Honey

Information from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia—a reliable source for your research. Click to cite:
Jump to: navigation, search
For other uses, see Honey (disambiguation).
A jar of honey with a honey dipper and biscuits
Honey in honeycomb

Honey /ˈhʌni/ is a sweet food made by bees using nectar from flowers. The variety produced by honey bees (the genus Apis) is the one most commonly referred to, as it is the type of honey collected by most beekeepers and consumed by people. Honeys produced by other bees (bumblebees, stingless bees) and other hymenoptera insects (e. g. honey wasps) have different properties, and they are not discussed in this article.

Honey bees transform nectar into honey by a process of regurgitation and evaporation. They store it as a primary food source in wax honeycombs inside the beehive.

Honey gets its sweetness from the monosaccharides fructose and glucose, and has approximately the same relative sweetness as granulated sugar.12 It has attractive chemical properties for baking and a distinctive flavor that leads some people to prefer it over sugar and other sweeteners.1 Most microorganisms do not grow in honey because of its low water activity of 0.6.3 However, honey sometimes contains dormant endospores of the bacterium Clostridium botulinum, which can be dangerous to infants, as the endospores can transform into toxin-producing bacteria in infants' immature intestinal tracts, leading to illness and even death.4

Honey has had a long history in human consumption, and is used in various foods and beverages as a sweetener and flavoring. It also has a role in religion and symbolism. Flavors of honey vary based on the nectar source, and various types and grades of honey are available. It has also been used in various medicinal traditions to treat ailments. The study of pollens and spores in honey (melissopalynology) can determine floral sources of honey.5 Bees carry an electrostatic charge whereby they attract other particles in addition to pollen, which become incorporated into their honey; honey can be analysed by the technique of melissopalynology, in the area of environmental studies of radioactive particles, dust and particulate pollution.67

Formation

Honey's natural sugars are dehydrated, which prevents fermentation, with added enzymes to modify and transform their chemical composition and pH. Invertases and digestive acids hydrolyze sucrose to give the monosaccharides glucose and fructose. Invertase is one of these enzymes synthesized by the body of the insect.

Honey bees transform saccharides into honey by a process of regurgitation, a number of times, until it is partially digested. The bees do the regurgitation and digestion as a group. After the last regurgitation, the aqueous solution is still high in water, so the process continues by evaporation of much of the water and enzymatic transformation.

Honey is produced by bees as a food source. To produce a single jar of honey, foraging honey bees have to travel the equivalent of three times around the world.8 In cold weather or when fresh food sources are scarce, bees use their stored honey as their source of energy.9 By contriving for bee swarms to nest in artificial hives, people have been able to semidomesticate the insects, and harvest excess honey. In the hive (or in a wild nest), there are three types of bees:

The worker bees raise larvae and collect the nectar that will become honey in the hive. Leaving the hive, they collect sugar-rich flower nectar and return.

In the hive, the bees use their "honey stomachs" to ingest and regurgitate the nectar a number of times until it is partially digested.11 Invertase synthesized by the bees and digestive acids hydrolyze sucrose to give the same mixture of glucose and fructose. The bees work together as a group with the regurgitation and digestion until the product reaches a desired quality. It is then stored in honeycomb cells. After the final regurgitation, the honeycomb is left unsealed. However, the nectar is still high in both water content and natural yeasts, which, unchecked, would cause the sugars in the nectar to ferment.9 The process continues as bees inside the hive fan their wings, creating a strong draft across the honeycomb, which enhances evaporation of much of the water from the nectar.9 This reduction in water content raises the sugar concentration and prevents fermentation. Ripe honey, as removed from the hive by a beekeeper, has a long shelf life, and will not ferment if properly sealed.9

Physical and chemical properties

Crystallized honey. The inset shows a close-up of the honey, showing the individual glucose grains in the fructose mixture.

The physical properties of honey vary, depending on water content, the type of flora used to produce it (pasturage), temperature, and the proportion of the specific sugars it contains. Fresh honey is a supersaturated liquid, containing more sugar than the water can typically dissolve at ambient temperatures. At room temperature, honey is a supercooled liquid, in which the glucose will precipitate into solid granules. This forms a semisolid solution of precipitated glucose crystals in a solution of fructose and other ingredients.

Phase transitions

The melting point of crystallized honey is between 40 and 50 °C (104 and 122 °F), depending on its composition. Below this temperature, honey can be either in a metastable state, meaning that it will not crystallize until a seed crystal is added, or, more often, it is in a "labile" state, being saturated with enough sugars to crystallize spontaneously.12 The rate of crystallization is affected by many factors, but the primary factor is the ratio of the main sugars: fructose to glucose. Honeys that are supersaturated with a very high percentage of glucose, such as brassica honey, will crystallize almost immediately after harvesting, while honeys with a low percentage of glucose, such as chestnut or tupelo honey, do not crystallize. Some types of honey may produce very large but few crystals, while others will produce many small crystals.13

Crystallization is also affected by water content, because a high percentage of water will inhibit crystallization, as will a high dextrin content. Temperature also affects the rate of crystallization, with the fastest growth occurring between 13 and 17 °C (55 and 63 °F). Crystal nuclei (seeds) tend to form more readily if the honey is disturbed, by stirring, shaking or agitating, rather than if left at rest. However, the nucleation of microscopic seed-crystals is greatest between 5 and 8 °C (41 and 46 °F). Therefore, larger but fewer crystals tend to form at higher temperatures, while smaller but more-numerous crystals usually form at lower temperatures. Below 5 °C, the honey will not crystallize and, thus, the original texture and flavor can be preserved indefinitely.13

Since honey normally exists below its melting point, it is a supercooled liquid. At very low temperatures, honey will not freeze solid. Instead, as the temperatures become lower, the viscosity of honey increases. Like most viscous liquids, the honey will become thick and sluggish with decreasing temperature. At −20 °C (−4 °F), honey may appear or even feel solid, but it will continue to flow at very low rates. Honey has a glass transition between −42 and −51 °C (−44 and −60 °F). Below this temperature, honey enters a glassy state and will become an amorphous solid (noncrystalline).1415

Viscosity

The viscosity of honey is affected greatly by both temperature and water content. The higher the water percentage, the easier honey will flow. Above its melting point, however, water has little effect on viscosity. Aside from water content, the composition of honey also has little effect on viscosity, with the exception of a few types. At 25 °C (77 °F), honey with 14% water content will generally have a viscosity of around 400 poise, while a honey containing 20% water will have a viscosity of around 20 poise. Viscosity increase due to temperature occurs very slowly at first. A honey containing 16% water, at 70 °C (158 °F), will have a viscosity of around 2 poise, while at 30 °C (86 °F), the viscosity will be around 70 poise. As cooling progresses, honey will become more viscous at an increasingly rapid rate, reaching 600 poise around 14 °C (57 °F). However, while honey is very viscous, it has rather low surface tension.1617

A few types of honey have unusual viscous properties. Honey from heather or manuka display thixotropic properties. These types of honey enter a gel-like state when motionless, but then liquify when stirred.18

Electrical and optical properties

Since honey contains electrolytes, in the form of acids and minerals, it exhibits varying degrees of electrical conductivity. Measurements of the electrical conductivity are used to determine the quality of honey in terms of ash content.17

The effect honey has on light is useful for determining the type and quality. Variations in the water content alter the refractive index of honey. Water content can easily be measured with a refractometer. Typically, the refractive index for honey will range from 1.504 at 13% water content to 1.474 at 25%. Honey also has an effect on polarized light, in that it will rotate the polarization plane. The fructose will give a negative rotation, while the glucose will give a positive one. The overall rotation can be used to measure the ratio of the mixture.1719

Hygroscopy and fermentation

Honey has the ability to absorb moisture directly from the air, a phenomenon called hygroscopy. The amount of water the honey will absorb is dependent on the relative humidity of the air. Because honey contains yeast, this hygroscopic nature requires that honey be stored in sealed containers to prevent fermentation, which usually begins if the honey's water content rises much above 25%. Honey will tend to absorb more water in this manner than the individual sugars would allow on their own, which may be due to other ingredients it contains.19

Fermentation of honey will usually occur after crystallization because, without the glucose, the liquid portion of the honey primarily consists of a concentrated mixture of the fructose, acids, and water, providing the yeast with enough of an increase in the water percentage for growth. Honey that is to be stored at room temperature for long periods of time is often pasteurized, to kill any yeast, by heating it above 70 °C (158 °F).19

Thermal characteristics

Like all sugar compounds, honey will caramelize if heated sufficiently, becoming darker in color, and eventually burn. However, honey contains fructose, which caramelizes at lower temperatures than the glucose.20 The temperature at which caramelization begins varies, depending on the composition, but is typically between 70 and 110 °C (158 and 230 °F). Honey also contains acids, which act as catalysts, decreasing the caramelization temperature even more.21 Of these acids, the amino acids, which occur in very small amounts, play an important role in the darkening of honey. The amino acids form darkened compounds called melanoidins, during a Maillard reaction. The Maillard reaction will occur slowly at room temperature, taking from a few to several months to show visible darkening, but will speed-up dramatically with increasing temperatures. However, the reaction can also be slowed by storing the honey at colder temperatures.22

Unlike many other liquids, honey has very poor thermal conductivity, taking a long time to reach thermal equilibrium. Melting crystallized honey can easily result in localized caramelization if the heat source is too hot, or if it is not evenly distributed. However, honey will take substantially longer to liquify when just above the melting point than it will at elevated temperatures.17 Melting 20 kilograms of crystallized honey, at 40 °C (104 °F), can take up to 24 hours, while 50 kilograms may take twice as long. These times can be cut nearly in half by heating at 50 °C (122 °F). However, many of the minor substances in honey can be affected greatly by heating, changing the flavor, aroma, or other properties, so heating is usually done at the lowest temperature possible for the shortest amount of time.23

Acid content

The average pH of honey is 3.9, but can range from 3.4 to 6.1. Honey contains many kinds of acids, both organic and amino. However, the different types and their amounts vary considerably, depending on the type of honey. These acids may be aromatic or aliphatic (non-aromatic). The aliphatic acids contribute greatly to the flavor of honey by interacting with the flavors of other ingredients. Gluconic acid, for instance, is a flavor enhancer.

Honey can contain up to 18 of the 20 amino acids. However, amino acid content is almost negligible in honey, accounting for only 0.05–0.1% of the composition. The main amino acid is proline. Amino acids are derived almost solely from the bodies of the bees.

Organic acids comprise most of the acids in honey, accounting for 0.17–1.17% of the mixture. Gluconic acid is the most prevalent. Gluconic acid is formed by the actions of an enzyme called glucose oxidase. Other organic acids are minor, consisting of formic, acetic, butyric, citric, lactic, malic, pyroglutamic, propionic, valeric, capronic, palmitic, and succinic, among many others.2425

In history, culture, and folklore

Honey use and production has a long and varied history. In many cultures, honey has associations that go beyond its use as a food. Honey is frequently used as a talisman and symbol of sweetness.citation needed

Ancient times

Honey seeker depicted on 8000 year old cave painting. At Araña Caves in Spain.

Honey collection is an ancient activity. Humans apparently began hunting for honey at least 8,000 years ago, as evidenced by a cave painting in Valencia, Spain.26 The painting is a Mesolithic rock painting, showing two honey-hunters collecting honey and honeycomb from a wild bee nest. The figures are depicted carrying baskets or gourds, and using a ladder or series of ropes to reach the wild nest.

The Greater Honeyguide bird guides humans to wild bee hives27 and this behavior may have evolved with early hominids2829

So far, the oldest remains of honey have been found in Georgia. Archaeologists have found honey remains on the inner surface of clay vessels unearthed an ancient tomb, dating back to some 4,700–5,500 years ago.3031 In ancient Georgia, honey was packed for people's journeys into the afterlife. And more than one type, too – along for the trip were linden, berry, and a meadow-flower variety.32

In ancient Egypt, honey was used to sweeten cakes and biscuits, and was used in many other dishes. Ancient Egyptian and Middle Eastern peoples also used honey for embalming the dead.33 The fertility god of Egypt, Min, was offered honey.

The spiritual and therapeutic use of honey in ancient India is documented in both the Vedas and the Ayurveda texts, which were both composed at least 4,000 years ago.34

Pliny the Elder devotes considerable space in his book Naturalis Historia to the bee and honey, and its many uses. In the absence of sugar, Honey was an integral sweetening ingredient in Roman recipes, and references to its use in food can be found in the work of many Roman authors including Athenaeus, Cato and Bassusdisambiguation needed.citation needed

The art of beekeeping in ancient China has existed since time immemorial and appears to be untraceable to its origin. In the book "Golden Rules of Business Success" written by Fan Li (or Tao Zhu Gong) during the Spring and Autumn Period, there are some parts mentioning the art of beekeeping and the importance of the quality of the wooden box for bee keeping that can affect the quality of its honey.citation needed

Honey was also cultivated in ancient Mesoamerica. The Maya used honey from the stingless bee for culinary purposes, and continue to do so today. The Maya also regard the bee as sacred (see Mayan stingless bees of Central America).

Some cultures believed honey had many practical health uses. It was used as an ointment for rashes and burns, and to help soothe sore throats when no other practices were available.

Religious significance

In Hinduism, honey (Madhu) is one of the five elixirs of immortality (Panchamrita). In temples, honey is poured over the deities in a ritual called Madhu abhisheka. The Vedas and other ancient literature mention the use of honey as a great medicinal and health food.35

In Jewish tradition, honey is a symbol for the new year, Rosh Hashanah. At the traditional meal for that holiday, apple slices are dipped in honey and eaten to bring a sweet new year. Some Rosh Hashanah greetings show honey and an apple, symbolizing the feast. In some congregations, small straws of honey are given out to usher in the new year.citation needed

The Hebrew Bible contains many references to honey. In the Book of Judges, Samson found a swarm of bees and honey in the carcass of a lion (14:8). In Old Testament law, offerings were made in the temple to God. The Book of Leviticus says that “Every grain offering you bring to the Lord must be made without yeast, for you are not to burn any yeast or honey in a food offering presented to the Lord” (2:11). In the Books of Samuel Jonathan is forced into a confrontation with his father King Saul after eating honey in violation of a rash oath Saul made (14:24–47). The Book of Exodus famously describes the Promised Land as a "land flowing with milk and honey" (33:3). However, the claim has been advanced that the original Hebrew (דבש devash) actually refers to the sweet syrup produced from the juice of dates.36 Pure honey is considered kosher even though it is produced by a flying insect, a nonkosher creature; other products of nonkosher animals are not kosher.37

In Buddhism, honey plays an important role in the festival of Madhu Purnima, celebrated in India and Bangladesh. The day commemorates Buddha's making peace among his disciples by retreating into the wilderness. The legend has it that while he was there, a monkey brought him honey to eat. On Madhu Purnima, Buddhists remember this act by giving honey to monks. The monkey's gift is frequently depicted in Buddhist art.35

In the Christian New Testament, Matthew 3:4, John the Baptist is said to have lived for a long period of time in the wilderness on a diet consisting of locusts and wild honey.

In Islam, there is an entire Surah in the Qur'an called an-Nahl (the Bee). According to hadith, Prophet Muhammad strongly recommended honey for healing purposes.38 The Qur'an promotes honey as a nutritious and healthy food. Below is the English translation of those specific verses.

"And thy Lord taught the Bee to build its cells in hills, on trees, and in (men's) habitations; Then to eat of all the produce (of the earth), and find with skill the spacious paths of its Lord: there issues from within their bodies a drink of varying colours, wherein is healing for men: verily in this is a Sign for those who give thought" [Al-Quran 16:68–69].39

Collecting honey

Honey is collected from wild bee colonies, or from domesticated beehives. Wild bee nests are sometimes located by following a honeyguide bird.

Collecting honey is typically achieved by using smoke from a bee smoker to pacify the bees; this causes the bees to attempt to save the resources of the hive from a possible forest fire, and makes them far less aggressive. The honeycomb is removed from the hive and the honey is extracted from that, often using a honey extractor. The honey is then filtered. In many cases the beekeeper will responsibly leave enough honey in the beehive for the colony to survive. If extra food is required to maintain the colony the beekeeper may provide the hive with unprocessed honey or a honey substitute such as sugar water (in the fall) or crystalline sugar (in the winter – a "candyboard") so that the hive does not starve.

Modern uses

As a food and in cooking

The main uses of honey are in cooking, baking, as a spread on bread, and as an addition to various beverages, such as tea, and as a sweetener in some commercial beverages. According to The National Honey Board (a USDA-overseen organization), "honey stipulates a pure product that does not allow for the addition of any other substance...this includes, but is not limited to, water or other sweeteners".40 Honey barbecue and honey mustard are common and popular sauce flavors.

As a fermentable

Honey is the main ingredient in the alcoholic beverage mead, which is also known as "honey wine" or "honey beer". Historically, the ferment for mead was honey's naturally occurring yeast. Honey is also used as an adjunct in some beers.

Honey wine, or mead, is typically (modern era) made with a honey and water mixture with a pack of yeast added for fermentation. Primary fermentation usually takes 40 days, after which the must needs to be racked into a secondary fermentation vessel and left to sit about 35–40 more days. If done properly, fermentation will be finished by this point (though if a sparkling mead is desired, fermentation can be restarted after bottling by the addition of a small amount of sugar), but most meads require aging for 6–9 months or more in order to be palatable.

Nutrition

Honey
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 1,272 kJ (304 kcal)
82.4 g
Sugars 82.12 g
Dietary fiber 0.2 g
0 g
0.3 g
Vitamins
Riboflavin (B2)
(3%)
0.038 mg
Niacin (B3)
(1%)
0.121 mg
(1%)
0.068 mg
Vitamin B6
(2%)
0.024 mg
Folate (B9)
(1%)
2 μg
Vitamin C
(1%)
0.5 mg
Trace metals
Calcium
(1%)
6 mg
Iron
(3%)
0.42 mg
Magnesium
(1%)
2 mg
Phosphorus
(1%)
4 mg
Potassium
(1%)
52 mg
Sodium
(0%)
4 mg
Zinc
(2%)
0.22 mg
Other constituents
Water 17.10 g

Shown is for 100 g, roughly 5 tbsp.
Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

Honey is a mixture of sugars and other compounds. With respect to carbohydrates, honey is mainly fructose (about 38.5%) and glucose (about 31.0%),1 making it similar to the synthetically produced inverted sugar syrup, which is approximately 48% fructose, 47% glucose, and 5% sucrose. Honey's remaining carbohydrates include maltose, sucrose, and other complex carbohydrates.1 As with all nutritive sweeteners, honey is mostly sugars and contains only trace amounts of vitamins or minerals.4142 Honey also contains tiny amounts of several compounds thought to function as antioxidants, including chrysin, pinobanksin, vitamin C, catalase, and pinocembrin.4344vague The specific composition of any batch of honey depends on the flowers available to the bees that produced the honey.41

Typical honey analysis:45

Its glycemic index ranges from 31 to 78, depending on the variety.46

Honey has a density of about 1.36 kilograms per litre (36% denser than water).47

Adulteration

Adulteration of honey is the addition of other sugars, syrups or compounds into honey to change its flavor, viscosity, make it cheaper to produce, or to increase the fructose content in order to stave off crystallization. According to the Codex Alimentarius of the United Nations, any product labeled as honey or pure honey must be a wholly natural product, although different nations have their own laws concerning labeling.48 Adulteration of honey is sometimes used as a method of deception when buyers are led to believe that the honey is pure. The practice was common dating back to ancient times, when crystallized honey was often mixed with flour or other fillers, hiding the adulteration from buyers until the honey was liquefied. In modern times the most common adulteration-ingredient became clear, almost-flavorless corn syrup, which, when mixed with honey, is often very difficult to distinguish from unadulterated honey.49

Isotope ratio mass spectrometry can be used to detect addition of corn syrup and cane sugar by the carbon isotopic signature. Addition of sugars originating from corn or sugar cane (C4 plants, unlike the plants used by bees, and also sugar beet, which are predominantly C3 plants) skews the isotopic ratio of sugars present in honey,50 but does not influence the isotopic ratio of proteins. In an unadulterated honey, the carbon isotopic ratios of sugars and proteins should match. Levels as low as 7% of addition can be detected.51

Classification

Honey is classified by its floral source, and there are also divisions according to the packaging and processing used. There are also regional honeys. In the USA honey is also graded on its color and optical density by USDA standards, graded on a scale called the Pfund scale, which ranges from 0 for "water white" honey to more than 114 for "dark amber" honey.52

Floral source

Generally, honey is classified by the floral source of the nectar from which it was made. Honeys can be from specific types of flower nectars or can be blended after collection. The pollen in honey is traceable to floral source and therefore region of origin. The rheological & melissopalynological properties of honey can be used to identify the major plant nectar source used in its production.53

Blended

Most commercially available honey is blended, meaning it is a mixture of two or more honeys differing in floral source, color, flavor, density or geographic origin.54

Polyfloral

Polyfloral honey, also known as wildflower honey,55 is derived from the nectar of many types of flowers.56

The taste may vary from year to year, and the aroma and the flavor can be more or less intense, depending on which bloomings are prevalent.57

Monofloral

Monofloral honey is made primarily from the nectar of one type of flower. Different monofloral honeys have a distinctive flavor and color because of differences between their principal nectar sources.58 To produce monofloral honey, beekeepers keep beehives in an area where the bees have access to only one type of flower. In practice, because of the difficulties in containing bees, a small proportion of any honey will be from additional nectar from other flower types.citation needed Typical examples of North American monofloral honeys are clover, orange blossom, blueberry, sage, tupelo, buckwheat, fireweed, mesquite and sourwood. Some typical European examples include thyme, thistle, heather, acacia, dandelion, sunflower, honeysuckle, and varieties from lime and chestnut trees.citation needed In North Africa (e.g. Egypt) examples include clover, cotton, and citrus (mainly orange blossoms).citation needed

Honeydew honey

Instead of taking nectar, bees can take honeydew, the sweet secretions of aphids or other plant sap-sucking insects. Honeydew honey is very dark brown in color, with a rich fragrance of stewed fruit or fig jam, and is not as sweet as nectar honeys.58 Germany's Black Forest is a well known source of honeydew-based honeys, as well as some regions in Bulgaria, Tara (mountain) in Serbia and Northern California in the United States. In Greece, pine honey (a type of honeydew honey) constitutes 60–65% of the annual honey production.59 Honeydew honey is popular in some areas, but in other areas beekeepers have difficulty selling the stronger flavored product.

The production of honeydew honey has some complications and dangers. The honey has a much larger proportion of indigestibles than light floral honeys, thus causing dysentery to the bees, resulting in the death of colonies in areas with cold winters. Good beekeeping management requires the removal of honeydew prior to winter in colder areas. Bees collecting this resource also have to be fed protein supplements, as honeydew lacks the protein-rich pollen accompaniment gathered from flowers.

Classification by packaging and processing

Generally, honey is bottled in its familiar liquid form. However, honey is sold in other forms, and can be subjected to a variety of processing methods.

A variety of honey flavors and container sizes and styles from the 2008 Texas State Fair
  • Crystallized honey is honey in which some of the glucose content has spontaneously crystallized from solution as the monohydrate. Also called "granulated honey" or "candied honey." Honey that has crystallized (or commercially purchased crystallized) can be returned to a liquid state by warming.60
  • Pasteurized honey is honey that has been heated in a pasteurization process which requires temperatures of 161 °F (72 °C) or higher. Pasteurization destroys yeast cells. It also liquefies any microcrystals in the honey, which delays the onset of visible crystallization. However, excessive heat exposure also results in product deterioration, as it increases the level of hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF)citation needed and reduces enzyme (e.g. diastase) activity. Heat also affects appearance (darkens the natural honey color), taste, and fragrance.61
  • Raw honey is honey as it exists in the beehive or as obtained by extraction, settling or straining, without adding heat (although some honey that has been "minimally processed" is often labeled as raw honey).62 Raw honey contains some pollen and may contain small particles of wax. Some allergy sufferers try using raw, local honey to build up a tolerance to the pollen in the air. However, while hay fever is typically caused by pollen in the air, such pollen is mostly from trees, weeds, and grass, rather than flowers.63
  • Strained honey has been passed through a mesh material to remove particulate material (pieces of wax, propolis, other defects) without removing pollen, minerals or enzymes.
  • Filtered honey is honey of any type that has been filtered to the extent that all or most of the fine particles, pollen grains, air bubbles, or other materials normally found in suspension, have been removed.64 The process typically heats honey to 150–170 °F (66–77 °C) to more easily pass through the filter.65 Filtered honey is very clear and will not crystallize as quickly,65 making it preferred by the supermarket trade.66
  • Ultrasonicated honey has been processed by ultrasonication, a non-thermal processing alternative for honey. When honey is exposed to ultrasonication, most of the yeast cells are destroyed. Those cells that survive sonication generally lose their ability to grow, which reduces the rate of honey fermentation substantially. Ultrasonication also eliminates existing crystals and inhibits further crystallization in honey. Ultrasonically aided liquefaction can work at substantially lower temperatures of approximately 95 °F (35 °C) and can reduce liquefaction time to less than 30 seconds.67
  • Creamed honey, also called whipped honey, spun honey, churned honey, candied honey, honey fondant, and (in the UK) set honey, has been processed to control crystallization. Creamed honey contains a large number of small crystals, which prevent the formation of larger crystals that can occur in unprocessed honey. The processing also produces a honey with a smooth, spreadable consistency.68
  • Dried honey has the moisture extracted from liquid honey to create completely solid, nonsticky granules. This process may or may not include the use of drying and anticaking agents.69 Dried honey is used in baked goods,69 and to garnish desserts.citation needed
  • Comb honey is honey still in the honeybees' wax comb. It traditionally is collected by using standard wooden frames in honey supers. The frames are collected and the comb is cut out in chunks before packaging. As an alternative to this labor-intensive method, plastic rings or cartridges can be used that do not require manual cutting of the comb, and speed packaging. Comb honey harvested in the traditional manner is also referred to as "cut-comb honey".60:1370 In India, honey is harvested from forests in bee's natural habitat. It is said that honey will be consumed by the bees on the new moon day, so it is cultivated the day before.citation needed
  • Chunk honey is packed in widemouth containers consisting of one or more pieces of comb honey immersed in extracted liquid honey.60:13
  • Honey decoctions are made from honey or honey by-products which have been dissolved in water, then reduced (usually by means of boiling). Other ingredients may then be added. (For example, abbamele has added citrus.) The resulting product may be similar to molasses.

Preservation

Sealed frame of honey

Because of its unique composition and chemical properties, honey is suitable for long-term storage, and is easily assimilated even after long preservation. Honey, and objects immersed in honey, have been preserved for decades and even centuries.7172 The key to preservation is limiting access to humidity. In its cured state, honey has a sufficiently high sugar content to inhibit fermentation. If exposed to moist air, its hydrophilic properties will pull moisture into the honey, eventually diluting it to the point that fermentation can begin.

Regardless of preservation, honey may crystallize over time. The crystals can be dissolved by heating the honey.7374

Distinguishing honey

Honey grading

See also: Food grading

In the US, honey grading is performed voluntarily (USDA does offer inspection and grading "as on-line (in-plant) or lot inspection...upon application, on a fee-for-service basis.") based upon USDA standards. Honey is graded based upon a number of factors, including water content, flavor and aroma, absence of defects and clarity. Honey is also classified by color though it is not a factor in the grading scale.75 The honey grade scale is:

Grade Water content Flavor and aroma Absence of defects Clarity
A < 18.6% Good—has a good, normal flavor and aroma for the predominant floral source and is free from caramelization, smoke, fermentation, chemicals and other odor causes Practically free—practically no defects that affect appearance or edibility Clear—may contain air bubbles that do not materially affect the appearance; may contain a trace of pollen grains or other finely divided particles of suspended material that do not affect appearance
B > 18.6% and < 20.0% Reasonably good—practically free from caramelization; free from smoke, fermentation, chemicals, and other causes Reasonably free—do not materially affect appearance or edibility Reasonably clear—may contain air bubbles, pollen grains, or other finely divided particles of suspended material that do not materially affect appearance
C < 20.0% Fairly good—reasonably free from caramelization; free from smoke, fermentation, chemicals, and other causes Fairly free—do not seriously affect the appearance or edibility Fairly clear—may contain air bubbles, pollen grains, or other finely divided particles of suspended material that do not seriously affect appearance
Substandard > 20.0% Fails Grade C Fails Grade C Fails Grade C

Other countries may have differing standards on the grading of honey. India, for example, certifies honey grades based on additional factors, such as the Fiehe's test, and other empirical measurements.76

Indicators of quality

High-quality honey can be distinguished by fragrance, taste, and consistency. Ripe, freshly collected, high-quality honey at 20 °C (68 °F) should flow from a knife in a straight stream, without breaking into separate drops.77 After falling down, the honey should form a bead. The honey, when poured, should form small, temporary layers that disappear fairly quickly, indicating high viscosity. If not, it indicates excessive water content (over 20%)77 of the product. Honey with excessive water content is not suitable for long-term preservation.78

In jars, fresh honey should appear as a pure, consistent fluid, and should not set in layers. Within a few weeks to a few months of extraction, many varieties of honey crystallize into a cream-colored solid. Some varieties of honey, including tupelo, acacia, and sage, crystallize less regularly. Honey may be heated during bottling at temperatures of 40–49 °C (104–120 °F) to delay or inhibit crystallization. Overheating is indicated by change in enzyme levels, for instance, diastase activity, which can be determined with the Schade or the Phadebas methods. A fluffy film on the surface of the honey (like a white foam), or marble-colored or white-spotted crystallization on a containers sides, is formed by air bubbles trapped during the bottling process.

A 2008 Italian study determined nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy can be used to distinguish between different honey types, and can be used to pinpoint the area where it was produced. Researchers were able to identify differences in acacia and polyfloral honeys by the differing proportions of fructose and sucrose, as well as differing levels of aromatic amino acids phenylalanine and tyrosine. This ability allows greater ease of selecting compatible stocks.79

Traditional medicine

Historically, honey has been used by humans both orally and topically to treat various ailments including gastric disturbances, ulcers, wounds, and burns.

Honey was used medicinally by ancient Greeks and Egyptians and has been traditionally used in Ayurveda in India and in Traditional Chinese Medicine.3480

The Quran mentions honey as medicine.3980

Juice of Parrot tree and honey an Ayurvedic curative

Medieval Islamic and Christian scholars described the use of honey in medicine of that period.80

Per traditional yoga practice, daily consumption of honey mixed with warm water is said to strengthen the circulatory system, and is therefore recommended.81 A honey and warm water mixture is also recommended by yoga practitioners for asthmatics.82dubious

Health effects

The potential health benefits of honey have been studied in clinical trials and other experiments according to the scientific method. Little to no efficacy has been identified.

Allergies

Honey is ineffective for the treatment of rhinosinusitis.83

Burns dressing

There is some weak evidence that honey may help treat mild burns if used in a dressing.84

Cancer

Honey has been promoted as being potentially of use in the treatment of cancer.85 However, while experiments have found honey can—in common with many substances—kill cancer cells in the laboratory, there is no evidence of its benefit treating cancer in people.85

Cough

There is little evidence for or against honey as treatment of coughs for children. For chronic cough and acute cough, Cochrane systematic reviews found that there is no strong evidence for or against the use of honey.8687

Regulatory authorities in the US and the UK recommend avoiding giving over the counter cold medication to children.8889 The UK authorities recommend "a warm drink of lemon and honey or a simple cough syrup that contains glycerol or honey" in children instead, but warn that honey should not be given to very young children because of the risk of infant botulism.88

Immune system

People who are immunocompromised should not eat honey because of the risk of bacterial or fungal infection.85

Ingrown toenail

Honey is of no benefit in treating ingrown toenail.90

Ulcers

Evidence does not support the use of honey-based products for the treatment of venous leg ulcers.91

Health hazards

Botulism

Infants can contract botulism from honey.92

Infantile botulism shows geographical variation. In the UK, only six cases have been reported between 1976 and 2006,93 yet the U.S. has much higher rates: 1.9 per 100,000 live births, 47.2% of which are in California.94 While the risk honey poses to infant health is small, it is recommended not to take the risk.95

Toxic honey

Honey produced from flowers of oleanders, rhododendrons, mountain laurels, sheep laurel, and azaleas may cause honey intoxication. Symptoms include dizziness, weakness, excessive perspiration, nausea, and vomiting. Less commonly, low blood pressure, shock, heart rhythm irregularities, and convulsions may occur, with rare cases resulting in death. Honey intoxication is more likely when using "natural" unprocessed honey and honey from farmers who may have a small number of hives. Commercial processing, with pooling of honey from numerous sources, is thought to dilute any toxins.96

New Zealand

Toxic honey may also result when bees are proximate to tutu bushes (Coriaria arborea) and the vine hopper insect (Scolypopa australis). Both are found throughout New Zealand. Bees gather honeydew produced by the vine hopper insects feeding on the tutu plant. This introduces the poison tutin into honey.97 Only a few areas in New Zealand (Coromandel Peninsula, Eastern Bay of Plenty and the Marlborough Sound) frequently produce toxic honey. Symptoms of tutin poisoning include vomiting, delirium, giddiness, increased excitability, stupor, coma, and violent convulsions. To reduce the risk of tutin poisoning, humans should not eat honey taken from feral hives in the risk areas of New Zealand. Since December 2001, New Zealand beekeepers have been required to reduce the risk of producing toxic honey by closely monitoring tutu, vine hopper, and foraging conditions within 3 kilometres (1.9 mi) of their apiary.

Honey-producing and consuming countries

2005 Honey-producing countries
Top Five Natural Honey Producing Countries
(in metric tons)
Rank Country 2010 2011 2012
1  China 401,000 431,000 436,000
2  Turkey 81,115 94,245 88,162
3  Argentina 59,000 74,000 75,500
4  Ukraine 70,873 40,311 70,134
5  United States 80,042 67,294 66,720
World 1,222,601 1,169,441 1,260,229
Source: UN Food & Agriculture Organization 98

In 2012, China, Turkey, and Ukraine were the top producers of natural honey.99

Significant regional producers of honey include United States of America (ranked fourth worldwide) and Russia (ranked fifth worldwide).

Mexico is also an important producer of honey, providing more than 4% of the world's supply.100 Much of this (about one-third) comes from the Yucatán Peninsula. Honey production began there when the Apis mellifera and the A. mellifera ligustica were introduced there early in the 20th century. Most of Mexico's Yucatán producers are small, family operations who use original traditional techniques, moving hives to take advantage of the various tropical and subtropical flowers.101

Honey is also one of the gourmet products of the French island of Corsica. Corsican honey is certified as to its origin (Appellation d'origine contrôlée) just as are French wines, like Champagne.102

Honey consumption per capita per year exceeds one kilogram in some countries like Austria, Germany and Switzerland.103

Gallery of honey harvesting

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d National Honey Board. "Carbohydrates and the Sweetness of Honey". Last accessed 1 June 2012.
  2. ^ Oregon State University. "What is the relative sweetness of different sugars and sugar substitutes?". Retrieved 1 June 2012.
  3. ^ Prescott, Lansing; Harley, John P. and Klein, Donald A. (1999). Microbiology. Boston: WCB/McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-697-35439-3. 
  4. ^ Shapiro, Roger L.; Hatheway,, Charles; Swerdflow,, David L. (1998). "Botulism in the United States: A Clinical and Epidemiologic Review". Annals of Internal Medicine 129 (3): 221–8. doi:10.1059/0003-4819-129-3-199808010-00011 (inactive 2 February 2014). PMID 9696731. 
  5. ^ Bryant, Vaughn M., Jr. (2001). "Pollen Contents of Honey". CAP Newsletter 24 (1): 10–24. 
  6. ^ Mercuri AM, Porrini C. (1991). "Melissopalynological analysis applied to air pollution studies in urban areas of Modena and Reggio Emilia (Italy)". Aerobiologia 7 (1): 38–48. doi:10.1007/BF02450016. 
  7. ^ Tonelli D, Gattavecchia E, Ghini S, Porrini C, Celli G, Mercuri AM. (1990). "Honey bees and their products as indicators of environmental radioactive pollution". Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry 141 (2): 427–436. doi:10.1007/BF02035809. 
  8. ^ [1] International Bee Research Association.
  9. ^ a b c d "Honey and Bees." at the Wayback Machine (archived 5 March 2010) National Honey Board.
  10. ^ Whitmyre, Val. "The Plight of the Honeybees." University of California. Retrieved 14 April 2007.
  11. ^ Standifer LN. "Honey Bee Nutrition And Supplemental Feeding". Excerpted from "Beekeeping in the United States." Retrieved 14 April 2007.
  12. ^ Root, p. 355
  13. ^ a b Tomasik, Piotr (2004) Chemical and functional properties of food saccharides, CRC Press, p. 74, ISBN 0-8493-1486-0
  14. ^ Kántor, Zoltán; Pitsi, Guido; Thoen, Jan (1999). "Glass Transition Temperature of Honey as a Function of Water Content As Determined by Differential Scanning Calorimetry". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 47 (6): 2327–2330. doi:10.1021/jf981070g. PMID 10794630. 
  15. ^ Vidal Russell, E.; Israeloff, N. E. (2000). "Direct observation of molecular cooperativity near the glass transition". Nature 408 (6813): 695–698. doi:10.1038/35047037. PMID 11130066. 
  16. ^ Value-added products from beekeeping. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 1996. pp. 7–8. ISBN 978-92-5-103819-2. 
  17. ^ a b c d Bogdanov, Stefan (2009) "Physical Properties of Honey" at the Wayback Machine (archived 20 September 2009), Chapter 4 in Book of Honey, Bee Product Science.
  18. ^ Krell, pp. 5–6
  19. ^ a b c Root, p. 348
  20. ^ Hans-Dieter Belitz, Werner Grosch, Peter Schieberle Food chemistry Springer Verlag, Berlin-Heidelberg 2004 p. 884 ISBN 3-540-69933-3
  21. ^ Zdzisław E. Sikorski Chemical and functional properties of food components CRC Press 2007 p. 121 ISBN 0-8493-9675-1
  22. ^ Root, p. 350
  23. ^ Krell, pp. 40–43
  24. ^ pH and Acids in Honey. National Honey Board Food Technology/Product Research Program
  25. ^ Wilkins, Alistair L. and Lu, Yinrong (1995). "Extractives from New Zealand Honeys. 5. Aliphatic Dicarboxylic Acids in New Zealand Rewarewa (Knightea excelsa) Honey". J. Agric. Food Chem. 43 (12): 3021–3025. doi:10.1021/jf00060a006. 
  26. ^ Crane, Eva (1983) The Archaeology of Beekeeping, Cornell University Press, ISBN 0-8014-1609-4
  27. ^ Isack, H. A.; Reyer, H.-U. (1989). "Honeyguides and honey gatherers: interspecific communication in a symbiotic relationship". Science 243 (4896): 1343–6. doi:10.1126/science.243.4896.1343. PMID 17808267. 
  28. ^ Short, Lester, Horne, Jennifer and Diamond, A. W. (2003). "Honeyguides". In Christopher Perrins (Ed.). Firefly Encyclopedia of Birds. Firefly Books. pp. 396–397. ISBN 1-55297-777-3.
  29. ^ Dean, W. R. J.; MacDonald, I. A. W. (1981). "A Review of African Birds Feeding in Association with Mammals". Ostrich 52 (3): 135. doi:10.1080/00306525.1981.9633599. 
  30. ^ Kvavadze, Eliso; Gambashidze, Irina; Mindiashvili, Giorgi; Gogochuri, Giorgi (2006). "The first find in southern Georgia of fossil honey from the Bronze Age, based on palynological data". Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 16 (5): 399. doi:10.1007/s00334-006-0067-5. 
  31. ^ Georgian ancient honey. cncworld.tv (31 March 2012). Retrieved on 10 July 2012.
  32. ^ The world’s first winemakers were the world’s first beekeepers. guildofscientifictroubadours.com (2 April 2012). Retrieved on 10 July 2012.
  33. ^ Larry Gonick The Cartoon History of the Universe Vol.2
  34. ^ a b Pećanac, M.; Janjić, Z.; Komarcević, A.; Pajić, M.; Dobanovacki, D.; Misković, SS. (2013). "Burns treatment in ancient times". Med Pregl 66 (5–6): 263–7. doi:10.1016/s0264-410x(02)00603-5. PMID 23888738. 
  35. ^ a b A Meaningful Story of Buddha, Elephant and Monkey by Marguerite Theophil, United Press International, 16 November 2006, accessed 9 August 2008
  36. ^ Berel, Rabbi. (24 September 2005) Apples and Honey. Aish.com. Retrieved on 6 February 2011.
  37. ^ "Why is honey kosher?" Chabad.org. Retrieved 30 November 2010.
  38. ^ Sahih Bukhari vol. 7, book 71, number 584, 585, 588 and 603.
  39. ^ a b Yusuf 'Ali, 'Abdullah. An Nahl, Al-Quran Chapter 16 (The Bee) quoted from "The Holy Qur'an: Original Arabic Text with English Translation & Selected Commentaries". Saba Islamic Media. Retrieved 20 May 2013. 
  40. ^ Definition of honey and honey products. (PDF) . Retrieved on 9 January 2012.
  41. ^ a b Questions Most Frequently Asked About Sugar. American Sugar Alliance. 
  42. ^ Nutrient data for 19296, Honey. USDA Nutrient Data Laboratory.
  43. ^ Martos I, Ferreres F, Tomás-Barberán F (2000). "Identification of flavonoid markers for the botanical origin of Eucalyptus honey". J Agric Food Chem 48 (5): 1498–502. doi:10.1021/jf991166q. PMID 10820049. 
  44. ^ Gheldof N, Wang X, Engeseth N (2002). "Identification and quantification of antioxidant components of honeys from various floral sources". J Agric Food Chem 50 (21): 5870–7. doi:10.1021/jf0256135. PMID 12358452. 
  45. ^ Beesource Beekeeping » Honey Composition and Properties. Beesource.com. Retrieved on 6 February 2011.
  46. ^ Arcot, Jayashree and Brand-Miller, Jennie (March 2005) A Preliminary Assessment of the Glycemic Index of Honey. A report for the Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation. RIRDC Publication No 05/027. rirdc.infoservices.com.au
  47. ^ Krell
  48. ^ http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4613-1119-5_8#page-1
  49. ^ The Hive: The Story of the Honeybee and Us By Bee Wilson --St. Martins Press 2004 Page 167
  50. ^ Edwards, G and Walker, D A (1983). C3,C4: Mechanisms, and Cellular and Environmental Regulation, of Photosynthesis. University of California Press. pp. 469–. GGKEY:05LA62Q2TQJ. "Sucrose synthesized by a C4 plant (e.g. sugar beet) can be distinguished from sucrose synthesized by a C3 plant (e.g. sugar-cane) due to differences in δ values." 
  51. ^ Barry, Carla (1999). "The detection of C4 sugars in honey". Hivelights (Canadian Honey Council) 12 (1). Archived from the original on 17 June 2008. 
  52. ^ Value-added products from beekeeping. Chapter 2. Fao.org. Retrieved on 14 April 2011.
  53. ^ "The Rheological & Mellisopalynological Properties of Honey" (PDF). Minerva Scientific. Retrieved 10 December 2012. "If however, rheological measurements are made on a given sample it can be deduced that the sample is predominantly Manuka (Graph 2) or Kanuka (Graph 3) or a mixture of the two plant species" 
  54. ^ "Definition of Honey and Honey Products" (PDF). National Honey Issac Board. Retrieved 3 February 2011. "Blended Honey: A homogeneous mixture of two or more honeys differing in floral source, color, flavor, density or geographic origin." 
  55. ^ "Honey Color and Flavor". National Honey Board. Retrieved 3 February 2011. "Wildflower honey is often used to describe honey from miscellaneous and undefined flower sources." 
  56. ^ "Varieties of honey: Polyfloral honey". The Honey Book. Retrieved 10 November 2007. "Honey that is from wild or commercialized honeybees that is derived from many types of flowers is a resulting Polyfloral honey." 
  57. ^ Mountain Wildflower Honey. Mieliditalia.it. Retrieved on 6 February 2011.
  58. ^ a b The Colours Of Honey. Mieliditalia.it. Retrieved on 6 February 2011.
  59. ^ Gounari, Sofia (2006). "Studies on the phenology of Marchalina hellenica (gen.) (Hemiptera: coccoidea, margarodidae) in relation to honeydew flow". Journal of apicultural research 45 (1): 8–12. doi:10.3896/IBRA.1.45.1.03. 
  60. ^ a b c Flottum, Kim (2010). The Backyard Beekeeper: An Absolute Beginner's Guide to Keeping Bees in Your Yard and Garden. Quarry Books. pp. 170–. ISBN 978-1-61673-860-0. 
  61. ^ Subramanian, R.; Hebbar, H. Umesh; Rastogi, N. K. (2007). "Processing of Honey: A Review". International Journal of Food Properties 10: 127. doi:10.1080/10942910600981708. 
  62. ^ Definition of Honey and Honey Products at the Wayback Machine (archived 3 December 2007). honey.com. Approved by the National Honey Board 15 June 1996; Updated 27 September 2003
  63. ^ Can Local Honey Help My Allergies?. Webmd.com (1 February 2012). Retrieved on 2013-08-02.
  64. ^ "United States Standards for Grades of Extracted Honey". USDA / Agricultural Marketing Service. Retrieved 20 January 2012. 
  65. ^ a b Damerow, Gail (2011). The Backyard Homestead Guide to Raising Farm Animals: Choose the Best Breeds for Small-Space Farming, Produce Your Own Grass-Fed Meat, Gather Fresh Eggs, Collect Fresh Milk, Make Your Own Cheese, Keep Chickens, Turkeys, Ducks, Rabbits, Goats, Sheep, Pigs, Cattle, & Bees. Storey Publishing, LLC. pp. 167–. ISBN 978-1-60342-697-8. 
  66. ^ First Regional Training Workshop for Beekeepers. Bib. Orton IICA / CATIE. 1992. pp. 55–. 
  67. ^ Ultrasonic Honey Processing. Hielscher.com. Retrieved on 6 February 2011.
  68. ^ Sharma, Rajeev (2005). Improve your Health! with Honey. Diamond Pocket Books. pp. 33–. ISBN 978-81-288-0920-0. 
  69. ^ a b Krell, Rainer (1996). Value-added Products Froom Beekeeping. Food & Agriculture Org. pp. 25–. ISBN 978-92-5-103819-2. 
  70. ^ Honey Processing. Beeworks.com. Retrieved on 6 February 2011.
  71. ^ "The History of the Origin and Development of Museums". Dr. M. A. Hagen. The American naturalist, Volume 10. 1876.
  72. ^ 1894. The Mummy: A Handbook of Egyptian Funerary Archaeology. 2nd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (Reprinted New York: Dover Publications, 1989)
  73. ^ What to Do About Crystallized Honey. Heavenly Homemakers. Retrieved on 2 August 2013.
  74. ^ Decrystallizing Honey. Lynnskitchenadventures.com. Retrieved on 2 August 2013.
  75. ^ "United States Standards for Grades of Extracted Honey". USDA. Retrieved 11 May 2010. 
  76. ^ NOTIFICATION, MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE (Department of Agriculture and Co-operation) New Delhi, 24 December 2008
  77. ^ a b Bogdanov, Stefan (2008) "Honey production" at the Wayback Machine (archived 5 March 2009). Bee Product Science
  78. ^ Allan, Matthew. "Basic Honey Processing". Beekeeping in a Nutshell 5. 
  79. ^ "Keeping Tabs on Honey". Chemical & Engineering News 86 (35): 43. 2008. doi:10.1021/cen-v086n035.p043. 
  80. ^ a b c Altman, Nathaniel (9 March 2010). The Honey Prescription: The Amazing Power of Honey As Medicine. Inner Traditions / Bear & Company. pp. 60–62. ISBN 978-1-59477-346-4. Retrieved 29 January 2011. 
  81. ^ "How is honey good for you?". Isha Blog. Retrieved 15 March 2014. 
  82. ^ Pand, KN. Simple Yoga for Good Health. India: Star Publications. p. 100. ISBN 9781905863112. 
  83. ^ Rudmik L, Hoy M, Schlosser RJ, et al. (April 2013). "Topical therapies in the management of chronic rhinosinusitis: an evidence-based review with recommendations". Int Forum Allergy Rhinol (Review) 3 (4): 281–98. doi:10.1002/alr.21096. PMID 23044832. 
  84. ^ Wijesinghe M, Weatherall M, Perrin K, Beasley R (May 2009). "Honey in the treatment of burns: a systematic review and meta-analysis of its efficacy". N. Z. Med. J. (Systematic review) 122 (1295): 47–60. PMID 19648986. 
  85. ^ a b c "Apitherapy". American Cancer Society. 1 November 2008. Retrieved May 2014. 
  86. ^ Mulholland S, Chang AB (2009). "Honey and lozenges for children with non-specific cough". Cochrane Database Syst Rev (Systematic review) (2): CD007523. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD007523.pub2. PMID 19370690. 
  87. ^ Oduwole O, Meremikwu MM, Oyo-Ita A, Udoh EE (2012). "Honey for acute cough in children". Cochrane Database Syst Rev (Systematic review) 3: CD007094. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD007094.pub3. PMID 22419319. 
  88. ^ a b "Cough – Treatment". NHS Choices. 20 June 2013. Retrieved June 2014. 
  89. ^ US FDA Using Over-the-Counter Cough and Cold Products in Children
  90. ^ Eekhof JA, Van Wijk B, Knuistingh Neven A, van der Wouden JC (2012). "Interventions for ingrowing toenails". Cochrane Database Syst Rev (Systematic review) 4: CD001541. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD001541.pub3. PMID 22513901. 
  91. ^ O'Meara S, Al-Kurdi D, Ologun Y, Ovington LG, Martyn-St James M, Richardson R (2014). "Antibiotics and antiseptics for venous leg ulcers". Cochrane Database Syst Rev (Systematic review) 1: CD003557. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003557.pub5. PMID 24408354. 
  92. ^ Asked Questions The National Honey Board at the Wayback Machine (archived 1 February 2010). Honey.com. Retrieved on 6 February 2011.
  93. ^ Report on Minimally Processed Infant Weaning Foods and the Risk of Infant Botulism. (PDF). Advisory Committee on the Microbiological Safety of Food (July 2006). food.gov.uk. Retrieved on 9 January 2012.
  94. ^ Botulism in the United States, 1899–1996, Handbook for Epidemiologists, Clinicians, and Laboratory Workers, Atlanta, GA. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (1998)
  95. ^ Infant Botulism and Honey. Edis.ifas.ufl.edu. Retrieved on 9 January 2012.
  96. ^ "Grayanotoxin" at the Wayback Machine (archived 14 March 2010) in the Foodborne Pathogenic Microorganisms and Natural Toxins Handbook, FDA Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition.
  97. ^ Tutu Bush and Toxic Honey. National Beekeepers Association, New Zealand
  98. ^ "Production of Natural Honey by countries". UN Food & Agriculture Organization. 2011. Retrieved 26 August 2013. 
  99. ^ FAO statistics. faostat.fao.org
  100. ^ Where Honey Comes From. Wherefoodcomesfrom.com (9 November 2012). Retrieved on 2013-08-02.
  101. ^ Lavin Tierra, Mariely (February 2008). "Yucatán y su miel". México Desconocido 372: 78–83. 
  102. ^ Miel de Corse mele di Corsica, la gamme variétale AOC AOP. Miel-corse.eu. Retrieved on 6 February 2011.
  103. ^ 14. HONEY MARKETING AND INTERNATIONAL TRADE. fao.org

Bibliography

External links


Content from Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia

What Is This Site? The Ultimate Study Guide is a mirror of English Wikipedia. It exists in order to provide Wikipedia content to those who are unable to access the main Wikipedia site due to draconian government, employer, or school restrictions. The site displays all the text content from Wikipedia. Our sponsors generously cover part of the cost of hosting this site, and their ads are shown as part of this agreement. We regret that we are unable to display certain controversial images on some pages the site at the request of the sponsors. If you need to see images which we are unable to show, we encourage you to view Wikipedia directly if possible, and apologize for this inconvenience.

A product of XPR Content Systems. 47 Union St #9K, Grand Falls-Windsor NL A2A 2C9 CANADA