0.3-0.4% of the Peruvian population1
|Regions with significant populations|
|Lima, La Libertad Department, Lambayeque Department|
|Predominantly Roman Catholicism,
Protestantism, Shintoism, Mahayana Buddhism,2
|Related ethnic groups|
|Chinese Peruvian, Japanese Brazilian, Asian Latinos|
Japanese Peruvians (Spanish: Peruano-Japonés or Nipo-peruano, Japanese: 日系ペルー人, Nikkei Perūjin) are people of Japanese ancestry who were born in or immigrated to Peru. The immigrants from Japan are called the issei generation. Second and third generation Peruvians are referred to as nisei and sansei in Japanese. The yonsei are the fourth generation after the issei.
Peru was the first Latin American country to establish diplomatic relations with Japan,4 in June 1873.1 Peru was also the first Latin American country to accept Japanese immigration.4 The Sakura Maru carried Japanese families from Yokohama to Peru and arrived on April 3, 1899 at the Peruvian port city of Callao.5 This group of 790 Japanese became the first of several waves of emigrants who made new lives for themselves in Peru, some nine years before emigration to Brazil began.1
Japanese immigrants arrived from Okinawa, Gifu, Hiroshima, Kanagawa and Osaka prefectures. Many arrived as farmers or to work in the fields but, after their contracts were completed, settled in the cities.6 In the period before World War II, the Japanese community in Peru was largely run by issei immigrants born in Japan. "Those of the second generation [the nisei ] were almost inevitably excluded from community decision-making."7
It is estimated that there were around 26,000 people of Japanese descent in Peru around the beginning of World War II.8 After the start of World War II, the United States State Department reached an agreement with the government of Peru; 1,7998 Japanese Peruvians were rounded up and transported to American internment camps run by the U.S. Justice Department.9
The Peruvians were initially placed amongst the Japanese-Americans who had been excluded from the US west coast; later they were interned in the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) facilities in Crystal City, Texas; Kenedy, Texas; and Santa Fe, New Mexico10 The Japanese-Peruvians were kept in these "alien detention camps" for more than two years before, through the efforts of civil rights attorney Wayne M. Collins,811 being offered "parole" relocation to the labor-starved farming community in Seabrook, New Jersey.12 The interned Japanese Peruvian nisei in the United States were further separated from the issei, in part because of distance between the internment camps and in part because the interned nisei knew almost nothing about their parents' homeland and language.13
The deportation of Japanese Peruvians to the United States involved expropriation of their property and other assets in Peru.14 At war's end, only 79 Japanese Peruvian citizens returned to Peru, and 400 remained in the United States as "stateless" refugees.15 The interned Peruvian nisei who became naturalized American citizens would consider their children sansei, meaning three generations from the grandparents who had left Japan for Peru.16
Today, the occupations of Japanese Peruvians vary because most of them are very well-educated people, ranging from substantial ranks in finance and academia, to catering and hospitality. Japanese Peruvians have a considerable economic position in Peru.3
In 2008, more than 6,000 Peruvians lived and worked in Japan, which included 5,000 illegal non-Japanese-descent Peruvians, as documented by immigration officials. There were 41,000 registered Japanese-Peruvian (at least 15,000 illegal non-Japanese-Peruvian with false documentations and illegal Japanese nationalization and maximum 26,000 true Japanese-Peruvian with true documentation and legal Japanese nationalization).1 Due to economic instability in the 1980s, many Japanese Peruvians left for Japan and the United States, although some have since returned.
|This article needs additional citations for verification. (April 2013)|
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- Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MOFA), Japan: Japan-Peru relations (Japanese)
- Masterson, Daniel et al. (2004). The Japanese in Latin America: The Asian American Experience, p. 237., p. 237, at Google Books
- Lama, Abraham. "Home is Where the Heartbreak Is," Asia Times.October 16, 1999.
- Palm, Hugo. "Desafíos que nos acercan," El Comercio (Lima, Peru). March 12, 2008.
- "First Emigration Ship to Peru: Sakura Maru," Seascope (NYK newsletter). No. 157, July 2000.
- Irie, Toraji. "History of the Japanese Migration to Peru," Hispanic American Historical Review. 31:3, 437-452 (August–November 1951); 31:4, 648-664 (no. 4).
- Higashide, Seiichi. (2000). Adios to Tears, p. 218., p. 218, at Google Books
- "Japanese Latin Americans". Retrieved 2009-04-12.
- Robinson, Greg. (2001). By Order of the President: FDR and the Internment of Japanese Americans, p. 264., p. 264, at Google Books
- Higashide, pp. 157-158., p. 157, at Google Books
- "Japanese Americans, the Civil Rights Movement and Beyond". Retrieved 2009-04-10.
- Higashide, p. 161., p. 161, at Google Books
- Higashide, p. 219., p. 219, at Google Books
- Barnhart, Edward N. "Japanese Internees from Peru," Pacific Historical Review. 31:2, 169-178 (May 1962).
- Riley, Karen Lea. (2002). Schools Behind Barbed Wire: The Untold Story of Wartime Internment and the Children of Arrested Enemy Aliens, p. 10., p. 10, at Google Books
- Higashide, p. 222., p. 222, at Google Books
- Connell, Thomas. (2002). America's Japanese Hostages: The US Plan For A Japanese Free Hemisphere. Westport: Praeger-Greenwood. ISBN 9780275975357; OCLC 606835431
- Gardiner, Clinton Harvey. (1975). The Japanese and Peru. 1873-1973. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press. 10-ISBN 0-8263-0391-9; 13-ISBN 978-0-8263-0391-2; OCLC 2047887
- __________. (1981). Pawns in a Triangle of Hate: The Peruvian Japanese and the United States. Seattle: University of Washington Press. 10-ISBN 0295958553/13-ISBN 9780295958552; OCLC 164799077
- Higashide, Seiichi. (2000). Adios to Tears: The Memoirs of a Japanese-Peruvian Internee in U.S. Concentration Camps. Seattle: University of Washington Press. 10-ISBN 0295979143/10-ISBN 9780295979144; OCLC 247923540
- López-Calvo, Ignacio. (2009). One World Periphery Reads the Other. Knowing the 'Oriental' in the Americas and the Iberian Peninsula. Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2009. 130-47. 13-ISBN 9781443816571/13-ISBN 1443816574; OCLC 473479607
- Masterson, Daniel M. and Sayaka Funada-Classen. (2004), The Japanese in Latin America: The Asian American Experience. (View at Google Books) Urbana, Illinois: University of Illinois Press. 10-ISBN 0-252-07144-1/13-ISBN 978-0-252-07144-7; OCLC 253466232
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