Imperial College London
|Imperial College London|
|Motto||Latin: Scientia imperii decus et tutamen|
|Motto in English||Knowledge is the adornment and protection of the Empire|
|Established||8 July 19071(Royal Charter)|
|Type||Public research university|
|Endowment||£96.7 million (as of 31 July 2013)2|
|Visitor||The Lord President of the Council ex officio|
|Admin. staff||7,170 (2011)2|
|Location||London, United Kingdom
|Affiliations||Association of Commonwealth Universities
Association of MBAs
European Quality Improvement System
League of European Research Universities
Oak Ridge Associated Universities
Imperial College London (legally The Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine)1 is a public research university located in London, United Kingdom, which specialises in science, engineering, medicine and business.5 A former constituent college of the federal University of London, it became fully independent on 9 July 2007 during the commemoration of its centenary.67 Imperial has grown through mergers, including with St Mary's Hospital Medical School (in 1988), the National Heart and Lung Institute (in 1995) and the Charing Cross and Westminster Medical School (in 1997). Imperial College Business School was established in 2003.
Imperial's main campus is located in the South Kensington (Albertopolis) area of Central London, with additional campuses in Chelsea, Hammersmith, Paddington, Silwood Park and Wye College. Imperial also operates the Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine in Singapore in partnership with Nanyang Technological University. Imperial has one of the largest estates of any higher education institution in the UK.8 Imperial is organised into four main faculties within which there are over 40 departments, institutes and research centres.9 Imperial has around 13,500 students and 3,330 academic and research staff and had a total income of £822 million in 2012/13, of which £329.5 million was from research grants and contracts.210
Imperial is consistently ranked among the top universities in the world, ranking 2nd in the 2014/15 QS World University Rankings, 9th in the 2014/15 Times Higher Education World University Rankings, and 22nd in the 2014 Academic Ranking of World Universities.111213 In a corporate study carried out by The New York Times, its graduates were one of the most valued in the world.14 There are currently 15 Nobel laureates and two Fields Medalists amongst Imperial's alumni and current and former faculty.1516
Imperial is a major centre for biomedical research and is a founding member of the Francis Crick Institute and Imperial College Healthcare, an academic health science centre.17 Imperial is a member of the Association of Commonwealth Universities, the Association of MBAs, the European University Association, the G5, the League of European Research Universities, Oak Ridge Associated Universities and the Russell Group. Along with Cambridge and Oxford, Imperial, (with KCL, the LSE and UCL) forms a corner of the "golden triangle" of British universities.18
- 1 History
- 2 Campuses
- 3 Organisation and administration
- 4 Academic profile
- 5 Student life
- 6 Notable alumni, faculty and staff
- 7 References
- 8 Bibliography
- 9 External links
The origins of the constituent elements of Imperial can be traced back to the College of St Gregory and St Martin at Wye, which was originally founded by John Kempe, the Archbishop of York, in 1447 as a seminary, with an agricultural college being established at Wye in 1894 after the removal of the seminary.19
The Royal College of Chemistry was established by private subscription in 1845 as there was a growing awareness that practical aspects of the experimental sciences were not well taught and that in the United Kingdom the teaching of chemistry in particular had fallen behind that in Germany. As a result of a movement earlier in the decade, many politicians donated funds to establish the college, including Benjamin Disraeli, William Gladstone and Robert Peel. It was also supported by Prince Albert, who persuaded August Wilhelm von Hofmann to be the first professor.
William Henry Perkin studied and worked at the college under von Hofmann, but resigned his position after discovering the first synthetic dye, mauveine, in 1856. Perkin's discovery was prompted by his work with von Hofmann on the substance aniline, derived from coal tar, and it was this breakthrough which sparked the synthetic dye industry, a boom which some historians have labelled the second chemical revolution.23 His contribution led to the creation of the Perkin Medal, an award given annually by the Society of Chemical Industry to a scientist residing in the United States for an "innovation in applied chemistry resulting in outstanding commercial development". It is considered the highest honour given in the industrial chemical industry.24
The Royal School of Mines was established by Sir Henry de la Beche in 1851, developing from the Museum of Economic Geology, a collection of minerals, maps and mining equipment.20 He created a school which laid the foundations for the teaching of science in the country, and which has its legacy today at Imperial. Prince Albert was a patron and supporter of the later developments in science teaching, which led to the Royal College of Chemistry becoming part of the Royal School of Mines, to the creation of the Royal College of Science and eventually to these institutions becoming part of his plan for South Kensington being an educational region.20
The Great Exhibition was organised by Prince Albert, Henry Cole, Francis Fuller and other members of the Royal Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce as a celebration of industrial technology and design. The Great Exhibition made a surplus of £186,000 which was used to found the Victoria and Albert Museum, the Science Museum and the Natural History Museum which were all built in the area to the south of the exhibition, nicknamed Albertopolis, alongside the Imperial Institute.20
The Royal College of Science was established in 1881. The main objective was to support the training of science teachers and to develop teaching in other science subjects alongside the Royal School of Mines earth sciences specialities.20
A meeting of 16 of the City of London's livery companies in 1876 led to the foundation of the City and Guilds of London Institute for the Advancement of Technical Education (CGLI), which aimed to improve the training of craftsmen, technicians, technologists, and engineers. The two main objectives were to create a Central Institution in London and to conduct a system of qualifying examinations in technical subjects. Faced with their continuing inability to find a substantial site, the Companies were eventually persuaded by the Secretary of the Science and Art Department, General Sir John Donnelly (who was also a Royal Engineer) to found their institution on the eighty-seven acre (350,000 m²) site at South Kensington bought by the 1851 Exhibition Commissioners (for GBP 342,500) for 'purposes of art and science' in perpetuity. In 1907, the latter two colleges were incorporated by Royal Charter into the Imperial College of Science and Technology and the CGLI Central Technical College was renamed the City and Guilds College in 1907, but not incorporated into Imperial College until 1910.
In 1907, the newly established Board of Education found that greater capacity for higher technical education was needed and a proposal to merge the City and Guilds College, the Royal School of Mines and the Royal College of Science was approved and passed, creating The Imperial College of Science and Technology as a constituent college of the University of London. Imperial's Royal Charter, granted by Edward VII, was officially signed on 8 July 1907. The main campus of Imperial College was constructed beside the buildings of the Imperial Institute in South Kensington.
The Imperial College Boat Club was founded on 12 December 1919.
Imperial acquired Silwood Park in 1947, to provide a site for research and teaching in those aspects of biology not well suited for the main London campus. Felix, Imperial's student newspaper, was launched on 9 December 1949. On 29 January 1950, the government announced that it was intended that Imperial should expand to meet the scientific and technological challenges of the 20th century and a major expansion of the College followed over the next decade. In 1959 the Wolfson Foundation donated £350,000 for the establishment of a new Biochemistry Department.citation needed A special relationship between Imperial and the Indian Institute of Technology Delhi was established in 1963.citation needed
The Department of Management Science was created in 1971 and the Associated Studies Department was established in 1972. The Humanities Department was opened in 1980, formed from the Associated Studies and History of Science departments.
In 1988 Imperial merged with St Mary's Hospital Medical School, becoming The Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine. In 1995 Imperial launched its own academic publishing house, Imperial College Press, in partnership with World Scientific.25 Imperial merged with the National Heart and Lung Institute in 1995 and the Charing Cross and Westminster Medical School, Royal Postgraduate Medical School (RPMS) and the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology in 1997. In that year the Imperial College School of Medicine was formally established. In 1998 the Sir Alexander Fleming Building was opened in order to provide purpose-built headquarters for the College's medical and biomedical research.
In 2000 Imperial merged with both the Kennedy Institute of Rheumatology and Wye College, the University of London's agricultural college in Wye, Kent. It initially agreed to keep Agricultural Sciences at Wye, but closed them in 2004.26
In December 2005, Imperial announced a science park programme at the Wye campus, with extensive housing;27 however, this was abandoned in September 2006 following complaints that the proposal infringed on Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty, and that the true scale of the scheme, which could have raised £110m for the College, was known to Kent and Ashford Councils and their consultants but concealed from the public.26 One commentator observed that Imperial’s scheme reflected "the state of democracy in Kent, the transformation of a renowned scientific college into a grasping, highly aggressive, neo-corporate institution, and the defence of the status of an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty – throughout England, not just Wye – against rampant greed backed by the connivance of two important local authorities.28 Wye College campus was finally closed in September 2009.
In May 2001 a new faculty structure was established, with all departments being assigned to the Faculties of Engineering, Medicine, Physical Sciences and Life Sciences. A merger with University College London was proposed in October 2002, but was abandoned a month later following protests from staff over potential redundancies.29
In 2003 Imperial was granted degree-awarding powers in its own right by the Privy Council. The London Centre for Nanotechnology was established in the same year as a joint venture between UCL and Imperial College London.3031 In 2004 the Tanaka Business School (now named the Imperial College Business School) and a new Main Entrance on Exhibition Road were opened by The Queen. The UK Energy Research Centre was also established in 2004 and opened its headquarters at Imperial College. In November 2005 the Faculties of Life Sciences and Physical Sciences merged to become the Faculty of Natural Sciences.
On 9 December 2005, Imperial College announced that it would commence negotiations to secede from the University of London.32 Imperial College became fully independent of the University of London in July 20073334 and the first students to register for an Imperial College degree were postgraduates beginning their course in October 2007, with the first undergraduates enrolling for an Imperial degree in October 2008.
Imperial's main campus is located in the South Kensington area of central London. It is situated in an area of South Kensington, known as Albertopolis, which has a high concentration of cultural and academic institutions, including the Natural History Museum, the Science Museum, the Victoria and Albert Museum, the Royal College of Music, the Royal College of Art, the Royal Geographical Society and the Royal Albert Hall. The expansion of the South Kensington campus in the 1950s & 1960s absorbed the site of the former Imperial Institute, designed by Thomas Collcutt, of which only the 287 foot (87 m) high Queen's Tower remains among the more modern buildings.3536
The Imperial Institute was created in 1887 to celebrate Queen Victoria's Jubilee with the intention of it being a scientific research institution exploring and developing the raw materials of the Empire countries. The building was constructed in South Kensington between 1888 and 1893.
A second major campus is currently under construction in the White City area of London. Covering some 25 acres, Imperial West will house new research facilities, space for spin-off companies as well as student accommodation. The site is expected to cost in excess of £3 billion to complete.
Imperial has two other major campuses – at Silwood Park (near Ascot in Berkshire) and at Wye (near Ashford in Kent). Imperial's Stewardship of Wye College has been the subject of much controversy (see below). The Wye campus, some of it dating back to the 15th century, is currently vacant and available for sale or rent. The Imperial College NHS Trust has multiple hospitals throughout Greater London and various lectures for medical students are conducted within these hospitals, including St. Mary's Hospital, Charing Cross Hospital, Northwick Park Hospital & St. Mark's Hospital and Hammersmith Hospital. In 1997, the parliamentary Imperial College Act 1997 officially transferred all of the property of Charing Cross and Westminster Medical School, the National Heart and Lung Institute and the Royal Postgraduate Medical School to Imperial.
Recent major projects include the Imperial College Business School, the Ethos sports centre, the Southside hall of residence and the Eastside hall of residence. Current major projects include the reconstruction of the south-eastern quadrant of the South Kensington campus.
Imperial acquired Wye College in 2000, which is set in a designated Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty. It was rapidly dismantled, causing controversy, particularly a plan for substantial redevelopment in the area, with adverse environmental implications. A local campaign eventually secured the overthrow of the scheme, following which the Wye campus was closed in September 2009.28
Imperial's research and teaching is organised within a network of faculties and academic departments. Imperial currently has the following three constituent faculties:
- Imperial College Faculty of Engineering
- Imperial College Faculty of Medicine
- Imperial College Faculty of Natural Sciences.
The Imperial College Business School, and the Centre for Co-Curricular Studies exist as academic units outside of the faculty structure. From September 2013 the Centre for the History of Science, Technology and Medicine has moved to King's College London, and the Translation Studies Unit has relocated to UCL.
The Centre For Co-Curricular Studies provides elective subjects and language courses outside the field of science for students in the other faculties and departments. Students are encouraged to take these classes either for credit or in their own time, and in some departments this is mandatory.37 Courses exist in a wide range of topics including philosophy, ethics in science and technology, history, modern literature and drama, art in the 20th century, film studies.38 Language courses are available in French, German, Japanese, Italian, Russian, Spanish, Arabic and Mandarin Chinese.39 The Centre For Co-Curricular Studies is home to the Science Communication Unit40 which offers Masters degrees in Science Communication and Science Media Production for science graduates.
In the financial year ended 31 July 2013, Imperial had a total net income of £822.0 million (2011/12 – £765.2 million) and total expenditure of £754.9 million (2011/12 – £702.0 million).2 Key sources of income included £329.5 million from research grants and contracts (2011/12 – £313.9 million), £186.3 million from academic fees and support grants (2011/12 – £163.1 million), £168.9 million from Funding Council grants (2011/12 – £172.4 million) and £12.5 million from endowment and investment income (2011/12 – £8.1 million).2 During the 2012/13 financial year Imperial had a capital expenditure of £124 million (2011/12 – £152 million).2
At 31 July 2013 Imperial had a total endowment of £96.7 million and total net assets of £1,002 million.2
In 2011/12, Imperial had the fifth-highest total income of any British university and the second-highest income from research grants and contracts (after the University of Oxford).41
Imperial has over 6,000 academic staff, including 2 Fields Medallists, 66 Fellows of the Royal Society, 71 Fellows of the Royal Academy of Engineering and 62 Fellows of the Academy of Medical Sciences.
Imperial had a total income from research grants and contracts in 2010/11 of £299 million, the second-highest of any British university in that year.42
The 2008 Research Assessment Exercise returned 26% of the 1225 staff submitted as being world-leading (4*) and a further 47% as being internationally excellent (3*).4344 The 2008 Research Assessment Exercise also showed five subjects – Pure Mathematics, Epidemiology and Public Health, Chemical Engineering, Civil Engineering, and Mechanical, Aeronautical and Manufacturing Engineering – were assessed to be the bestclarification needed in terms of the proportion of internationally recognised research quality.45
Imperial has a dedicated technology transfer company known as Imperial Innovations. Imperial actively encourages its staff to commercialise their research and as a result has given rise to a proportionally large number of spin-out companies based on academic research.citation needed
Imperial, in conducting research on Parkinson's disease and Multiple Sclerosis, hosts the largest brain bank in the world consisting of 296 brains donated by individuals affected with either of these diseases.4647
In May 2012 Imperial, UCL and the IT company Intel announced the establishment of the Intel Collaborative Research Institute for Sustainable Connected Cities, a London-based institute for research into the future of cities.4849
In August 2012 it was announced that Imperial would be the lead institution for the MRC-NIHR Phenome Centre, a new research centre for personalised medicine to be based at GlaxoSmithKline's research and development facility in Harlow, Essex, inheriting the anti-doping facilities used to test samples during the 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games.5051
The Imperial Faculty of Medicine is one of the largest faculties of medicine in the UK. It was formed through mergers between Imperial and the St Mary's, Charing Cross and Westminster, and Royal Postgraduate medical schools and has six teaching hospitals. It accepts more than 300 undergraduate medical students per year and has around 321 taught and 700 research full-time equivalent postgraduate students.
Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust was formed on 1 October 2007 by the merger of Hammersmith Hospitals NHS Trust (Charing Cross Hospital, Hammersmith Hospital and Queen Charlotte's and Chelsea Hospital) and St Mary's NHS Trust (St. Mary's Hospital and Western Eye Hospital) with Imperial College London Faculty of Medicine.52 It is an academic health science centre and manages five hospitals: Charing Cross Hospital, Queen Charlotte's and Chelsea Hospital, Hammersmith Hospital, St Mary's Hospital, and Western Eye Hospital. The Trust is currently the largest in the UK and has an annual turnover of £800 million, treating more than a million patients a year.citation needed
Other (non-academic health science centres) hospitals affiliated with Imperial College include Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, Royal Brompton Hospital, West Middlesex University Hospital, Hillingdon Hospital, Mount Vernon Hospital, Harefield Hospital, Ealing Hospital, Central Middlesex Hospital, Northwick Park Hospital, St. Mark's Hospital, St Charles' Hospital and St Peter's Hospital.53
Imperial is amongst the most selective universities in the UK.54 The overall acceptance rate to degree programmes has consistently been below 20% and, in 2009, the acceptance rate for postgraduates was 19.5% and 15.3% for undergraduates555656
Along with University College London and the University of Cambridge, Imperial was one of the first universities in the UK to make use of the A* grade at A Level for admissions, with engineering and physics courses requiring an A* in Mathematics.5758
Imperial announced in 2008 that it was exploring the possibility of entrance exams to help it select the most suitable students.59 Since then, Imperial has been reviewing and piloting a range of assessment approaches, such as subject-specific tests, skill tests and motivation-based tests as part of enhanced interviews. The Faculty of Medicine already uses the BMAT as part of the selection process.
Imperial is consistently ranked one of the top universities in the world. Most rankings place it in the top 10 globally. In the 2014 QS World University Rankings, Imperial is ranked 2nd overall in the world.67 In the subject tables of 2010 it is ranked 23rd in the world (and 5th in Europe) for clinical medicine and pharmacy,68 30th in the world (and 3rd in Europe) for engineering/technology and computer sciences,69 24th in the world (and 5th in Europe) for natural sciences and mathematics70 and 14th in the world (and 2nd in Europe) for physics.71 In the 2010 QS World University Rankings, Imperial is ranked 7th overall in the world (and 4th in Europe).11 In the subject tables it is ranked 6th in the world (and 2nd in Europe) for engineering and technology,72 11th in the world (and 3rd in Europe) for life sciences and medicine73 and 11th in the world (and 4th in Europe) for natural sciences.74
In the 2011 Times Higher Education World University Rankings, Imperial is ranked 8th overall in the world (and 3rd in Europe).12 In the subject tables it is ranked 3rd in the world (and 2nd in Europe) for clinical, pre-clinical and health,75 9th in the world (and 4th in Europe) for engineering and technology,76 9th in the world (and 3rd in Europe) for life sciences77 and 13th in the world (and 4th in Europe) for physical sciences.78
Imperial is also consistently one of the highest ranked universities in the UK university rankings and is 3rd overall in the 2011 Complete University Guide, Sunday Times University Guide and Times Good University Guide and 7th in the 2011 Guardian University Guide. In the Complete University Guide subject tables Imperial is currently ranked 3rd for biological sciences, 2nd for chemical engineering, 1st for civil engineering, 2nd for computer science and 3rd for medicine.79 In the Guardian University Guide subject tables it is currently ranked 2nd for chemical engineering, 1st for civil engineering, 3rd for materials and mineral engineering and 3rd for mechanical engineering.80
The Financial Times placed Imperial's Business School within the top 20 in Europe.81 The Business School is also consistently ranked in the top 10 worldwide for entrepreneurshipcitation needed. The business school also offers a full-time MBA that is ranked 17th in Europe by the Financial Timescitation needed and a part-time Executive MBA programme that is ranked 4th in Europe.citation needed
Furthermore, in terms of job prospects, as of 2014 the average starting salary of an Imperial graduate is £31,304, which is the highest of any UK university.83 In 2009, the Sunday Times ranked Computing graduates from Imperial as earning the second highest average starting salary in the UK, £34,960,84 after graduation, over all universities and courses.85 In 2012, The New York Times ranked Imperial College as one of the top 10 most-welcomed universities by the global job market.86
In 2003, it was reported that one third of female academics "believe that discrimination or bullying by managers has held back their careers".87 It was said then that "A spokesman for Imperial said the college was acting on the recommendations and had already made changes". Never the less, allegations of bullying have continued: in 2007, concerns were raised about the methods that were being used to fire people in the Faculty of Medicine.8889
In September 2014, Professor Stefan Grimm, of the Department of Medicine, was found dead after being threatened with dismissal for failure to raise enough grant money.90 The College made its first public announcement of his death on 4 December 2014.91
Grimm's last email accused his employers of bullying by demanding that he should get grants worth at least £200,000 per year.9293 The blog 92 was viewed more than 100,000 times in the first four days after it was posted. The College has announced an internal inquiry into Stefan Grimm's death. The inquest on his death has not yet reported.
For the 2007–08 academic year, Imperial had a total full-time student body of 12,319, consisting of 8,741 undergraduate students and 3,578 postgraduates. In addition there were 1,036 postgraduate part-time students. 39% of all full-time students come from outside the European Union, around 13% of the International students have Chinese nationality.56
Imperial's male:female ratio for undergraduate students is uneven at approximately 64:36 overall56 and 5:1 in some engineering courses. However, medicine has an approximate 2:1 ratio with biology degrees tending to be higher.94
Imperial College Union, the students' union at Imperial College, is run by five full-time sabbatical officers elected from the student body for a tenure of one year, and a number of permanent members of staff. The Union is given a large subvention by the university, much of which is spent on maintaining around 300 clubs, projects and societies.95 Examples of notable student groups and projects are Project Nepal which sends Imperial College students to work on educational development programmes in rural Nepal96 and the El Salvador Project, a construction based project in Central America.97 The Union also hosts sports-related clubs such as Imperial College Boat Club and Imperial College Gliding Club.
The Union operates on two sites; Beit Quad, South Kensington and Reynold's, Hammersmith.
Sports facilities at Imperial's London campuses include four gyms, two swimming pools and two sports halls.98 Imperial has additional sports facilities at the Teddington and Harlington sports grounds.
On the South Kensington campus, there are a total of six music practice rooms which consist of upright pianos for usage by people of any grade, and grand pianos which are exclusively for people who have achieved Grade 8 or above.99
Imperial College Radio (or ICRadio) was founded in November 1975 with the intention of broadcasting to the student halls of residence from a studio under Southside, actually commencing broadcasts in late 1976. It now broadcasts from the West Basement of Beit Quad over the internet www.icradio.com101 and, since 2004, on 1134 AM in Wye.
STOIC (Student Television of Imperial College) is Imperial College Union's TV station, founded in 1969 and operated from a small TV studio in the Electrical Engineering block. The department had bought an early AMPEX Type A 1-inch videotape recorder and this was used to produce an occasional short news programme which was then played to students by simply moving the VTR and a monitor into a common room. A cable link to the Southside halls of residence was laid in a tunnel under Exhibition Road in 1972. Besides the news, early productions included a film of the Queen opening what was then called College Block and interview programmes with DJ Mike Raven, Richard O'Brian and Monty Python producer Ian MacNaughton.
In 2006 it was named Best Broadcaster at NaSTA and also won awards for Best On-Screen Male and Best On-Screen Female. It now broadcasts from studios in the specially built media centre at Imperial College Union to the Junior Common Room and occasionally FiveSixEight. Programmes are also available to watch on their website.104
Published weekly, Felix is the free student newspaper of Imperial. It aims to be independent of both the College itself and the Student Union. The editor is elected annually from the student body; the editorship is a full-time, sabbatical position. In 2006 and 2008, Felix won the Guardian Student Media Awards for Student newspaper of the year and Student journalist of the year.
Imperial College owns and manages twenty halls of residence in Inner London, Ealing, Ascot and Wye. Over three thousand rooms are available, guaranteeing first year undergraduates a place in College residences.
The majority of halls offer single or twin accommodation with some rooms having en suite facilities. Study bedrooms are provided with basic furniture and with access to shared kitchens and bathrooms. The majority of rooms come with internet access and access to the Imperial network. Most of them are considered among the newest student halls at London universities.
Most students in college or university accommodation are first-year undergraduates, since they are granted a room once they have selected Imperial College as their firm offer at UCAS. The majority of older students and postgraduates find accommodation in the private sector, help for which is provided by the College private housing office. However a handful of students may continue to live in halls in later years if they take the position of a "hall senior".
Some students are also selected to live in International Students House, London.
A decision by the university in early 2013 to relocate a substantial proportion of student accommodation from the campus area to North Acton prompted strong protests from students.105106 This echoes earlier (2012) controversy surrounding the closure of affordable postgraduate student accommodation at the College's 'Clayponds Village' in Ealing, West London, in favour of an arrangement with a commercial provider.107
List of Halls of Residence:
Nobel laureates of Imperial include, in medicine, Sir Alexander Fleming (pharmacologist), Sir Ernst Boris Chain (biochemist), Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins, Sir Andrew Fielding Huxley, Rodney Robert Porter, in physics, Abdus Salam, Sir George Paget Thomson, Patrick Blackett, Baron Blackett, Dennis Gabor, Peter Higgs, in chemistry Sir Norman Haworth, Sir Cyril Norman Hinshelwood, Sir Derek Barton, Sir Geoffrey Wilkinson and Sir George Porter.
In academia, notable alumni and faculty members include: Thomas Henry Huxley, biologist; Sir Tom Kibble, co-discoverer of Higgs Boson; Sir Tejinder Virdee, known for originating the concept and overseeing the construction of the CMS experiment; Sir John Pendry, pioneer of the "invisibility cloak"; Sir Christopher Kelk Ingold, physical organic chemistry pioneer; Sir William Henry Perkin, discoverer of the first synthetic organic chemical dye mauveine; Sir Edward Frankland, originator of the theory of chemical valency; Sir William Crookes, discoverer of thallium and inventor of the Crookes tube; Harold Hopkins, optics pioneer; Meghnad Saha, mathematician and astro-physicist; Simon Donaldson, mathematician and Fields Medallist; and Alfred North Whitehead, mathematician and philosopher.
Other notable people associated with Imperial include: H. G. Wells, author; Nicholas Tombazis, Ferrari's Chief Designer; Brian May, guitarist of rock band Queen; Julius Vogel, former Prime Minister of New Zealand; Teo Chee Hean, current Deputy Prime Minister of Singapore; and Hong Kong singer-songwriter and actor Aarif Rahman.
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