|History of Japan|
Jian (治安) was a Japanese era name (年号, nengō, , lit. "year name"), also known as Chi'an, after Kannin and before Manju. This period spanned the years from February 10211 through July 1024.2 The reigning emperor was Go-Ichijō-tennō (後一条天皇).3
- 1021 Jian gannen (治安元年): The era name was changed to mark an event or series of events. The previous era ended and a new one commenced in Kannin 5, on the 2nd day of the 2nd month of 1021.4
- 1023 (Jian 3, 4th month): An epidemic in Kyoto was so severe that there were corpses in the streets;5 disease spread throughout the country.6
- 1023 (Jian 3, 10th month): Fujiwara no Michinaga visits Mt. Koya.7
- December 29, 1023 (Jian 3, 14th day of the 11th month): a lunar eclipse.8
- Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric. (2005). "Kannin" in Japan Encyclopedia, p. 474 at Google Books; n.b., Louis-Frédéric is pseudonym of Louis-Frédéric Nussbaum, see Deutsche Nationalbibliothek Authority File.
- Nussbaum. "Manjū" at p. 607. at Google Books
- Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). Annales des empereurs du Japon, pp. 156-159; Brown, Delmer et al. (1979). Gukanshō, pp. 307-310; Varley, H. Paul. (1980). Jinnō Shōtōki. p. 195-196.
- Brown, p. 310.
- Dykstra, Yoshiko Kurata. (2001). The Konjaku Tales: from a Medieval Japanese Collection, Vol. 2, p. 13.
- Horton, Sarah J. (2007). Living Buddhist Statues in Early Medieval and Modern Japan, p. 143. at Google Books
- Nihon Kiristokyō Kyōgikai. (2001). Japanese Religions, Vols. 26-27, pp.34-35.
- Pankenier, David. (1999). Archaeoastronomy in East Asia: Historical Observational Records of Comets and Meteor Showers from China, Japan, and Korea, p. 89. at Google Books
- Brown, Delmer M. and Ichirō Ishida, eds. (1979). Gukanshō: The Future and the Past. Berkeley: University of California Press. 10-ISBN 0-520-03460-0; 13-ISBN 978-0-520-03460-0; OCLC 251325323
- Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric and Käthe Roth. (2005). Japan encyclopedia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. 10-ISBN 0-674-01753-6; 13-ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5; OCLC 58053128
- Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). Nihon Odai Ichiran; ou, Annales des empereurs du Japon. Paris: Royal Asiatic Society, Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland. OCLC 5850691
- Varley, H. Paul. (1980). A Chronicle of Gods and Sovereigns: Jinnō Shōtōki of Kitabatake Chikafusa. New York: Columbia University Press. 10-ISBN 0231049404/13-ISBN 9780231049405; OCLC 6042764
- National Diet Library, "The Japanese Calendar" -- historical overview plus illustrative images from library's collection
Era or nengō:
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