonspråket||Each word is split in two halves (or each syllable). The parts are then put in reverse order to form a new word (sometimes written as two words) started with "fi" and ended with "kon" ("Fikon" is Swedish for fig).citation needed||Sv: "Hur är läget?" → Fir hukon fir äkon figet läkon?
En: "How are you doing?" → Fiw hokon fir(e) akon fio(u) ykon fiing dokon?
|Swedish||I-sprikit||All vowels are changed to 'i'.citation needed||"Can I go to the mall?" → "Cin I gi ti thi mill?"|
|Swedish||"P-language"||All vowels are doubled, and a 'p' inserted between the doubled vowels.citation needed||Example: Rövarspråket → Röpövaparspråpåkepet|
|Swedish||Rövarspråket||Consonants are changed to '<consonant> o <consonant>'. The 'o' is pronounced as in "hot".citation needed||Sv: "Hur är läget?" → Hohuror äror lolägogetot?
En: "How are you doing?" → Hohowow arore yoyou dodoinongog?
|Turkish||Kuş Dili (birds' language)||After each syllable, add 'ga', 'ge', 'gi', 'go' or 'gu'.citation needed||"Ben okula gidiyorum" (I am going to the school) becomes "Begen ogokugulaga gigidigiyogorugum"|
|Urdu (Pakistan)||Fay ki Boli||Insert "fay" (Urdu language Alphabet corresponding to the sound of 'F' in English) in the middle of each syllable (usually before the vowel—spiting the syllable into two) in each word. In some monosyllabic words, "yay" (Urdu alphabet for 'Y') is added at after fay and in reverse before completing the rest of the half.citation needed||Spoken and understood widely in Karachi (Pakistan) and Native Urdu Speakers. Fay can be replaced by most other consonants to form another variety.|
|Urdu (Pakistan)||Pay ki Boli||Insert "pay" and "noon" (Urdu language Alphabets corresponding to the sound of 'P' and 'N' respectively in English) in the middle of each syllable (usually before the vowel—spiting the syllable into two, ending first half into pay and starting the next with noon) in each word.citation needed||Not commonly known and very complex for even who know how it works, especially when spoken in fast speed, resulting in handy privacy.|
|Vietnamese||Nói lái||Switch the tones, the order of two syllables in a word or the initial consonant and rhyme of each syllable.citation needed||Example: "bầy tôi" all the king's subjects → "bồi tây" French waiter
"bí mật" secret → "bật mí" revealing secret
- P.367 of Marcel Cohen. 1939. Nouvelles Etudes d'Etiopien Meridional. Paris: Librairie Ancienne Honore Champion.
- p. 79, Kebbede Hordofa and Peter Unseth. 1986. "Bird Talk" in Oromo. Quaderni di Studi Etiopici 6-7:74-83
- Article on Arabic speech game
- Lyle Campbell. 1980. The Psychological and Sociological Reality of Finnish Vowel Harmony. In Issues in Vowel Harmony, edited by Robert Vago, pp. 245-270. (Studies in Language Companion Series, 6.) John Benjamins.
- p. 169, Toni Borowsky & Peter Avery. 2009. Dhochi: A Dholuo Language Game. Australian Journal of Linguistics Vol. 29, No. 2, pp. 169-194.
- Kebbede Hordofa and Peter Unseth. 1986. Bird Talk" in Oromo. Quaderni di Studi Etiopici 6-7:74-83
- English Grammar Game Find Verb, Noun.
- Language Games A long summary on language games, including descriptions of many games, and an extensive bibliography.
- Language Games - Part 2 A follow-up summary with additional descriptions and bibliography.
- Nevbosh — a language game used by J. R. R. Tolkien, the inventor of Quenya and Sindarin Elvish, as a child
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