|This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in the Norwegian Wikipedia. (July 2012)|
|This article is outdated. (February 2013)|
|— Municipality —|
|• Mayor (2003)||Per Kristian Dahl (Ap)|
|• Total||642 km2 (248 sq mi)|
|• Land||596 km2 (230 sq mi)|
|Area rank||173 in Norway|
|• Rank||29 in Norway|
|• Density||46/km2 (120/sq mi)|
|• Change (10 years)||6.0 %|
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
|• Summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
|ISO 3166 code||NO-0101|
|Official language form||Bokmål|
Halden (help·info) is a both a town and a municipality in Østfold county, Norway. The seat of the municipality, Halden is a border town located at the mouth of Tista River on the Iddefjord, the southernmost border crossing between Norway and Sweden.
Evidence of early human settlements in this region of Norway have been found, particularly in the Svinesund area of the municipality where evidence of early settlements from the Nordic Bronze Age have been found. Named after a small farm Hallen (English: "rise" or "slope") first mentioned in 1629, "Halden", became the city of Fredrikshald in 1665, named after Frederick III of Denmark. The Gud med oss (God be with us) coat-of-arms created in 1665 shows a knight standing on a mountain, yellow on a blue background, and was inspired by the bravery of the citizens of the city in the Dano-Swedish War (1658–1660).2
As a reference to the town's citizens burning their own houses to prevent them being taken on 4 July 1716 by the forces of King Charles XII of Sweden, Halden is one of only two cities in Norway's national anthem. In 1718, the Great Northern War ended when Karl XII was shot and killed at the Fredriksten fortress. The fortress had been erected in the 17th century as a replacement for the Bohus Fortress lost at the Treaty of Roskilde in 1658 when Bohuslän was ceded to Sweden.
Never captured by force by any invading army (although occupied by Nazi forces in WWII), the Swedes unsuccessfully attempted to invade Halden six times between 1658 and 1814.
- Halden municipality
- In 1838, Fredrikshald became a city municipality (Norwegian: herred), and in 1928, the name was changed back to Halden. The 4 kilometres (2 mi) Tistedalen east of the Halden was part of the city from 1686 to 1967 until it was separated from Halden. At the same time, the area of Halden, Tistedalen, and the rural municipalities of Berg and Idd became the Halden municipality on 1 January 1967.
The political situation in Halden has become infamous in Norway for conflicts between individual politicians and between local political parties.
The slogan, Halden, IT- og Miljøbyen (Halden, IT and Environment City), is a reference to Halden's large number of IT companies. In the late 1960s, the most powerful mainframe computer in Norway at the time was located at the Institute for Energy Technology's facilities in Halden. From the 1960s-1980s, Halden was infamous for high levels of industrial pollution, largely originating from the Norske Skog Saugbrugs paper mill (part of Norske Skog since 1989). As a result of projects initiated by both Norske Skog-Saugbrugs and the city authorities, the polluted fjords and rivers of Halden have been cleaned up and the city was dubbed Norway's Environment City in 1996.
One of Norway's two nuclear reactors is located in Halden. The Halden Boiling Water Reactor is a research reactor located 100 metres (328 ft) within Månefjell, adjacent to the Saugbrugs paper mill. It is in operation about 50% of the time and, in addition to research data, supplies steam to the mill. The reactor is operated by the Institute for Energy Technology, one of Halden's largest employers, and is the largest experimental facility operated for OECD Halden Reactor Project research. IFE's Man-Technology-Organisation laboratory is IFE's other major facility, and was opened by Norway's crown prince regent in March 2004. This new laboratory building houses the most recent incarnations of the Halden Man-Machine Laboratory (HAMMLAB) and Halden Virtual Reality Centre's (HVRC) VR laboratory. The OECD Halden Reactor Project (established in 1958) is one of the world's longest running international research collaborations, with 20 countries participating (2005) and the largest international research project in Norway. This ensures a steady influx of international guest scientists to the city. The fact that Norway has no commercial interest in nuclear power ensures that Halden is viewed internationally as a neutral location. In national politics, the reactor is controversial, however locally it has had support from the majority of political parties and the city's population. Some of the largest IT companies in Halden, such as Hand-El Skandinavia (now part of the OM Technology group) and ScandPower, are spin-offs from IFE.
Halden sights include the canal system, Høiåsmasten partially guyed TV tower, and Svinesund bridges. The fortress of Fredriksten has historical museums, and the Østfold University College (Høgskolen i Østfold) is in Halden.
Rød Herregård in Halden is one of the best preserved manor house in Norway. The property features well-preserved buildings, a baroque garden and an English landscape garden. The buildings have their oldest origins of the late 1600s, but were largely built during the last half of the 1700s. The manor house and estate complex was owned by the Tank family through three generations, from 1733 to 1829. In 1961, two foundations were established to maintain the historic property. Rød Manor Foundation (Stiftelsen Rød Herregård) is responsible for the manor house, buildings and gardens. Ankerske Foundation Collections (Stiftelsen De Ankerske Samlinger) is responsible for the contents and the rich archives related to the property.
Halden is surrounded by forests and water so hiking and fishing locations can easily be found. Deer and elk are a common sight, and wolves have also been observed in the district along the border with Sweden. Raspberries, blackberries, blueberries, wild cranberries, and many varieties of mushroom can be found in the woods in the early autumn. Popular destinations for hikers and other nature lovers include Prestebakke and Kornsjø.
Halden's meteorological station is at Buer.3
Outdoor concerts are frequently held at the fortress while the local churches, pubs, and student union are regular venues for indoor concerts. Musicians recorded by the Hitsville and Athletic Sound studios in the Halden region include Motorpsycho, Madrugada, Morten Harket, and Kurt Nilsen. The city's intimate theatre hosts frequent plays by national and local theatre groups, and occasionally serves as a concert hall.
Halden festivals include a food and wooden boat festival (Halden Day) in July, a croquet festival (August), the Bom-Kræsj-Bang cultural festival (April), and the Down on the Farm country/roots festival. The famous pub "Siste Reis" neighbouring the train station has been voted among the ten best pubs in Europe!
Artists born in Halden that are represented in the Norwegian National Gallery in Oslo include Thomas Fearnley (1802–1842) and Jacob Mathias Calmeyer (1802–1883). Fearnley is locally exhibited at the manor house Rød Herregård. Other significant artists that lived in Halden, but were not born there, include Johannes Fintoe (1786–1870) and Heinrich August Grosch (1763–1843). Grosch's son, Christian Heinrich Grosch (1801–1865), who moved with his parents to Halden at the age of ten, became an influential architect, whose works include seventy-eight churches (including Immanuels Kirke in Halden), the Bank of Norway, the Oslo Stock Exchange, and the original university buildings in Oslo.
The Halden VBK volleyball club plays in the Premier Division, and while the local ice hockey team Comet did play in the GET-league (Norway's highest ice hockey division) for some years, but they ran into some financial problems in 2008/2009, and is now in division 1. Halden also has many football clubs, the biggest of them, Kvik Halden FK, plays in the Norwegian Third Division. The two handball clubs, Tistedalens TIF in the first division and HK Halden, have teams for children, youth and adults.
One of Norway's few curling centres lies in Halden. Halden Curling Center is host to East-Norway 1 division. In addition there is a separate amateur league with two divisions. Several curlers from Halden have won Norwegian championships and competed internationally.
- Ivar Huitfeldt (1665–1710), commander in the Dano-Norwegian fleet
- Nils Otto Tank (1800–1864), Moravian Church religious leader
- Christian Heinrich Grosch (1801–1865), architect
- Thomas Fearnley (1802–1842), artist
- Alvilde Prydz (1846–1922), Novelist
- Nini Roll Anker (1873–1942), writer
- Karl Ouren (1882–1943), Norwegian-American artist
- Håkon Wium Lie (1965-), CTO of Opera Software
- "Personnemningar til stadnamn i Noreg" (in Norwegian). Språkrådet.
- "Haldens kommunevåpen". Retrieved 2008-12-13. (Norwegian)
- "Vennskapsbyer". Halden kommune. Retrieved 2008-12-16. (Norwegian)
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