- In general usage, hybrid is synonymous with heterozygous: any offspring resulting from the breeding of two genetically distinct individuals
- a genetic hybrid carries two different alleles of the same gene
- a structural hybrid results from the fusion of gametes that have differing structure in at least one chromosome, as a result of structural abnormalities
- a numerical hybrid results from the fusion of gametes having different haploid numbers of chromosomes
- a permanent hybrid is a situation where only the heterozygous genotype occurs, because all homozygous combinations are lethal.
From a taxonomic perspective, hybrid refers to:
- Offspring resulting from the interbreeding between two animal species or plant species.3 See also hybrid speciation.
- Hybrids between different subspecies within a species (such as between the Bengal tiger and Siberian tiger) are known as intra-specific hybrids. Hybrids between different species within the same genus (such as between lions and tigers) are sometimes known as interspecific hybrids or crosses. Hybrids between different genera (such as between sheep and goats) are known as intergeneric hybrids. Extremely rare interfamilial hybrids have been known to occur (such as the guineafowl hybrids).4 No interordinal (between different orders) animal hybrids are known.
- The third type of hybrid consists of crosses between populations, breeds or cultivars within a single species. This meaning is often used in plant and animal breeding, where hybrids are commonly produced and selected because they have desirable characteristics not found or inconsistently present in the parent individuals or populations. This flow of genetic material between populations is often called hybridization.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 Types of hybrids
- 3 Interspecific hybrids
- 4 Hybrid species
- 5 Examples of hybrid animals
- 6 Hybrid plants
- 7 Hybrids in nature
- 8 Limiting factors
- 9 Mythical, legendary and religious hybrids
- 10 See also
- 11 References
- 12 External links
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the word is derived from Latin hybrida, meaning the "offspring of a tame sow and a wild boar", "child of a freeman and slave", etc.5 The term entered into popular use in English in the 19th century, though examples of its use have been found from the early 17th century.6
Depending on the parents, there are a number of different types of hybrids;7
- Single cross hybrids — result from the cross between two true breeding organisms and produces an F1 generation called an F1 hybrid (F1 is short for Filial 1, meaning "first offspring"). The cross between two different homozygous lines produces an F1 hybrid that is heterozygous; having two alleles, one contributed by each parent and typically one is dominant and the other recessive. Typically, the F1 generation is also phenotypically homogeneous, producing offspring that are all similar to each other.
- Double cross hybrids — result from the cross between two different F1 hybrids.8
- Three-way cross hybrids — result from the cross between one parent that is an F1 hybrid and the other is from an inbred line.9
- Triple cross hybrids — result from the crossing of two different three-way cross hybrids.
- Population hybrids — result from the crossing of plants or animals in a population with another population. These include crosses between organisms such as interspecific hybrids or crosses between different breeds.
- Stable hybrid - a horticultural term which typically refers to an annual plant that, if grown and bred in a small monoculture free of external pollen (e.g., an air-filtered greenhouse) will produce offspring that are "true to type" with respect to phenotype; i.e., a true breeding organism.10
- Hybrid species - results from hybrid populations evolving reproductive barriers against their parent species through hybrid speciation.11
Interspecific hybrids are bred by mating two species, normally from within the same genus. The offspring display traits and characteristics of both parents. The offspring of an interspecific cross are very often sterile; thus, hybrid sterility prevents the movement of genes from one species to the other, keeping both species distinct.12 Sterility is often attributed to the different number of chromosomes the two species have, for example donkeys have 62 chromosomes, while horses have 64 chromosomes, and mules and hinnies have 63 chromosomes. Mules, hinnies, and other normally sterile interspecific hybrids cannot produce viable gametes, because differences in chromosome structure prevent appropriate pairing and segregation during meiosis, meiosis is disrupted, and viable sperm and eggs are not formed. However, fertility in female mules has been reported with a donkey as the father.13
Most often other processes occurring in plants and animals keep gametic isolation and species distinction. Species often have different mating or courtship patterns or behaviors, the breeding seasons may be distinct and even if mating does occur antigenic reactions to the sperm of other species prevent fertilization or embryo development. Hybridisation is much more common among organisms that spawn indiscriminately, like soft corals and among plants.
While it is possible to predict the genetic composition of a backcross on average, it is not possible to accurately predict the composition of a particular backcrossed individual, due to random segregation of chromosomes. In a species with two pairs of chromosomes, a twice backcrossed individual would be predicted to contain 12.5% of one species' genome (say, species A). However, it may, in fact, still be a 50% hybrid if the chromosomes from species A were lucky in two successive segregations, and meiotic crossovers happened near the telomeres. The chance of this is fairly high: (where the "two times two" comes about from two rounds of meiosis with two chromosomes); however, this probability declines markedly with chromosome number and so the actual composition of a hybrid will be increasingly closer to the predicted composition.
Hybrids are often named by the portmanteau method, combining the names of the two parent species. For example, a zeedonk is a cross between a zebra and a donkey. Since the traits of hybrid offspring often vary depending on which species was mother and which was father, it is traditional to use the father's species as the first half of the portmanteau. For example, a liger is a cross between a male lion and a female tiger, while a tigon is a cross between a male tiger and a female lion.
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (January 2010)|
Hybrids between domesticated and wild animals in particular may be problematic. Breeders of domesticated species discourage crossbreeding with wild species, unless a deliberate decision is made to incorporate a trait of a wild ancestor back into a given breed or strain. Wild populations of animals and plants have evolved naturally over millions of years through a process of natural selection in contrast to human controlled selective breeding or artificial selection for desirable traits from the human point of view. Normally, these two methods of reproduction operate independently of one another. However, an intermediate form of selective breeding, wherein animals or plants are bred by humans, but with an eye to adaptation to natural region-specific conditions and an acceptance of natural selection to weed out undesirable traits, created many ancient domesticated breeds or types now known as landraces.
Many times, domesticated species live in or near areas which also still hold naturally evolved, region-specific wild ancestor species and subspecies. In some cases, a domesticated species of plant or animal may become feral, living wild. Other times, a wild species will come into an area inhabited by a domesticated species. Some of these situations lead to the creation of hybridized plants or animals, a cross between the native species and a domesticated one. This type of crossbreeding, termed genetic pollution by those who are concerned about preserving the genetic base of the wild species, has become a major concern. Hybridization is also a concern to the breeders of purebred species as well, particularly if the gene pool is small and if such crossbreeding or hybridization threatens the genetic base of the domesticated purebred population.
The concern with genetic pollution of a wild population is that hybridized animals and plants may not be as genetically strong as naturally evolved region specific wild ancestors wildlife which can survive without human husbandry and have high immunity to natural diseases. The concern of purebred breeders with wildlife hybridizing a domesticated species is that it can coarsen or degrade the specific qualities of a breed developed for a specific purpose, sometimes over many generations. Thus, both purebred breeders and wildlife biologists share a common interest in preventing accidental hybridization.
While not very common, a few animal species have been recognized as being the result of hybridization. The Lonicera fly is an example of a novel animal species that resulted from natural hybridization. The American red wolf appears to be a hybrid species between gray wolf and coyote,14 although its taxonomic status has been a subject of controversy.151617 The European edible frog appears to be a species, but is actually a semi-permanent hybrid between pool frogs and marsh frogs. The edible frog population is dependent on the presence of at least one of the parents species to be maintained.18
Hybrid species of plants are much more common than animals. Many of the crop species are hybrids, and hybridization appear to be an important factor in speciation in some plant groups.
- Equid hybrids
- Mule, a cross of female horse and a male donkey.
- Hinny, a cross between a female donkey and a male horse. Mule and hinny are examples of reciprocal hybrids.
- hybrid ass, a cross between a donkey and an onager or Asian wild ass.
- Bovid hybrids
- Dzo, zo or yakow; a cross between a domestic cow/bull and a yak.
- Beefalo, a cross of an American bison and a domestic cow. This is a fertile breed; this along with genetic evidence has caused them to be recently reclassified into the same genus, Bos.citation needed
- Żubroń, a hybrid between wisent (European bison) and domestic cow.
- Sheep-goat hybrid is the cross between a sheep and a goat, which belong to different genera.
- Ursid hybrids, such as the grizzly-polar bear hybrid, occur between black bears, brown bears, and polar bears.
- Felid hybrids
- Savannah cats are the hybrid cross between an African serval cat and a domestic cat
- A hybrid between a Bengal tiger and a Siberian tiger is an example of an intra-specific hybrid. It also includes the Indochinese tiger, Sumatran tiger too.
- Pumapards are the hybrid crosses between a puma and a leopard.
- Ligers and Tiglons (crosses between a lion and a tiger) and other Panthera hybrids such as the lijagulep. Various other wild cat crosses are known involving the lynx, bobcat, leopard, serval, etc.
- Bengal cat, a cross between the Asian leopard cat and the domestic cat, one of many hybrids between the domestic cat and wild cat species. The domestic cat, African wild cat and European wildcat may be considered variant populations of the same species (Felis silvestris), making such crosses non-hybrids.
- Fertile canid hybrids occur between coyotes, wolves, dingoes, jackals and domestic dogs.
- Hybrids between black and white rhinoceroses have been recognized.
- Hybrid camel, a cross between a bactrian camel and a dromedary camel, just like the mule a more powerful creature than its parents.19
- Cama, a cross between a camel and a llama, also an intergeneric hybrid.
- Wholphin, a fertile but very rare cross between a false killer whale and a bottlenose dolphin.
- At Chester Zoo in the United Kingdom, a cross between an African elephant (male) and an Asian elephant (female). The male calf was named Motty. He died of intestinal infection after twelve days.
- Homininae hybrids
- Hybrids between spotted owls and barred owls
- Cagebird breeders sometimes breed hybrids between species of finch, such as goldfinch × canary. These birds are known as mules.
- The Perlin is a Peregrine falcon - Merlin hybrid.
- Gamebird hybrids, hybrids between gamebirds and domestic fowl, including chickens, guineafowl and peafowl, interfamilial hybrids.
- Numerous macaw hybrids and lovebird hybrids are also known in aviculture.
- Red kite × black kite: five bred unintentionally at a falconry center in England. (It is reportedweasel words that the black kite (the male) refused female black kites but mated with two female red kites.)
- The mulard duck, hybrid of the domestic pekin duck and domesticated muscovy ducks.
- In Australia, New Zealand and other areas where the Pacific Black Duck occurs, it is hybridised by the much more aggressive introduced Mallard. This is a concern to wildlife authorities throughout the affected area, as it is seen as Genetic pollution of the Black Duck gene pool.
- Hybridisation in gulls is a reasonably frequent occurrence in the wild.
- Hybrid Iguana, a single‐cross hybrid resulting from natural interbreeding between male marine iguanas and female land iguanas since the late 2000s.
- Crestoua, a cross between a Rhacodactylus Ciliatus (crested gecko) and a Rhacodactylus Chahoua.
- Colubrid snakes of the tribe Lampropeltini have been shown to produce fertile hybrid offspring.
- Hybridization between the endemic Cuban crocodile (Crocodilus rhombifer) and the widely distributed American crocodile (Crocodilus acutus) is causing conservation problems for the former species as a threat to its genetic integrity.21clarification needed
- Saltwater crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) have mated with Siamese crocodiles (Crocodylus siamensis) in captivity producing offspring which in many cases have grown over 20 feet (6.1 metres) in length. It is likely that wild hybridization occurred historically in parts of southeast Asia.
- Many species of boas and pythons are known to produce hybrids, such as carball (a cross between a ball python and a carpet python) or a bloodball (a cross between a blood python and a ball python) however, most of these only occur in captivity. Contrary to popular belief, boa–python hybrids are not possible due to their differing reproductive functions. Boas only produce hybrids with other species of boas, and pythons only produce hybrids with other species of pythons.
- Japanese Giant Salamanders and Chinese Giant Salamanders have created hybrids that threaten the survival of Japanese Giant Salamanders due to the competition for similar resources in Japan.22
- Blood parrot cichlid, which is probably created by crossing a red head cichlid and a Midas cichlid or red devil cichlid
- A group of about 50 hybrids between Australian blacktip shark and the larger common blacktip shark was found by Australia's East Coast in 2012. This is the only known case of hybridization in sharks.23
- Silver bream and Common bream commonly produce sterile hybrids.
- Tiger muskie is a sterile hybrid between Northern pike and Muskellunge.
- Killer bees were created during an attempt to breed a strain of bees that would produce more honey and be better adapted to tropical conditions. This was done by crossing a European honey bee and an African bee.
- The Colias eurytheme and C. philodice butterflies have retained enough genetic compatibility to produce viable hybrid offspring.24
Hybrids should not be confused with genetic chimeras such as that between sheep and goat known as the geep. Wider interspecific hybrids can be made via in vitro fertilization or somatic hybridization, however the resulting cells are not able to develop into a full organism. An example of interspecific hybrid cell lines is humster (hamster × human) cells.
Many hybrids are created by humans, but natural hybrids occur as well. Plant species hybridize more readily than animal species, and the resulting hybrids are more often fertile hybrids and may reproduce, though there still exist sterile hybrids and selective hybrid elimination where the offspring are less able to survive and are thus eliminated before they can reproduce. A number of plant species are the result of hybridization and polyploidy with many plant species easily cross pollinating and producing viable seeds, the distinction between each species is often maintained by geographical isolation or differences in the flowering period. Since plants hybridize frequently without much work, they are often created by humans in order to produce improved plants. These improvements can include the production of more or improved seeds, fruits or other plant parts for consumption, or to make a plant more winter or heat hardy or improve its growth and/or appearance for use in horticulture. Much work is now being done with hybrids to produce more disease resistant plants for both agricultural and horticultural crops. In many groups of plants hybridization has been used to produce larger and more showy flowers and new flower colors.
Many plant genera and species have their origins in polyploidy. Autopolyploidy results from the sudden multiplication in the number of chromosomes in typical normal populations caused by unsuccessful separation of the chromosomes during meiosis. Tetraploids (plants with four sets of chromosomes rather than two) are common in a number of different groups of plants and over time these plants can differentiate into distinct species from the normal diploid line. In Oenothera lamarchiana the diploid species has 14 chromosomes, this species has spontaneously given rise to plants with 28 chromosomes that have been given the name Oenothera gigas. When hybrids are formed between the tetraploids and the diploid population, the resulting offspring tend to be sterile triploids, thus effectively stopping the intermixing of genes between the two groups of plants (unless the diploids, in rare cases, produce unreduced gametes).
Another form of polyploidy called allopolyploidy occurs when two different species mate and produce polyploid hybrids. Usually the typical chromosome number is doubled, and the four sets of chromosomes can pair up during meiosis, thus the polyploids can produce offspring. Usually, these offspring can mate and reproduce with each other but cannot back-cross with the parent species. Allopolyploids may be able to adapt to new habitats that neither of their parent species inhabited.
|Species||Common Name||Family||Hybridization||Confirmed or Putative Hybridization?||Putative Parental/Introgressive species||Polyploid or Homoploid?||Polyploid Chromosome Count||References||Notes|
|Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench||Okra||Malvaceae||Allopolyploid origin||Putative||Uncertain||Polyploid (tetraploid)||usually 2n=4x=130||Joshi and Hardas, 1956; Schafleitner et al., 2013||Variable ploidy|
|Actinidia deliciosa (A. Chev.) C.F.Liang & A.R.Ferguson||Kiwifruit||Actinidiaceae||Allopolyploid origin||Putative||Actinidia chinensis Planch. and Unknown||Polyploid (hexaploid)||2n=6x=174||Atkinson et al., 1997|
|Agave fourcroydes Lem.||Henequen||Asparagaceae||Allopolyploid origin||Confirmed||Uncertain||Polyploid (usu. pentaploid, triploid)||2n=5x(3x)=150(90)||Robert et al., 2008; Hughes et al., 2007||Variable ploidy, polyploid event not recent|
|Agave sisalana Perrine||Sisal||Asparagaceae||Allopolyploid origin||Confirmed||Uncertain||Polyploid (usu. pentaploid, hexaploid)||2n=5x(6x)=150(180)||Robert et al., 2008||Variable ploidy, polyploid event not recent|
|Allium ampeloprasum L.||Great headed garlic||Amaryllidaceae||Intraspecific hybrid origin||Putative||Allium ampeloprasum L.||Homoploid||-||Guenaoui et al., 2013|
|Allium cepa L.||Common onion||Amaryllidaceae||Interspecific hybrid origin||Putative||Uncertain: Allium vavilovii Popov & Vved., A. galanthum Kar. & Kir. or A. fistulosum L.||Homoploid||-||Gurushidze et al., 2007|
|Allium cornutum Clementi||Triploid onion||Amaryllidaceae||Triparental allopolyploid origin||Confirmed||Allium cepa L., A. roylei Stearn, unknown||Polyploid (triploid)||2n=3x=24||Fredotovic et al., 2014|
|Ananas comosus (L.) Merr is||Pineapple||Bromeliaceae||Interspecific introgression||Putative||Ananas ananassoides (Baker) L.B. Smith||Homoploid||-||Duval et al., 2003|
|Annona x atemoya||Atemoya||Annonaceae||Interspecific hybrid origin||Confirmed||Annona cherimola Mill. and A. squamosa L.||?||-||Perfectti et al., 2004; Jalikop, 2010|
|Arachis hypogaea L.||Peanut||Fabaceae||Allopolyploid origin||Confirmed||Arachis duranensis Krapov. & W.C. Greg. and A. ipaënsis Krapov. & W.C. Greg.||Polypoid (tetraploid)||2n=4x=40||Kochert et al., 1996; Bertioli et al., 2011|
|Armoracia rusticana P.Gaertn., B.Mey. & Scherb.||Horseradish||Brassicaceae||Interspecific hybrid origin||Putative||Uncertain||?||-||Courter and Rhodes, 1969|
|Artocarpus altilis (Parkinson ex F.A.Zorn) Fosberg||Breadfruit||Moraceae||Interspecific introgression||Putative||Artocarpus mariannensis Trécul||?||-||Zerega et al., 2005; Jones et al., 2013|
|Avena sativa L.||Oat||Poaceae||Allopolyploid origin||Confirmed||Uncertain||Polyploid (hexaploid)||2n=6x=42||Linares et al., 1998; Oliver et al., 2013|
|Brassica carinata A.Braun||Ethiopian mustard||Brassicaceae||Allopolyploid origin||Confirmed||Brassica oleracea L. and B. nigra (L.) K.Koch||Polyploid (tetraploid)||2n=4x=19||Arias et al., 2014|
|Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.||Indian mustard||Brassicaceae||Allopolyploid origin||Confirmed||Brassica nigra (L.) K.Koch and B. rapa L.||Polyploid (tetraploid)||2n=4x=18||Arias et al., 2014|
|Brassica napus L.||Rapeseed, Rutabega||Brassicaceae||Allopolyploid origin||Confirmed||Brassica rapa L. and B. oleracea L.||Polyploid (tetraploid)||2n=4x=19||Arias et al., 2014|
|Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.||Pigeon Pea||Fabaceae||Intraspecific introgression, interspecific introgression||Putative||Wild Cajanus cajan and other species||Homoploid||-||Kassa et al., 2012|
|Cannabis sativa L.||Hemp||Cannabaceae||Intraspecific introgression||Putative||Cannabis sativa L. 'Indica' and 'Sativa' types||Homoploid||-||de Meijer and van Soest, 1992|
|Carica pentagona Heilborn||Babaco||Caricaceae||Interspecific hybrid origin||Confirmed||Uncertain (Carica stipulata V.M.Badillo, Vasconcellea pubescens A.DC., Vasconcellea weberbaueri (Harms) V.M. Badillo)||?||-||Van Droogenbroeck et al., 2002; Van Droogenbroeck et al., 2006|
|Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K.Koch||Pecan||Juglandaceae||Interspecific hybrid origin||Putative||Uncertain||?||-||Grauke et al., 2011|
|Castanea dentata (Marshall) Borkh||Chestnut||Fagaceae||Interspecific introgression||Confirmed||Castanea pumila (L.) Mill.||Homoploid||-||Li and Dane, 2013||Also ongoing efforts to introgress blight resistance from Castanea mollissima Blume (see Jacobs et al., 2013)|
|Castanea sativa Mill.||Chestnut||Fagaceae||Intraspecific introgression||Confirmed||Castanea sativa Eurosiberian and Mediterranean populations||Homoploid||-||Villani et al., 1999; Mattioni et al., 2013|
|Chenopodium quinoa Willd.||Quinoa||Chenopodiaceae||Allopolyploid origin||Putative||Uncertain||Polyploid (tetraploid)||-||Heiser, 1974; Ward, 2000; Maughan et al., 2004|
|Cicer arietinum L.||Chickpea (pea-shaped)||Fabaceae||Intraspecific hybrid origin||Putative||Cicer arietinum L. Desi and Kabuli Germplasm||?||-||Upadhyaya et al., 2008; Keneni et al., 2011|
|Cichorium intybus L.||Radicchio||Asteraceae||Interspecific introgression||Confirmed||Wild Cichorium intybus L.||Homoploid||-||Kiaer et al., 2009|
|Citrus aurantiifolia (Christm.) Swingle||Key lime||Rutaceae||Interspecific hybrid origin||Confirmed||Citrus medica L. and C. subg. Papeda||?||-||Ollitrault and Navarro, 2012; Penjor et al., 2014; Nicolosi et al., 2000; Moore, 2001|
|Citrus aurantium L.||Sour oranges||Rutaceae||Interspecific hybrid origin||Confirmed||Citrus maxima (Burm.) and C. reticulata Blanco||?||-||Wu et al., 2014; Moore, 2001|
|Citrus clementina hort.||Clementine||Rutaceae||Interspecific hybrid origin||Confirmed||Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck and C. reticulata Blanco||?||-||Wu et al., 2014|
|Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck||Lemon, lime||Rutaceae||Interspecific hybrid origin||Confirmed||Citrus medica L., C. aurantiifolia (Christm.) Swingle, and uncertain||?||-||Nicolosi et al., 2000; Moore, 2001|
|Citrus paradisi Macfad.||Grapefruit||Rutaceae||Interspecific hybrid origin||Confirmed||Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck and C. maxima (Burm.)||?||-||Wu et al., 2014; Moore, 2001|
|Citrus reticulata Blanco||Mandarin||Rutaceae||Interspecific introgression||Confirmed||Citrus maxima (Burm.)||?||-||Wu et al., 2014|
|Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck||Sweet orange (blood, common)||Rutaceae||Interspecific hybrid origin||Confirmed||Uncertain||?||-||Wu et al., 2014; Moore, 2001|
|Cocos nucifera L.||Coconut||Arecaceae||Intraspecific introgression||Confirmed||Cocos nucifera L. Indo-Atlantic and Pacific lineages||Homoploid||-||Gunn et al., 2011|
|Coffea arabica L.||Coffee||Rubiaceae||Allopolyploid origin||Confirmed||Coffea eugenioides S.Moore and C. canephora Pierre ex A.Froehner||Polyploid (tetraploid)||2n=4x=44||Lashermes et al., 1999|
|Corylus avellana L.||Hazelnut||Betulaceae||Intraspecific introgression||Confirmed||Wild Corylus avellana L. in Southern Europe||Homoploid||-||Campa et al., 2011; Boccacci et al., 2013|
|Cucurbita pepo L.||Winter Squash, Pumpkin||Cucurbitaceae||Intraspecific introgression||Putative||Cucurbita pepo var. texana (Scheele) D.S.Decker||Homploid||-||Kirkpatrick and Wilson, 1988|
|Daucus carota subsp. sativus (Hoffm.) Arcang.||Carrot||Apiaceae||Intraspecific introgression||Confirmed||Daucus carota L. subsp. carota||Homoploid||-||Iorizzo et al., 2013; Simon, 2000|
|Dioscorea L. spp.||Yam||Dioscoreaceae||Interspecific hybrid origin, introgression||Putative||Uncertain||Variable||-||Terauchi et al., 1992; Dansi et al., 1999; Bhattacharjee et al., 2011; Mignouna et al., 2002||Multiple species of putative hybrid (perhaps allopolyploid) origin including Dioscorea cayennensis subsp. rotundata (Poir.) J.Miège. and D. cayennensis Lam.|
|Diospyros kaki L.f.||Persimmon||Ebenaceae||Allopolyploid origin||Putative||Uncertain||Polyploid (hexaploid)||Yonemori et al., 2008|
|Ficus carica L.||Fig||Moraceae||Interspecific introgression||Putative||Uncertain||?||- Aradhya et al., 2010|
|Fragaria ananassa (Duchesne ex Weston) Duchesne ex Rozier||Strawberries||Rosaceae||Interspecific hybrid origin||Confirmed||Fragaria virginiana Mill. (octoploid), F. chiloensis (L.) Mill. (octoploid)||Homoploid relative to parentals (octoploid)||2n=8x=56 Evans, 1977; Hirakawa et al., 2014||Uncertain which species formed the octoploid progenitors|
|Garcinia mangostana L.||Mangosteen||Clusiaceae||Allopolyploid origin||Putative||Garcinia celebica L. and G. malaccensis Hook.f. ex T.Anderson||Polyploid (tetraploid)||? Richards, 1990||Recent work shows this may not be of hybrid origin (Nazre, 2014)|
|Gossypium hirsutum L.||Upland Cotton||Malvaceae||hybrid origin||Confirmed||Uncertain, referred to as 'A' and 'D'||Polyploid (formed <1MYA)||2n =4x=52 Wendel and Cronn 2003||Polyploidization likely led to agronomically significant traits (Applequist et al., 2001)|
|Hibiscus sabdariffa L.||Roselle||Malvaceae||Allopolyploid origin||Putative||Uncertain||Polyploid (tetraploid)||2n=4x=72 Menzel and Wilson, 1966; Satya et al., 2013|
|Hordeum vulgare L.||Barley||Poaceae||Introgression||Confirmed||Hordeum spontaneum K.Koch||Homoploid||- Badr et al., 2000; Dai et al., 2012|
|Humulus lupulus L.||Hops||Cannabaceae||Intraspecific introgression||Confirmed||Humulus lupulus L. North American and European Germplasm||Homoploid||- Reeves and Richards, 2011; Stajner et al., 2008; Seefelder et al., 2000|
|Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.||Sweet Potato||Convolvulaceae||Intraspecific introgression; Interspecific introgression?||Putative||Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. Central American and South American Germplasm||Homoploid relative to parentals||Roullier et al., 2013|
|Juglans regia L.||Walnut||Juglandaceae||Interspecific hybridization||Confirmed||Juglans sigillata Dode||Homoploid||- Gunn et al., 2010|
|Lactuca sativa L.||Lettuce||Asteraceae||Intraspecific hybrid origin||Putative||Lactuca serriola L. and other L. spp.||Homoploid||- de Vries, 1997|
|Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl.||Bottle Gourd||Cucurbitaceae||Intraspecific introgression||Confirmed||Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl. African/American and Asian Germplasm||Homoploid||- Clarke et al., 2006|
|Lens culinaris Medik. ssp. culinaris||Lentil||Fabaceae||Intraspecific introgression||Putative||Wild lentil, Lens culinaris subsp. orientalis (Boiss.) Ponert||Homoploid||- Erskine et al., 2011|
|Macadamia integrifolia Maiden & Betche||Macadamia||Proteaceae||Interspecific hybrid origin, interspecific introgression||Confirmed||Macadamia tetraphylla L.A.S.Johnson, and other M. spp.||Homoploid||- Hardner et al., 2009; Steiger et al., 2003; Aradhya et al., 1998|
|Malus domestica Borkh.||Apple||Rosaceae||Interspecific hybrid origin||Confirmed||Malus sieversii (Ledeb.) M.Roem., M. sylvestris (L.) Mill., and possibly others||Homoploid||- Cornille et al., 2012|
|Mentha piperita L.||Peppermint||Lamiaceae||Allopolyploid origin||Confirmed||Mentha aquatica L. and M. spicata L.||Polyploid (12-ploid)||2n=12x=66 or 72 Harley and Brighton, 1977; Gobert et al., 2002|
|Musa paradisiaca L.||Banana||Musaceae||Allopolyploid origin||Confirmed||Musa acuminata Colla, M. balbisiana Colla||Polyploid (usually triploid)||2n=3x=33 Simmonds and Shepherd, 1955; Heslop-Harrison and Schwarzacher, 2007; De Langhe et al., 2010|
|Nicotiana tabacum L.||Tobacco||Solanaceae||Allopolyploid origin||Confirmed||Uncertain (Nicotiana sylvestris Speg. & S. Comes and N. tomentosiformis Goodsp.)||Polyploid (tetraploid)||2n=4x=48 Kenton et al., 1993; Murad et al., 2002|
|Olea europaea L.||Olive||Oleaceae||Intraspecific introgression||Putative||Wild Olea europaea L., Eastern and Western Germplasm||Homoploid||- Kaniewski et al., 2012; Besnard et al., 2013; Breton et al., 2006; Rubio de Casas et al., 2006; Besnard et al., 2007; Besnard et al., 2000|
|Opuntia L. spp.||Opuntia||Cactaceae||Interspecific hybrid origin, Allopolyploid origin||Putative||Including Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.||Polyploid, homoploid||- Hughes et al., 2007; Griffith, 2004|
|Oryza sativa L.||Rice||Poaceae||Intraspecific introgression, interspecific introgression||Putative||Oryza sativa L. 'Japonica' and 'Indica' Germplasm, Oryza rufipogon Griff.||Homoploid||- Caicedo et al., 2007; Gao and Innan, 2008|
|Oxalis tuberosa Molina||Oca||Oxalidaceae||Allopolyploid origin||Putative||Uncertain||Polyploid (octaploid)||2n=8x=64 Emswhiller and Doyle, 2002; Emshwiller 2002; Emswhiller et al., 2009|
|Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R.Br.||Pearl Millet||Poaceae||Intraspecific introgression||Confirmed||Wild Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R.Br.||Homoploid||- Oumar et al., 2008|
|Persea americana Mill.||Avocado (Hass and other cultivars)||Lauraceae||Intraspecific introgression||Confirmed||Persea americana Mill. 'Guatamalensis', 'Drymifolia', and' Americana'||Homoploid||- Chen et al., 2008; Davis et al., 1998; Ashworth and Clegg, 2003; Douhan et al., 2011|
|Phoenix dactylifera L.||Date palm||Arecaceae||Interspecific hybrid origin||Putative||Uncertain||Homoploid||- El Hadrami et al., 2011; Bennaceur et al., 1991|
|Piper methysticum G.Forst.||Kava||Piperaceae||Allopolyploid origin||Putative||Piper wichmannii C. DC. and P. gibbiflorum C.DC.||Polyploid (decaploid)||2n=10x=130 Singh, 2004; Lebot et al., 1991|
|Pistacia vera L.||Pistachio||Anacardiaceae||Interspecific introgression||Putative||Pistacia atlantica Desf., P. chinensis subsp. integerrima (J. L. Stewart ex Brandis) Rech. f.||Homoploid||- Kafkas et al., 2001|
|Pisum abyssinicum A.Braun||Pea||Fabaceae||Interspecific hybrid origin||Confirmed||Uncertain (Pisum fulvum Sibth. & Sm. and other P. spp.)||Homoploid||- Vershinin et al., 2003|
|Pisum sativum L.||Pea||Fabaceae||Interspecific hybrid origin||Confirmed||Uncertain (Pisum sativum subsp. elatius (M.Bieb.) Asch. & Graebn. and other P. spp.)||Homoploid||- Vershinin et al., 2003|
|Plinia cauliflora (Mart.) Kausel||Jaboticaba||Myrtaceae||Intraspecific hybridization, interspecific hybridization||Putative||Plinia 'Jaboticaba' and 'Cauliflora' Germplasm; P. peruviana (Poir.) Govaerts||Homoploid||- Balerdi et al., 2006|
|Prunus cerasus L.||Cherry||Rosaceae||Allopolyploid origin||Confirmed||Prunus avium (L.) L. and P. fruticosa Pall.||Polyploid (tetraploid)||2n=4x=32 Tavaud et al., 2004; Olden and Nybom ,1968|
|Prunus domestica L.||Plum||Rosaceae||Allopolyploid origin||Confirmed||Uncertain (P. cerasifera Ehrh. and P. spinosa L.)||Polyploid (hexaploid)||2n=6x=48 Zohary, 1992; Hartmann and Neumuller, 2009||Japanese Plum is also of hybrid origin (see Hartmann and Neumuller 2009). Also hybridizes with other cultivated Prunus spp.|
|Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D.A.Webb||Almond||Rosaceae||Interspecific introgression||Confirmed||Prunus orientalis (Mill.) Koehne and other P. spp.||Homoploid||- Delplancke et al., 2012; Delplancke et al., 2013|
|Pyrus L. species||Pear||Rosaceae||Interspecific hybrid origin||Confirmed||Many species||Homoploid||- Silva et al., 2014||Also introgression with semidomesticated populations (see Iketani et al. 2009)|
|Raphanus raphanistrum subsp. sativus (L.) Domin||Radish||Brassicaceae||Intraspecific introgression||Confirmed||Raphanus raphanistrum L. subsp. raphanistrum||Homoploid||- Ridley et al., 2008|
|Rheum L. cultivated species||Rhubarb||Polygonaceae||Interspecific hybrid origin||Putative||Unclear||Homoploid relative to parentals (tetraploid)||- Foust and Marshall, 1991; Kuhl and Deboer, 2008||Hybrids include: Rheum rhaponticum L., R. rhabarbarum L., R. palmatum L.|
|Rubus L. spp.||Red raspberry, Blackberry, Tayberry, Boysenberry, etc.||Rosaceae||Allopolyploid origin, interspecific hybridization||Confirmed||Many||Polyploid||- Alice et al., 2014; Alice and Campbell, 1999|
|Saccharum spp.||Sugarcane||Poaceae||Allopolyploid origin||Confirmed||Saccharum officinarum L. and S. spontaneum L.||Polyploid||Variable, 2n=10-13x=100-130 Grivet et al., 1995; D'Hont et al., 1996|
|Secale cereale L.||Rye||Poaceae||Interspecific hybrid origin||Confirmed||Uncertain (Secale montanum Guss., S. vavilovii Grossh.)||Homoploid||- Bartos et al., 2008; Korzun et al., 2001; Hillman, 1978; Tang et al., 2011; Salamini et al., 2002|
|Sechium edule (Jacq.) Sw.||Chayote||Cucurbitaceae||Interspecific introgression||Putative||Sechium compositum (Donn. Sm.) C. Jeffrey||Homoploid||- Newstrom, 1991|
|Setaria italica (L.) P.Beauv.||Foxtail millet||Poaceae||Interspecific introgression||Confirmed||Setaria viridis (L.) P.Beauv.||Homoploid||- Till-Bottraud et al., 1992|
|Solanum L. spp. Section Petota||Potato||Solanaceae||Interspecific hybrid origin, allopolyploid origin, interspecific introgression||Confirmed||Including Solanum tuberosum L., S. ajanhuiri Juz. & Bukasov, S. curtilobum Juz. & Bukasov, S. juzepczukii Bukasov||Homoploid and Polyploid||- Rodriguez et al., 2010|
|Solanum lycopersicum L.||Tomato||Solanaceae||Intraspecific introgression, interspecific introgression||Confirmed||Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme (Dunal) D.M. Spooner, G.J. Anderson & R.K. Jansen and S. pimpinellifolium L.||Homoploid||- Blanca et al., 2012; Causse et al., 2013; Rick, 1950|
|Solanum melongena L.||Eggplant||Solanaceae||Interspecific hybrid origin, interspecific introgression, intraspecific introgression||Confirmed||Solanum undatum Lam. and others; wild S. melongena L. (=S. insanum L.)||Homoploid||- Knapp et al., 2013; Meyer et al., 2012||Hybrid origin is not confirmed, but introgression is well documented|
|Solanum muricatum Aiton||Pepino dulce||Solanaceae||Interspecific hybrid origin, interspecific introgression||Likely||Solanum species in Series Caripensia||Homoploid||- Blanca et al., 2007||Polyphyletic origin and extensive, ongoing introgression with wild species|
|Spondias purpurea L.||Jocote||Anacardiaceae||Interspecific introgression||Putative||Spondias mombin L.||Homoploid||- Miller and Schaal, 2005|
|Theobroma cacao L.||Cacao (Trinitario-type)||Malvaceae||Intraspecific hybrid origin||Confirmed||Theobroma cacao L. 'Forastero' and 'Criollo' Germplasm||Homoploid||- Yang et al., 2013|
|Triticum aestivum L.||Bread Wheat, Spelt||Poaceae||Allopolyploid origin||Confirmed||Triticum turgidum L. (tetraploid) with Aegilops tauschii Coss.||Polyploid (hexaploid)||2n=6x=42 Matsuoka, 2011; Dvorak, 2012|
|Triticum turgidum L.||Emmer Wheat, Durum Wheat||Poaceae||Allopolyploid origin||Confirmed||Triticum urartu Thumanjan ex Gandilyan and Aegilops speltoides Tausch||Polyploid (tetraploid)||2n=4x=28 Dvorak et al., 2012; Matsuoka, 2011; Yamane and Kawahara, 2005|
|Vaccinium corymbosum L.||Highbush Blueberry||Ericaceae||Interspecific hybrid origin, interspecific introgression||Putative||Vaccinium tenellum Aiton, V. darrowii Camp, (V. virgatum Aiton, V. angustifolium Aiton)||Uncertain||- Vander Kloet, 1980; Bruederle et al., 1994; Lyrene et al., 2003; Boches et al., 2006||Possible hybrid origin during the Plesitocene|
|Vanilla tahitensis J.W. Moore||Tahitian vanilla||Orchidaceae||Allopolyploid origin||Confirmed||Vanilla planifolia Jacks. ex Andrews and V. odorata C.Presl||Polyploid||Variable, 2n=2x(4x)=32(64) Lubinsky et al., 2008|
|Vitis rotundifolia Michx.||Grape||Vitaceae||Interspecific introgression||Confirmed||ManyVitis spp.||Homoploid||2n=2x=38 Reisch et al., 2012; This et al., 2006|
|Zea mays L.||Maize||Poaeceae||Intraspecific introgression||Confirmed||Wild Zea mays L. (teosinte, =subsp. parviglumis Iltis & Doebley)||Homoploid||- Van Heerwaarden et al., 2011; Hufford et al., 2013|
Sterility in a non-polyploid hybrid is often a result of chromosome number; if parents are of differing chromosome pair number, the offspring will have an odd number of chromosomes, leaving them unable to produce chromosomally balanced gametes.27 While this is undesirable in a crop such as wheat, where growing a crop which produces no seeds would be pointless, it is an attractive attribute in some fruits. Triploid bananas and watermelons are intentionally bred because they produce no seeds (and are parthenocarpic).
Hybrids are sometimes stronger than either parent variety, a phenomenon most common with plant hybrids, which when present is known as hybrid vigor (heterosis) or heterozygote advantage.28 A transgressive phenotype is a phenotype displaying more extreme characteristics than either of the parent lines.29 Plant breeders make use of a number of techniques to produce hybrids, including line breeding and the formation of complex hybrids. An economically important example is hybrid maize (corn), which provides a considerable seed yield advantage over open pollinated varieties. Hybrid seed dominates the commercial maize seed market in the United States, Canada and many other major maize producing countries.30
The multiplication symbol × (not italicised) indicates a hybrid in the Latin binomial nomenclature. Placed before the binomial it indicates a hybrid between species from different genera (intergeneric hybrid):-
- × Fatshedera lizei, a hybrid between Hedera helix and Fatsia japonica
- × Heucherella, a hybrid genus between Heuchera and Tiarella
- × Philageria veitchii is a hybrid between Lapageria rosea and Philesia magellanica; it is more similar in appearance to the former
- Leyland cypress, [× Cupressocyparis leylandii hybrid between Monterey cypress and Nootka cypress
- Triticale, [× Triticosecale a wheat–rye hybrid
- × Urceocharis, a hybrid between Eucharis and Urceolina
Interspecific plant hybrids include:
- Dianthus × allwoodii (Dianthus caryophyllus × Dianthus plumarius)
- Limequat Citrus × floridana, key lime Citrus aurantiifolia and kumquat Citrus japonica hybrid
- Loganberry Rubus × loganobaccus, a hybrid between raspberry Rubus idaeus and blackberry Rubus ursinus
- London plane (Platanus orientalis × Platanus occidentalis), thus forming Platanus × acerifolia
- Magnolia × alba (Magnolia champaca × Magnolia montana)
- Peppermint, a hybrid between spearmint and water mint
- Quercus × warei (Quercus robur × Quercus bicolor) 'Nadler' (marketed in the United States under the trade name Kindred Spirit hybrid oak)
- Tangelo, a hybrid of a Mandarin orange and a pomelo which may have been developed in Asia about 3,500 years ago
- Wheat; most modern and ancient wheat breeds are themselves hybrids. Bread wheat is a hexaploid hybrid of three wild grasses; durum (pasta) wheat is a tetraploid hybrid of two wild grasses
- Grapefruit, hybrid between a pomelo and the Jamaican sweet orange
Some natural hybrids:
- Iris albicans, a sterile hybrid which spreads by rhizome division
- Evening primrose, a flower which was the subject of famous experiments by Hugo de Vries on polyploidy and diploidy
Hybridization between two closely related species is actually a common occurrence in nature but is also being greatly influenced by anthropogenic changes as well.31 Hybridization is a naturally occurring genetic process where individuals from two genetically distinct populations mate.32 As stated above, it can occur both intraspecifically, between different distinct populations within the same species, and interspecifically, between two different species. Hybrids can be either sterile/not viable or viable/fertile. This affects the kind of effect that this hybrid will have on its and other populations that it interacts with.33 Many hybrid zones are known where the ranges of two species meet, and hybrids are continually produced in great numbers. These hybrid zones are useful as biological model systems for studying the mechanisms of speciation (Hybrid speciation). Recently DNA analysis of a bear shot by a hunter in the North West Territories confirmed the existence of naturally-occurring and fertile grizzly–polar bear hybrids.34 There have been reports of similar supposed hybrids, but this is the first to be confirmed by DNA analysis. In 1943, Clara Helgason described a male bear shot by hunters during her childhood. He was large and off-white with hair all over his paws. The presence of hair on the bottom of the feet suggests it was a natural hybrid of Kodiak and Polar bear.
Changes to the environment caused by humans, such as fragmentation and Introduced species, are becoming more widespread.35 This increases the challenges in managing certain populations that are experiencing introgression, and is a focus of conservation genetics.
Humans have been introducing species world wide to environments for a long time both directly such as establishing a population to be used as a biological control and indirectly such as accidental escapes of individuals out of agriculture. This causes drastic global effects on various populations with hybridization being one of the reasons introduced species can be so detrimental.3336 When habitats become broken apart, one of two things can occur, genetically speaking. The first is that populations that were once connected can be cut off from one another, preventing their genes from interacting. Occasionally, this will result in a population of one species breeding with a population of another species as a means of surviving such as the case with the red wolves. Their population numbers being so small, they needed another means of survival. Habitat fragmentation also led to the influx of generalist species into areas where they would not have been, leading to competition and in some cases interbreeding/incorporation of a population into another. In this way, habitat fragmentation is essentially an indirect method of introducing species to an area.
There is a kind of continuum with three semi-distinct categories dealing with anthropogenic hybridization: hybridization without Introgression, hybridization with widespread introgression, and essentially a Hybrid swarm.31 Depending on where a population falls along this continuum, the management plans for that population will change. Hybridization is currently an area of great discussion within Wildlife management and habitat management fields. Global climate change is creating other changes such as difference in population distributions which are indirect causes for an increase in anthropogenic hybridization.
Hybridization can be a less discussed way toward extinction than within detection of where a population lies along the hybrid continuum. The dispute of hybridization is how to manage the resulting hybrids. When a population experiences hybridization with substantial introgression, there still exists parent types of each set of individuals. When a complete hybrid swarm is created, all the individuals are hybrids.citation needed
Conservationists disagree on when is the proper time to give up on a population that is becoming a hybrid swarm or to try and save the still existing pure individuals. Once it becomes a complete mixture, we should look to conserve those hybrids to avoid their loss.31 Most leave it as a case-by-case basis, depending on detecting of hybrids within the group. It is nearly impossible to regulate hybridization via policy because hybridization can occur beneficially when it occurs "naturally" and there is the matter of protecting those previously mentioned hybrid swarms because if they are the only remaining evidence of prior species, they need to be conserved as well.31
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (August 2009)|
In some species, hybridisation plays an important role in evolutionary biology. While most hybrids are disadvantaged as a result of genetic incompatibility, the fittest survive, regardless of species boundaries. They may have a beneficial combination of traits allowing them to exploit new habitats or to succeed in a marginal habitat where the two parent species are disadvantaged. This has been seen in experiments on sunflower species. Unlike mutation, which affects only one gene, hybridisation creates multiple variations across genes or gene combinations simultaneously. Successful hybrids could evolve into new species within 50-60 generations. This leads some scientists to speculate that life is a genetic continuum rather than a series of self-contained species.
Where there are two closely related species living in the same area, less than 1 in 1000 individuals are likely to be hybrids because animals rarely choose a mate from a different species (otherwise species boundaries would completely break down). In some closely related species there are recognized "hybrid zones".
Some species of Heliconius butterflies exhibit dramatic geographical polymorphism of their wing patterns, which act as aposematic signals advertising their unpalatability to potential predators. Where different-looking geographical breeds abut, inter-racial hybrids are common, healthy and fertile. Heliconius hybrids can breed with other hybrid individuals and with individuals of either parental group. These hybrid backcrosses are disadvantaged by natural selection because they lack the parental form's warning coloration, and are therefore not avoided by predators.
A similar case in mammals is hybrid White-Tail/Mule Deer. The hybrids don't inherit either parent's escape strategy. White-tail Deer dash while Mule Deer bound. The hybrids are easier prey than the parent species.
In birds, healthy Galapagos Finch hybrids are relatively common, but their beaks are intermediate in shape and less efficient feeding tools than the specialised beaks of the parental species so they lose out in the competition for food. Following a major storm in 1983, the local habitat changed so that new types of plants began to flourish, and in this changed habitat, the hybrids had an advantage over the birds with specialised beaks - demonstrating the role of hybridization in exploiting new ecological niches. If the change in environmental conditions is permanent or is radical enough that the parental species cannot survive, the hybrids become the dominant form. Otherwise, the parental species will re-establish themselves when the environmental change is reversed, and hybrids will remain in the minority.
Natural hybrids may occur when a species is introduced into a new habitat. In Britain, there is hybridisation of native European Red Deer and introduced Chinese Sika Deer. Conservationists want to protect the Red Deer, but the environment favors the Sika Deer genes. There is a similar situation with White-headed Ducks and Ruddy Ducks.
When two distinct types of organisms breed with each other, the resulting hybrids typically have intermediate traits (e.g., one parent has red flowers, the other has white, and the hybrid, pink flowers).37 Commonly, hybrids also combine traits seen only separately in one parent or the other (e.g., a bird hybrid might combine the yellow head of one parent with the orange belly of the other).37 Most characteristics of the typical hybrid are of one of these two types, and so, in a strict sense, are not really new. However, an intermediate trait does differ from those seen in the parents (e.g., the pink flowers of the intermediate hybrid just mentioned are not seen in either of its parents). Likewise, combined traits are new when viewed as a combination.
In a hybrid, any trait that falls outside the range of parental variation is termed heterotic. Heterotic hybrids do have new traits, that is, they are not intermediate. Positive heterosis produces more robust hybrids, they might be stronger or bigger; while the term negative heterosis refers to weaker or smaller hybrids.38 Heterosis is common in both animal and plant hybrids. For example, hybrids between a lion and a tigress ("ligers") are much larger than either of the two progenitors, while a tigon (lioness × tiger) is smaller. Also the hybrids between the Common Pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) and domestic fowl (Gallus gallus) are larger than either of their parents, as are those produced between the Common Pheasant and hen Golden Pheasant (Chrysolophus pictus).39 Spurs are absent in hybrids of the former type, although present in both parents.40
When populations hybridize, often the first generation (F1) hybrids are very uniform. Typically, however, the individual members of subsequent hybrid generations are quite variable. High levels of variability in a natural population, then, are indicative of hybridity. Researchers use this fact to ascertain whether a population is of hybrid origin. Since such variability generally occurs only in later hybrid generations, the existence of variable hybrids is also an indication that the hybrids in question are fertile.citation needed
Regionally developed ecotypes can be threatened with extinction when new alleles or genes are introduced that alter that ecotype. This is sometimes called genetic mixing.41 Hybridization and introgression of new genetic material can lead to the replacement of local genotypes if the hybrids are more fit and have breeding advantages over the indigenous ecotype or species. These hybridization events can result from the introduction of non native genotypes by humans or through habitat modification, bringing previously isolated species into contact. Genetic mixing can be especially detrimental for rare species in isolated habitats, ultimately affecting the population to such a degree that none of the originally genetically distinct population remains.4243
In agriculture and animal husbandry, the Green Revolution's use of conventional hybridization increased yields by breeding "high-yielding varieties". The replacement of locally indigenous breeds, compounded with unintentional cross-pollination and crossbreeding (genetic mixing), has reduced the gene pools of various wild and indigenous breeds resulting in the loss of genetic diversity.44 Since the indigenous breeds are often well-adapted to local extremes in climate and have immunity to local pathogens this can be a significant genetic erosion of the gene pool for future breeding. Therefore, commercial plant geneticists strive to breed "widely adapted" cultivars to counteract this tendency.45
A number of conditions exist that limit the success of hybridization, the most obvious is great genetic diversity between most species. But in animals and plants that are more closely related hybridization barriers can include morphological differences, differing times of fertility, mating behaviors and cues, physiological rejection of sperm cells or the developing embryo.citation needed
In plants, barriers to hybridization include blooming period differences, different pollinator vectors, inhibition of pollen tube growth, somatoplastic sterility, cytoplasmic-genic male sterility and structural differences of the chromosomes.46
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (October 2010)|
Ancient folktales often contain mythological creatures, sometimes these are described as hybrids (e.g., Hippogriff as the offspring of a griffin and a horse, and the Minotaur which is the offspring of Pasiphaë and a white bull). More often they are kind of chimera, i.e., a composite of the physical attributes of two or more kinds of animals, mythical beasts, and often humans, with no suggestion that they are the result of interbreeding, e.g., Harpies, mermaids, and centaurs.
In the Bible, the Old Testament contains several passages which talk about a first generation of hybrid giants who were known as the Nephilim.47 The Book of Genesis (6:4) states that "the sons of God went to the daughters of humans and had children by them". As a result, the offspring was born as hybrid giants who became mighty heroes of old and legendary famous figures of ancient times.48 In addition, the Book of Numbers (13:33) says that the descendants of Anak came from the Nephilim, whose bodies looked exactly like men, but with an enormous height. According to the apocryphal Book of Enoch the Nephilim were wicked sons of fallen angels who had lusted with attractive women.49
- Artificial selection
- Bird hybrids
- Canid hybrid
- Chimera (genetics)
- Chloroplast capture (botany)
- Felid hybrids
- F1 hybrids
- Genetic admixture
- Genetic erosion
- Grex (horticulture)
- Heterosis (hybrid vigor)
- Human-animal hybrid (parahuman)
- Hybrid Lovebird
- Hybrid (mythology)
- Hybrid names (botany)
- Hybrid speciation
- Hybrid swarm
- Hybrid zone
- Interspecific pregnancy
- Intraspecific breeding
- Macropod hybrids
- Selective breeding
- Sheep-goat hybrids
- Species barrier
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- Brad M. Potts, Robert C. Barbour, Andrew B. Hingston (2001) Genetic Pollution from Farm Forestry using eucalypt species and hybrids; A report for the RIRDC/L&WA/FWPRDC; Joint Venture Agroforestry Program; RIRDC Publication No 01/114; RIRDC Project No CPF - 3A; ISBN 0-642-58336-6; ISSN 1440-6845; Australian Government, Rural Industrial Research and Development Corporation
- Devinder Sharma “Genetic Pollution: The Great Genetic Scandal”; Bulletin 28. hosted by www.farmedia.org
- Troyer, A. Forrest. Breeding Widely Adapted Cultivars: Examples from Maize. Encyclopedia of Plant and Crop Science, 27 February 2004.
- "Barriers to hybridization of Solanum bulbocastanumDun. and S. VerrucosumSchlechtd. and structural hybridity in their F1 plants", Euphytica (Springer Netherlands) 25 (1), January 1976: 1–10, doi:10.1007/BF00041523, ISSN 0014-2336
- James L. Kugel (2009), "Traditions of the Bible: A Guide to the Bible As It Was at the Start of the Common Era", Harvard University Press, p. 198
- James L. Kugel (1997), The Bible as it was, Harvard University Press, p. 110
- Gregory A. Boyd, God at War: The Bible & Spiritual Conflict, p. 177
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