Information and communications technology
Information and communications technology (ICT) is often used as an extended synonym for information technology (IT), but is a more specific term that stresses the role of unified communications1 and the integration of telecommunications (telephone lines and wireless signals), computers as well as necessary enterprise software, middleware, storage, and audio-visual systems, which enable users to access, store, transmit, and manipulate information.2
The term ICT is also used to refer to the convergence of audio-visual and telephone networks with computer networks through a single cabling or link system. There are large economic incentives (huge cost savings due to elimination of the telephone network) to merge the telephone network with the computer network system using a single unified system of cabling, signal distribution and management.
The phrase ICT had been used by academic researchers since the 1980s,3 but it became popular after it was used in a report to the UK government by Dennis Stevenson in 19974 and in the revised National Curriculum for England, Wales and Northern Ireland in 2000. As of September 2013, the term "ICT" in the UK National Curriculum has been replaced by the broader term "computing".5
The money spent on IT worldwide has been most recently estimated as US $3.5 trillion and is currently growing at 5% per year – doubling every 15 years. The 2014 IT budget of US federal government is nearly $82 billion.6 IT costs, as a percentage of corporate revenue, have grown 50% since 2002, putting a strain on IT budgets. When looking at current companies’ IT budgets, 75% are recurrent costs, used to “keep the lights on” in the IT department, and 25% are cost of new initiatives for technology development.7
The average IT budget has the following breakdown:7
- 31% personnel costs (internal)
- 29% software costs (external/purchasing category)
- 26% hardware costs (external/purchasing category)
- 14% costs of external service providers (external/services).
On 21 December 2001, the United Nations General Assembly approved Resolution 56/183, endorsing the holding of the World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS) to discuss the opportunities and challenges facing today's information society.9 According to this resolution, the General Assembly related the Summit to the United Nations Millennium Declaration's goal of implementing ICT to achieve Millennium Development Goals. It also emphasized a multi-stakeholder approach to achieve these goals, using all stakeholders including civil society and the private sector, in addition to governments.
- Global e-Schools and Communities Initiative
- ICT Development Index
- Cognitive infocommunications
- Digital divide
|Look up ICT or information and communications technology in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
- Information Age
- Information and communication technologies for development
- Information and communication technologies for environmental sustainability
- Market information systems
- Mobile Web
- "Cloud network architecture and ICT - Modern Network Architecture". Itknowledgeexchange.techtarget.com. 2011-12-18. Retrieved 2013-08-18.
- "Information and Communication Technology from". FOLDOC. Retrieved 2013-08-18.
- William Melody et al., Information and Communication Technologies: Social Sciences Research and Training: A Report by the ESRC Programme on Information and Communication Technologies, ISBN 0-86226-179-1, 1986. Roger Silverstone et al., "Listening to a long conversation: an ethnographic approach to the study of information and communication technologies in the home", Cultural Studies, 5(2), pages 204-227, 1991.
- The Independent ICT in Schools Commission, Information and Communications Technology in UK Schools: An Independent Inquiry, 1997. Impact noted in Jim Kelly, What the Web is Doing for Schools, Financial Times, 2000.
- "Consultation on the order for replacing ICT with computing and the regulations for disapplying aspects of the existing national curriculum".
- "IT Costs – The Costs, Growth And Financial Risk Of Software Assets". OMT-CO Operations Management Technology Consulting GmbH. Retrieved 26 June 2011.
- "Measuring the Information Society". International Telecommunication Union. 2011. Retrieved 25 July 2013.
- "Basic information : about wsis". International Telecommunication Union. 17 January 2006. Retrieved 26 May 2012.
- Caperna A., Integrating ICT into Sustainable Local Policies. ISBN 9781615209293
- Carnoy, Martin. "ICT in Education: Possibilities and Challenges." Universitat Oberta de Catalunya, 2005.
- "Good Practice in Information and Communication Technology for Education." Asian Development Bank, 2009.
- Grossman, G. and E. Helpman (2005), "Outsourcing in a global economy", Review of Economic Studies 72: 135-159.
- Oliver, Ron. "The Role of ICT in Higher Education for the 21st Century: ICT as a Change Agent for Education." University, Perth, Western Australia, 2002.
- Walter Ong, Orality and Literacy: The Technologizing of the Word (London, UK: Routledge, 1988), in particular Chapter 4
- Measuring the Information Society: The ICT Development Index. International Telecommunication Union. 2013. p. 254.
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