|Motto||Latin: Patet omnibus veritas|
|Motto in English||"Truth lies open to all"|
|Endowment||£5.95 million (2010/11)1|
|Chancellor||Sir Christian Bonington|
|Visitor||Her Majesty The Queen|
|Location||Bailrigg, City of Lancaster, England
Accra, Ghana (overseas campus)
"Quaker Grey" and red
|Affiliations||N8 Group, ACU, AACSB, AMBA, NWUA, EQUIS, Universities UK|
Lancaster University, officially The University of Lancaster,5 is a public research university in Lancaster, Lancashire, United Kingdom. The university was established by Royal Charter in 1964,6 one of several new universities created in the 1960s. Three of the newly-established institutions were founded as collegiate universities, namely Lancaster, the University of York and the University of Kent.
The university was initially based in St Leonard's Gate in the city centre, until moving to a purpose-built 300 acres (120 ha) campus at Bailrigg in 1968.6 The campus buildings are arranged around a central walkway known as "The Spine", which is connected to a central plaza, named "Alexandra Square" in honour of its first chancellor, Princess Alexandra.
Along with the universities of Durham, Leeds, Liverpool, Manchester, Newcastle, Sheffield and York, Lancaster is a member of the N8 Group of research universities. In 2014, Lancaster University celebrated its 50th anniversary with a series of events throughout the year, involving alumni, staff, students and local community members.7
- 1 History
- 2 Campus
- 3 Organisation and administration
- 4 Academic profile
- 5 Student life
- 6 Notable people
- 7 References
- 8 Bibliography
- 9 External links
After the Second World War higher education became an important concern of government as it tried to cope with the demands of an expanding population and the advent of a new technological age. Between 1958 and 1961 seven new plate glass universities were announced including Lancaster.
The university was established by Royal Charter in 1964. The charter stipulated that HRH Princess Alexandra of Kent be the first Chancellor. She was inaugurated in 1964. The ceremony also saw the granting of various honorary degrees to dignitaries including Prime Minister Harold Wilson. Princess Alexandra retired as Chancellor in 2004 and was the longest serving chancellor of any British university. On her departure, she gave approval for a Chancellor's Medal to be awarded for academic merit to the highest-performing undergraduates and postgraduates. Each year presentations are made to up to five graduates of taught masters' courses, and up to six to the highest-performing undergraduates.
The university accepted its first students in October 1964 and there were initially 13 professors, 32 additional members of teaching and research staff, 8 library staff and 14 administrators on academic grades. The motto, "patet omnibus veritas", (Truth lies open to all), was adopted. The first science students were admitted in 1965.
The university was temporarily based in the city. A lecture theatre and the university's first Junior Common Room were based in Centenary Church, a former congregational church beside the old factory premises of Waring & Gillow, which were used to accommodate the new students. Many new students were housed in Morecambe. The Grand Theatre was leased as a main lecture room and 112 and 114 in the St Leonard's Gate area became teaching and recreational rooms. The library occupied the old workshops of Shrigley and Hunt on Castle Hill.
The purpose-built campus occupies Bailrigg, a 360-acre (0.563 sq mi; 1.457 km2) site8 donated by Lancaster City Council in 1963.9 The campus buildings are located on a hilltop, the lower slopes of which are landscaped parkland which includes "Lake Carter" duck pond and the university playing fields. Lake Carter is named after Charles Carter, the first Vice Chancellor of the university, and it was built in the early 1900s.6 The site is three miles (5 km) south of the city centre. The campus buildings are arranged around a central walkway known as "The Spine".10 The walkway runs from north (County College) to south-west (Graduate College) and is covered for most of its length. The main architect was Gabriel Epstein of Shepeard and Epstein.,9 on a barren hilltop on a windswept day in 1963 the two architectural partners surveyed the future site of the university, Peter Shepeard recalled that day:
- "We went up there on a windy day, and it was freezing cold. Every time we opened a plan it blew away. And we said Christ! What are we going to do with these students, where are they going to sit in the sun and all that? Well, we decided, it's got to be cloisters. All of the buildings have got to touch at the ground. We then devised this system and it had an absolutely firm principle: it had a great spine down the middle where everybody walked. That led everywhere. The cars were on the outside, on both sides. When you came into the spaces things were square, they were rectangular courtyards and they were all slightly different. There were two or three essentials: one was that the covered way had to be continuous, the buildings had to be three or four storeys high and connecting to the next one. I thought it worked very well."11
In contrast to some of the other campus universities, Bailrigg was designed to integrate social, residential and teaching areas. Another major feature of the design was that there would not be a large central Students' Union building, but that the individual colleges would be the centre of social and recreational facilities.12 Vehicular and pedestrian traffic is separated: this is achieved by restricting motor vehicles to a peripheral road with a linking underpass running east-west beneath Alexandra Square. The underpass accommodates the Bailrigg bus station and was refurbished in autumn 2010. Car parking is arranged in cul-de-sacs running off the peripheral road.
Construction of the Bailrigg campus began in November 1965, with the first building completed a year later. The first on-campus student residences opened in 1968.9 Alexandra Square is the University's main plaza.
Named after the first chancellor, HRH Princess Alexandra, it is situated at the centre of the original campus and contains the library in the south-west corner, designed in 1964 by Tom Mellor and Partners, the first phase opening in September 1966, the second in July 1968 and the third in January 1971.13 The library was extended in 1997 and in 1998 the Ruskin Library designed by Sir Richard MacCormac was opened. On the west side of the square is University House as well as various banks and shops. To the south-east of the square is the tallest building on campus: the fourteen-storey Bowland Tower, which contains accommodation and disguises the boiler room chimney.
One of the most distinctive of the Bailrigg buildings is the free-standing University Chaplaincy Centre. Opened on 2 May 1969, the architects were the Preston-based firm Cassidy & Ashton. The building has a trefoil plan with a central spire where the three circles meet. The university's logo is based on the spire. A plan existed to have a twin campus with another eight colleges to the east of the M6 motorway at Hazelriggcitation needed. this would have been linked to Bailrigg by a flyover. The plan was abandoned in the 1970s during a period of financial difficulties.
The university began expansion onto the lower slopes of Bailrigg with the development of new buildings for Graduate College in 1998, which is now part of "South-West Campus". Development continued with the construction of "InfoLab 21" and "Alexandra Park" which now houses Lonsdale College, Cartmel College and the en-suite rooms of Pendle College.
The decision to expand onto what is now known as South-West campus was met with protests that it would drive up accommodation prices, both on and off campus.citation needed Other complaints were that the site was greenfield, with residents of nearby Galgate being worried about "the impact of the new buildings",citation needed flooding of the local area due to increased run-off from the site and increased traffic flow on the A6 and other local roads. The development of InfoLab 21 also met objections with the proposed building being described as a "Dalek factory".14 Another concern related to the limited amount of new social space.citation needed The older accommodation sometimes consisted of approximately 15 students sharing communal bathrooms and kitchens. The communal kitchens were often a source of social interaction, while the new en-suite areas have fewer students per kitchen, and private bathrooms.
The Bailrigg campus hosts a range of shops and services. Services on campus include Bailrigg post office, Barclays Bank, Santander Bank, UNI TRAVEL (a travel agent which sells rail and bus tickets), a health centre, a pharmacy and a dental practice. Shops on campus include a SPAR supermarket, LUSU Shop, LUSU Central (a small supermarket), a Subway, a charity shop (the proceeds of which go to Cancer Care and St. Johns Hospice), a newsagent, and an ice cream parlour.citation needed
Chancellors Wharf is the name of Lancaster University's off-campus accommodation for students. It consists of three buildings by the Lancaster canal on Aldcliffe Road. The location is near "The Water Witch" pub, B&Q, central bus routes, Lancaster Royal Infirmary and the city centre. It is open to members of all of the University's colleges. Residents remain members of their various colleges, with Chancellors Wharf itself being only a hall of residence.15
At the north end of campus, the University’s Great Hall Complex comprises three venues open to both students and the public; the Peter Scott Gallery, the Nuffield Theatre and the Lancaster International Concert Series. In 2009, these three organisations were combined as one department by the University – initially termed ‘The Public Arts’ but later renamed ‘Live at LICA’ – with Matt Fenton at the head since their unification.16
The Peter Scott Gallery is open to the public free of charge. The Gallery is located on the Bailrigg campus and houses the University's international art collection, which includes Japanese and Chinese art, antiquities, works by twentieth century British artists including works by artists from the St Ives School, Sir Terry Frost, Wilhelmina Barns-Graham, Barbara Hepworth and William Scott. Among other British artists whose work is represented are Norman Adams, Patrick Caulfield, Elizabeth Frink, Kenneth Martin and Winifred Nicholson. Within the last fifteen years works by Andy Goldsworthy, Peter Howson and Albert Irvin have been acquired. The university collection also includes prints by significant European artists such as Dürer, Miró, Ernst and Vasarely.
Lancaster International Concert Series is the main provider of classical music in north Lancashire and Cumbria. Concerts are held within the Great Hall. Between October and March each year the series offers a varied diet of music which includes: orchestral concerts, chamber music, events for young people, jazz, family concerts and world music. On the initiative of Professor Tony McEnery, Dean of the Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, music as a subject for study at Lancaster was abandoned in 2013.
The Nuffield Theatre, a black-box theatre, is one of the largest and most adaptable professional studio theatres in Europe. It presents public performances in the fields of theatre, contemporary dance and live art from some of the best-known and respected companies from the UK and abroad. The focus of the work is new and experimental practice, a focus it shares with many of the teaching and research interest of Lancaster Institute for the Contemporary Arts (LICA). The Nuffield presents up to 30 visiting professional shows a year, plus public performances by students from Theatre Studies, and the University’s student theatre and dance societies and a range of local community organisations.
The Ruskin Library houses archive material related to the poet, author and artist John Ruskin. It is open to the public, although only a small part of the collection is on public display at once. The building was constructed in 1997 by architect Richard MacCormac. The Whitehouse Collection housed in the Ruskin Library is the largest holding of books, manuscripts, photographs, drawings and watercolours by and related to John Ruskin in the world.
The Council of Lancaster University is the governing body, consisting of mainly lay members along with representatives of staff and students. It is responsible for the proper management and financial solvency of the university, with major policy decisions and corporate strategy being subject to its approval. The Senate of Lancaster University is the principal academic authority. It oversees academic management and sets strategy and priorities, including the curriculum and maintenance of standards.
The university has nine self-catered residences, known as "colleges". Formerly, these were quasi-autonomous bodies providing for accommodation, welfare, social-life and student discipline, but they are nowadays centrally controlled in every respect, with the description "college" retained for marketing purposes. All members of the university are members of a "college", although in recent years academic staff have had decreasing involvement.17 Most "colleges" have about eight or nine hundred members and all on-campus accommodation is linked to a "college", with blocks or individual flats being linked to one "college" or another each year according to demand.17 The "colleges" were governed by a "syndicate", including a principal (originally a senior academic but nowadays more usually a middle-ranking administrator or IT professional), a Dean and assistant deans (responsible for student discipline), together with a Senior Advisor, heading a team of College Advisors. These were previously known as Senior Tutor and College Tutors, but the titles were changed in 2011 to Advisor to avoid possible confusion with "Academic Advisors" in students' academic departments.
The university has eight undergraduate "colleges",17 seven of which are named after regions of the traditional county of Lancashire, and County College is named after Lancashire County Council, which financed its construction. There is a ninth "college" for graduates.
|Bowland College||1964||Forest of Bowland|
|Cartmel College||1968||Cartmel peninsula|
|The County College||1967||Lancashire County Council|
|Furness College||1966||Furness region|
|Fylde College||1968||The Fylde peninsula|
|Graduate College||1992||Status as a postgraduate college|
|Grizedale College||1975||Grizedale Forest|
|Lonsdale College||1964||Lonsdale Hundred (River Lune and its valley)|
|Pendle College||1974||Pendle region|
The college buildings accommodate a number of academic departments, but are primarily social and accommodation facilities, each with its own bar, which forms part of the university's Commercial Services and is open when profitable.
- HRH Princess Alexandra, The Hon Lady Ogilvy LG GCVO DMus (1964–2004)
- Sir Christian Bonington CBE (2005–present)
- Professor Sir Charles Carter (1964–1980)
- Professor Philip Reynolds CBE (1980–1985)
- Professor Harry Hanham (1985–1995)
- Professor William Ritchie OBE (1995–2002)
- Professor Paul Wellings CBE (2002–2011)
- Professor Mark Smith (incumbent)
The Visitor of the University of Lancaster is Her Majesty The Queen. The visitor is the final arbiter of any dispute within the university, except in those areas where legislation has removed this to the law courts or other ombudsmen. Student complaints and appeals were heard by the visitor until the Higher Education Act 2004 came into force.18 All student complaints are now heard by the Office of the Independent Adjudicator for Higher Education.
The four faculties are:
- Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences with the School of Law and the departments of Applied Social Science, Educational research, English and Creative Writing, European Languages and Cultures, History, Linguistics and English Language, Politics, Philosophy & Religion and Sociology. It also includes the Institutes for Cultural Research, for Health Research, Lancaster Institute of Contemporary Arts, for Art, Design, Film, Theatre Studies, and the Ruskin centre.
- Faculty of Health and Medicine, which has partnerships with other departments such as neuroscience (Psychology), medical ethics (Law), NHS leadership (Management School), disability studies (Applied Social Science) and environment and health (Lancaster Environment Centre). The Faculty comprises four divisions: Biomedical and Life Sciences, CETAD, Health Research and Lancaster Medical School.19
- Faculty of Science and Technology, including Biological Sciences; Chemistry; Engineering; Lancaster Environment Centre (including Environmental Sciences; Geography; and Biology); Mathematics and Statistics; Natural Sciences; Physics; Psychology, and School of Computing and Communications
- Faculty of Management (Lancaster University Management School) comprises Accounting and Finance; Economics; Management Learning and Leadership; Management Science; Marketing and Organisation, Work and Technology; the Institute for Entrepreneurship & Enterprise Development and the centres for e-Science; for Excellence in Leadership (CEL); for the Study of Technology & Organisation (CSTO); International Centre for Research in Accounting (ICRA); Lancaster Centre for Forecasting (LCF); Lancaster Centre for Strategic Management; Lancaster China Management Centre (LCMC); Lancaster Leadership Centre (LLC), Health Leadership Centre (HLC) and Centre for Performance-Led HR (CPHR).
At the time of writing (2014) Lancaster University has for some years been placed within the top 20 by UK newspaper league tables and in the top 200 worldwide by the main global rankings (see information box for current rankings). The average entry standard at Lancaster is around 439 UCAS points, with almost all courses requiring at least AAA or AAB at A-level as of 2013. This rise in entry standards has courted controversy amongst on campus unions, particularly UCU, who have cited it as the cause of a drop in applications for entry into the 2013-14 academic year.26
Lancaster University has entered into a dual degree program with the COMSATS Institute of Information Technology (CIIT), Lahore. It simultaneously offers two degrees, from CIIT and Lancaster University. Students will be alumni of both Universities.This is the first programme between a UK and a Pakistani university.27 28
In October 2013, Lancaster University announced the opening of a branch campus in Accra, Ghana, to serve the population of Ghana and all of Africa, providing a British university-level education locally to those students.29 The campus will be operated in partnership with Trans National Education Ghana Limited, and will offer undergraduate and graduate programmes in management, business, international relations, computer science, law and psychology along with an MBA programme.29
In 2012, Lancaster University announced a partnership with the UK's biggest arms company, (BAE Systems), and four other North-Western universities (Liverpool, Salford, UCLAN and Manchester) in order to work on the Gamma Programme which aims to develop "autonomous systems". According to the University of Liverpool when referring to the programme, "autonomous systems are technology based solutions that replace humans in tasks that are mundane, dangerous and dirty, or detailed and precise, across sectors, including aerospace, nuclear, automotive and petrochemicals".30
Lancaster University Students' Union ("LUSU") is the representative body of students at the university. Unusually, there is no main union building – instead the union is organised through the eight "college" JCRs, each of which has its own social venues and meeting spaces. The union is, however, allocated an administration building by the university. SCAN (acronym for Student Comments And News) is the Students' Union newspaper and was established in 1967, making it the oldest student media on campus. LUSU owns a nightclub in Lancaster called The Sugarhouse, operates two shops on the campus, namely LUSU Shop and LUSU Central and also an off campus housing agency LUSU Living.
LUSU also helps to support LUSU Involve, a volunteering unit allowing Lancaster University students to become involved with communities locally and internationally.
There are over 200 different societies operating within Lancaster University. Common areas include sports, hobbies, politics, academic, culture and religion. There are several fairs during the Freshers period in which various clubs and societies promote themselves. Bailrigg FM is the student radio station and Take 2 Cinema is on-campus cinema, based in Bowland College Lecture Theatre.
Every summer term the students take part in the Roses Tournament against the University of York. The venue of the event alternates annually between Lancaster and York. Other sporting activities are focused on inter-college competition rather than on national leagues. The colleges compete for the Carter Shield and the George Wyatt Cup. In 2004 the Founder's Trophy was played for the first time between the university's two founding colleges, Bowland and Lonsdale. The university also has a representative club, Furness Rovers, in division 2 of the North Lancashire and District Football League.
Lancaster University Athletics Club (LUAC) was formed in May 2011. The start of the 2011/12 academic year saw the first athletes join the club and by the end of the year receive awards for LUSU 'Society of the Year 2012' and were winners of the Lancaster Athletics Cup 2012. This academic year (2012/13) the club has been given the opportunity to compete in BUCS and Roses along with other sporting societies at Lancaster University.31
The Lancaster University Chaplaincy Centre is located at the north end of campus incorporating various religious groups such as Christian (Anglicans, Catholics, Orthodox, Quaker, Mormon), Jewish, Buddhist, Hindu,32 as well as various religious societies such as the Bahá'í, the Chinese Christian Fellowship, the Postgrad and Mature Students Group and the Pagan society which hold regular events and meetings.32 The Islamic Prayer Rooms are located across from the Chaplaincy Centre, in Ash House.
- Robin Chater, Educational Research, 1976, Bowland, Sec-General: Federation of European Employerscitation needed
- Jon Moulton, Chemistry, 1973, Furness - Founder, Better Capital
- Antony Burgmans, Marketing, 1971, Bowland - Former Chairman of Unilever (until 2007)
- Mark Price, Classics & Archaeology, 1982, Bowland - Managing Director of Waitrose
- Bruce Sewell, Psychology, 1979, Bowland - Senior Vice President and General Counsel, Applecitation needed
- Nahed Taher, Economics, 2001, Graduate College - CEO, Gulf One Investment
- James May, Music, 1985, Pendle - Television presenter
- Robert Fisk, English Literature, 1968, Lonsdale - Middle East correspondent, The Independent
- Richard Allinson, Economics, 1980, Fylde - Radio presenter
- Rainer Hersch, Economics, 1985, Cartmel - Comedian, Musician
- Andy Serkis, Independent Studies, 1985, County - Actor
- Sarah Waters, English Literature, 1988, Graduate College - Author
- Ursula Holden-Gill, Theatre Studies, 1999, Graduate College - Actress
- Janni Howker, Independent Studies, 1980, MA Creative Writing, 1984, Cartmel - Writer of teenage fiction
- Peter Whalley, Philosophy, 1967, Lonsdale - Writer
- Roger Ashton-Griffiths, Music, 1978, Furness - Actor
- Ralph Ineson, Theatre Studies, 1991, Furness - Actor
- Andrew Ford, Music, 1978, Cartmel - Composer
- Lucy Briers, Independent Studies, 1988, Cartmel - Actress
- Andrew Miller, Creative Writing, 1997 - Novelist
- Ranvir Singh, English and Philosophy, 1998, Pendle - Television presenter
- Satnam Rana, French Studies, 1999, Grizedale - Television presenter
- Joseph Delaney, English, 1975, Lonsdale, - Writer
- Simon Danczuk, Sociology, 1992, Cartmel - MP for Rochdale
- Alan Campbell, Politics, 1978, Furness - MP for Tynemouth
- Hilton Dawson, Social Admin, 1982, Pendle - Former MP for Lancaster
- Rami Hamdallah, Linguistics, 1988, Graduate College - Prime Minister of the Palestinian National Authority
- Joan Humble, History, 1972, Lonsdale - Former MP for Blackpool North & Fleetwood
- Alan Milburn, History, 1979, Pendle - Former MP for Darlington
- Colin Pickthall, Creative Writing, 1967, Lonsdale - Former MP for Lancashire West
- Helen Southworth MP, English, 1978, Lonsdale - Former MP for Warrington South
- Jason Queally MBE, Biological Sciences, 1992, PhD Biological Sciences, Bowland - Cyclist
- Alfred Morris, Accounting and Finance, 1970, Graduate College- Former Vice-Chancellor of University of West of England (until 2006)
- "Report and accounts 2010/11" (PDF). Lancaster University. Retrieved 12 June 2012.
- Lancaster University. "Lancaster appoints Professor Mark Smith as new Vice-Chancellor". Retrieved 4 January 2012.
- Anon. "University of Lancaster Annual Report" (PDF). University of Lancaster. p. 45. Retrieved 3 January 2011.
- "Table 0a – All students by institution, mode of study, level of study, gender and domicile 2010/11" (Microsoft Excel spreadsheet). Higher Education Statistics Agency. Retrieved 19 July 2012.
- "Charter, Statutes and Ordinances of the University of Lancaster" (Microsoft Word document). Retrieved 28 July 2009.
- Origins and Growth - Lancaster University
- . Lancaster University http://www.lancaster.ac.uk/alumni/anniversary-celebrations/. Missing or empty
- "Our Campus". Retrieved 14 November 2012.
- page 115, Building the New Universities, Tony Birks 1972
- Emma Vickers and Emma Edwards (May 2002). "The Spine". History of Lancaster University. Lancaster University. Retrieved 14 June 2008.
- page 119, 'Peter Shepeard' edited by Annabel Downs, 2004, Landscape Desin Trust, I.S.B.N. 0-415-35110-3
- page 120, Building the New Universities, Tony Birks 1972
- The Library Building: University of Lancaster 1972
- Booth, Steve (27 September 2002). "Greenfield Development Planned From Lancaster to the University". Virtual Lancaster. Retrieved 14 June 2008.
- Chancellors Wharf
- , Matt Fenton's profile at LICA
- Anon. "University of Lancaster – Colleges". University of Lancaster. Retrieved 27 February 2008.
- Section 20 of the Higher Education Act 2004
- Faculty of Health & Medicine
- "Academic Ranking of World Universities 2014". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. Retrieved 15 August 2014.
- "QS World University Rankings 2014/15". Quacquarelli Symonds. Retrieved 19 September 2014.
- "Top European Universities 2013-14". Times Higher Education. Retrieved 3 October 2013.
- "University League Table 2015". The Complete University Guide. Retrieved 5 June 2014.
- "University league table 2015 - the complete list". The Guardian. 2 June 2014. Retrieved 5 June 2014.
- "The Times and Sunday Times University League Tables 2014". Times Newspapers. Retrieved 22 September 2013.
- Lancaster University Dual Degree Programme
- COMSATS Dual Degree Programme
- "The first British University branch campus in Ghana will open its doors to students this month" (Press release). Lancaster University. 18 October 2013.
- University of Liverpool - School of Engineering
- Lancaster University Athletics Club
- http://www.lancaster.ac.uk/depts/chap_cen The Lancaster University chaplaincy Center website
- Media related to Lancaster University at Wikimedia Commons
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