In immunology, an idiotype is a shared characteristic between a group of immunoglobulin or T cell receptor (TCR) molecules based upon the antigen binding specificity and therefore structure of their variable region. The variable region of antigen receptors of T cells (TCRs) and B cells (immunoglobulins) contains a complementarity determining region (CDR) with a unique amino acid structure that determines the antigen specificity of the receptor. The structure formed by the CDR is known as the idiotope. Immunoglobulins or TCRs with a shared idiotope are the same idiotype. Antibody idiotype is determined by
- Gene rearrangement
- Junctional diversity
- P-nucleotides (palindromic nucleotides at sites of single-strand breaks)
- Somatic hypermutations
The term idiotype is sometimes used to describe the collection of multiple idiotopes, and therefore overall antigen binding capacity, possessed by an antibody.
The word idiotype became influential in immunology when Niels Jerne formulated his immune network theory. Jerne was awarded the Nobel Prize for Medicine or Physiology in 1984 largely for being the father of immune network theory. He defined idiotype as the set of epitopes on the V region of an antibody molecule, where epitope means an antigenic determinant. He also defined the "paratope" to be that part of an antibody variable region that binds to an antigen. The best developed version of immune network theory is called the symmetrical network theory, in which the distinction between idiotype and paratope plays no role.
- Immunoglobulin idiotypes at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH)
- Idiotype at eMedicine Dictionary
- Overview at Medical University of South Carolina
- Overview at Southern Illinois University Carbondale
Content from Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia
What Is This Site? The Ultimate Study Guide is a mirror of English Wikipedia. It exists in order to provide Wikipedia content to those who are unable to access the main Wikipedia site due to draconian government, employer, or school restrictions. The site displays all the text content from Wikipedia. Our sponsors generously cover part of the cost of hosting this site, and their ads are shown as part of this agreement. We regret that we are unable to display certain controversial images on some pages the site at the request of the sponsors. If you need to see images which we are unable to show, we encourage you to view Wikipedia directly if possible, and apologize for this inconvenience.
A product of XPR Content Systems. 47 Union St #9K, Grand Falls-Windsor NL A2A 2C9 CANADA