French-based creole languages
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A French Creole, or French-based Creole language, is a creole language based on the French language, more specifically on a 17th-century koiné French extant in Paris, the French Atlantic harbours, and the nascent French colonies. French-based creole languages are spoken by millions of people worldwide, primarily in the Americas and in the Indian Ocean.
Descendants of the non-creole colonial koiné are still spoken in Canada (mostly in Quebec and the Maritime Provinces), the Canadian Prairie provinces, Louisiana, northern New England (Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont), Saint-Barthélemy (leeward portion of the island) and as isolates in other parts of the Americas.1
- Varieties with progressive aspect marker ape2
- Haitian Creole or Kreyòl ayisyen, is a language spoken primarily in Haiti. It is the largest French-derived language in the world, with a total of 12 million fluent speakers. It is also the most-spoken creole language in the world. French is its superstrate language,some indigenous Amerindian languages providing substrate input. Some words are also derived from English, and Spanish.
- Louisiana Creole (Kréyol la Lwizyàn, locally called Kourí-Viní and Pale-Nég), the Louisiana creole language.
- Varieties with progressive aspect marker ka3
- Antillean Creole is a language spoken primarily in the French (and some of the English) Lesser Antilles, such as Martinique, Guadeloupe, Îles des Saintes, Dominica, St. Lucia, Trinidad and Tobago and many other smaller islands. Although all of the creoles spoken on these islands are considered to be the same language, there are noticeable differences between the dialects of each island. Notably, the Creole spoken in the Eastern (windward) part of the island Saint-Barthélemy is a Creole spoken exclusively by a white population of European descent, imported into the island from Saint-Christophe in 1648.
- French Guiana Creole or French Guianese Creole is a language spoken in French Guiana, and to a lesser degree in Suriname and Guyana. It is closely related to Antillean Creole, but there are some noteworthy differences between the two.
- Karipúna, spoken in Brazil, mostly in Uaçá, the state of Amapá. It was developed by Amerindians in the Uaçá, with possible influences from immigrants from neighboring French Guiana and French territories of the Caribbean and with a recent lexical adstratum from Portuguese.
- Lanc-Patuá, spoken more widely in the state of Amapá, is a variety of the former, possibly the same language.
- Varieties with progressive aspect marker ape2 - subsumed under a common classification as Bourbonnais Creoles
- Mauritian Creole, spoken as the mother tongue (locally Kreol)
- Agalega Creole, spoken in Agaléga Islands
- Chagossian Creole, spoken by the former population of the Chagos archipelago
- Réunion Creole, spoken in Réunion
- Rodriguan Creole, spoken on the island of Rodrigues
- Seychellois Creole, also known as Seselwa, it is an official language as well as the lingua franca
- Petit Mauresque or Little Moorish was spoken in North Africa
- Petit Nègre 4 was spoken in West Africa, especially in Côte d'Ivoire
- Robert Fournier & Henri Wittmann (ed.), 1995. Le français des Amériques. Presses universitaires de Trois-Rivières. (ISBN 2-9802307-2-3)
- with variants ap and pe, from the koiné French progressive aspect marker àprè <après> Henri Wittmann. 1995, "Grammaire comparée des variétés coloniales du français populaire de Paris du 17e siècle et origines du français québécois", in Fournier, Robert & Wittmann, Henri, Le français des Amériques, Trois-Rivières: Presses universitaires de Trois-Rivières, pp. 281-334.
- from the Karipúna substratum (Henri Wittmann. 1995, "Grammaire comparée des variétés coloniales du français populaire de Paris du 17e siècle et origines du français québécois", in Fournier, Robert & Wittmann, Henri, Le français des Amériques, Trois-Rivières: Presses universitaires de Trois-Rivières, pp. 281-334.
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