Juan Martín de Pueyrredón
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|Juan Martín de Pueyrredón|
|6th Supreme Director of the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata|
|Preceded by||Antonio González de Balcarce|
|Succeeded by||José Rondeau|
18 December 1777|
|Died||13 March 1850
San Isidro, Buenos Aires Province
Juan Martín de Pueyrredón y O'Dogan (December 18, 1777 – March 13, 1850) was an Argentine general and politician of the early 19th century. He was appointed Supreme Director of the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata after the Argentine Declaration of Independence.
Pueyrredón was born in Buenos Aires, the fifth of eight sons of Juan Martín de Pueyrredón y Labroucherie and María Rita Dogan. Pueyrredon's father was a French merchant who established himself in Cadiz with his brother and later in Buenos Aires, getting married to Maria in the Argentine city.1 He was educated at the Royal College, up until the death of his father in 1791. María became the head of the family, assisted by Anselmo Sáenz Valiente in business, and retired Juan Martín from his studies at the age of 14.2 He then moved to live with a relative in Cádiz, Spain to learn about commerce. His first business took him to Madrid and France. He returned briefly to Buenos Aires to conclude his father's testament, and got married to Dolores in Spain upon his return. They returned to Buenos Aires, but Dolores lost her pregnancy during the trip. Pueyrredón thought of returning to Spain with her, hoping to restore her health by visiting her family, but she lost another pregnancy and her health worsened until she died on May 1805.3
Buenos Aires was invaded by British forces in 1806, during the first British invasions of the Río de la Plata. Pueyrredón was among the criollos who did not believe that the British would help them to became independent from Spain. He moved to Montevideo and got an interview with governor Pascual Ruiz Huidobro. Huidobro authorized him to organize a resistance, so he returned to Buenos Aires and secretly prepared an army at the Perdriel ranch. The British, however, discovered it and defeated the half-prepared army. Pueyrredón escaped to Colonia del Sacramento and joined Santiago de Liniers, whose army would eventually defeat the British.4
In 1807 he was sent as representative of Buenos Aires to Spain again, but returned in 1809 via Brazil to Buenos Aires, where he subsequently participated in the independentist movement. After the May Revolution of 1810, which gave birth to the first local government junta, he was appointed governor of Córdoba, and in 1812 he became the leader of the independent forces and a member of the short-lived First Triumvirate. From 1812 to 1815, he was exiled in San Luis.
In 1816, Pueyrredón was elected Supreme Director of the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata. He strongly supported José de San Martín's military campaign in Chile, and also founded the first national bank of Argentina and the national mint. After the declaration of a Unitarian constitution, revolts forced him to resign as Supreme Director in 1819 and go into exile in Montevideo. He subsequently played a very small role in politics, most notably serving in 1829 as a mediator between Juan Manuel de Rosas and Juan Lavalle. He died in retirement on his ranch in San Isidro, Buenos Aires.
Pueyrredón was married to María Calixta Tellechea y Caviedes. Their only son, famous painter and civil engineer Prilidiano, was born in Buenos Aires on January 24, 1823. From 1835 to 1849, Pueyrredón and his family lived in Europe.
- Luna, Félix (1999). Grandes protagonistas de la historia argentina: Juan Martín de Pueyrredón (in Spanish). Buenos Aires: Editorial Planeta. ISBN 950-49-0469-6.
- Luna, p. 9-11
- Luna, p. 13
- Luna, p. 13-15
- Luna, p. 16-19
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