Fort Wayne, Indiana
|Fort Wayne, Indiana|
|— City —|
|City of Fort Wayne|
|Nickname(s): The Summit City (official)|
|Motto: Ke Ki On Ga|
|Townships||Aboite, Adams, Perry, Pleasant, St. Joseph, Washington, Wayne|
|Founder||Jean François Hamtramck|
|Named for||Anthony Wayne|
|• Type||Mayor-council government|
|• Mayor||Tom Henry (D)|
|• City Clerk||Sandra Kennedy (D)|
|• City Council|
|• IN Senate|
|• State House delegation|
|• City||110.83 sq mi (287.05 km2)|
|• Land||110.62 sq mi (286.50 km2)|
|• Water||0.21 sq mi (0.54 km2)|
|• Urban||135.25 sq mi (350.3 km2)|
|• Metro||1,368 sq mi (3,540 km2)|
|Elevation||810 ft (247 m)|
|• Estimate (20113)||255,824|
|• Rank||1st in Allen County
2nd in Indiana
74th in the United States
|• Density||2,293.4/sq mi (885.5/km2)|
|• Demonym||Fort Waynean|
|Time zone||EST (UTC-5)|
|• Summer (DST)||EDT (UTC-4)|
|ZIP codes||46801-46809, 46814-46816, 46818, 46819, 46825, 46835, 46845, 46850-46869, 46885, 46895-46899|
|GNIS feature ID||04346894|
Fort Wayne is a city in the U.S. state of Indiana and the county seat of Allen County.5 The population was 255,824 as of the July 1, 2011 Census estimate making it the 74th largest city in the United States and the second largest in Indiana after Indianapolis. The municipality is located in northeastern Indiana, approximately 18 miles (29 km) west of the Ohio border6 and 50 miles (80 km) south of the Michigan border.7 Fort Wayne is the principal city of the Fort Wayne metropolitan area, consisting of Allen, Wells, and Whitley counties, for an estimated population of 419,453.8 In addition to those three core counties, the combined statistical area includes Adams, DeKalb, Huntington, Noble, and Steuben counties, for a population of about 615,077.8
Under the direction of American Revolutionary War statesman General "Mad" Anthony Wayne, the United States Army built Fort Wayne last in a series of forts near the Miami Indian village of Kekionga in 1794.9 Named in Wayne's honor, Fort Wayne established itself at the confluence of the St. Joseph River, St. Marys River, and Maumee River as a trading post for European settlers.10 The village was platted in 1823 and experienced tremendous growth after completion of the Wabash and Erie Canal and advent of the railroad.10 Once a booming industrial town located in the Rust Belt, Fort Wayne's economy has diversified in recent times, now relying on distribution, transportation, and logistics, health care, manufacturing, professional and business services, leisure and hospitality, and financial services.11 The city is also a center for the defense contractor industry which employs thousands in the city.12
As Northeast Indiana's cultural hub, Fort Wayne is home to 15 museums and art galleries,13 two daily newspapers,13 philharmonic orchestra, children's zoo, three minor league sports franchises and an NCAA Division I team, and 86 parks and playgrounds.13 The city is home to the fifth largest public university in Indiana,14 Indiana University–Purdue University Fort Wayne (IPFW), and the private universities of Concordia Theological Seminary, Indiana Institute of Technology, and University of Saint Francis. The city is also widely recognized as the final resting place of American folklore legend Johnny Appleseed.1516
The Miami nation first established a settlement at the Maumee, St. Joseph, and St. Marys Rivers in the mid-17th century called Kekionga. The village was the traditional capital of the Miami nation and related Algonquian tribes. Historians believe that around 1676, French priests and missionaries visited the Miami on their way back from a mission at Lake Michigan. In 1680, René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, sent a letter to the Governor of New France, Louis de Buade de Frontenac stating he had also stopped there. In the 1680s, French traders established a post at the location because it was the crucial portage between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River. The Maumee River is approximately ten miles (16 kilometers) away from the Little River branch of the Wabash River, which flows, in turn, into the Ohio River.18
In 1696, Comte de Frontenac appointed Jean Baptiste Bissot, Sieur de Vincennes, as commander of the French outpost in Miami country.19 The French built the first fort on the site, Fort Miamis, in 1697 as part of a group of forts built between Quebec, Canada, and St. Louis. In 1721, a few years after Bissot's death, Fort Miamis was replaced by Fort St. Philippe des Miamis.20 The first census, performed in 1744 on the order by the governor of Louisiana, revealed a population of approximately forty Frenchmen and one thousand Miami.20 Increasing tension between France and the United Kingdom developed over the territory. In 1760, after defeat by British forces in the French and Indian War, the area was ceded to the British Empire. The fort was again renamed, this time to Fort Miami. In 1763, various Native American nations rebelled against British rule and retook the fort as part of Pontiac's Rebellion. The Miami regained control of Kekionga, a rule that lasted for more than 30 years.20
In 1790, President George Washington ordered the United States Army to secure Indiana. Three battles were fought in Kekionga against Little Turtle and the Miami Confederacy. Miami warriors annihilated the United States Army in the first two battles. Anthony Wayne led a third expedition, destroying the village while its warriors were away. When the tribe returned to their destroyed village, Little Turtle decided to negotiate peace. After General Wayne refused it, the tribe was advanced to Fallen Timbers where they were defeated on August 20, 1794. On October 22, 1794, the United States army captured the Wabash–Erie portage from the Miami Confederacy and built a new fort at the three rivers, Fort Wayne, in honor of General Wayne.21
In 1819, three years after Indiana's statehood, the military garrison was discontinued and a federal land office opened to sell land ceded by local Native Americans by the Treaty of St. Mary's.22 Platted in 1823, the village quickly became a frontier outpost, and was incorporated as the Town of Fort Wayne in 1829 with a population of 300.23 The arrival of the Wabash and Erie Canal eased passages to the Great Lakes and Mississippi River, opening Fort Wayne to unprecedented economic opportunities. The population topped 2,000 when the town was incorporated as the City of Fort Wayne on February 22, 1840.24 Fort Wayne's nickname, The Summit City, came from its position at the highest point along the canal's route.10 As influential as the Wabash and Erie Canal was to the city's earliest development, it quickly became obsolete after briefly competing with the city's first railroad, the Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne and Chicago Railway, completed in 1854.25
At the turn of the 20th century, the city's population had reached nearly 50,000, attributed mostly to the massive influx of German and Irish immigrants. Fort Wayne's "urban working class" thrived in industrial and railroad-related jobs.26 Fort Wayne's economy was based substantially on manufacturing which ushered in an era of innovation with several notable inventions coming out of the city over the years. Baking powder, gasoline pumps, the country's first municipal lighting system, first high fidelity phonograph, breathalyzer,27 refrigerator, garbage disposal, transistor radio, jukebox, calculator, and in 1972, the first home video game console, were developed in Fort Wayne.28
With the growing prevalence of the automobile, Fort Wayne became a fixture on the Lincoln Highway, the country's first coast-to-coast highway.29 Aviation arrived in 1919 with the opening of the city's first airport, Smith Field. The airport served as Fort Wayne's primary commercial airfield until Fort Wayne International Airport was handed over to the city in 1947 after use as a military base during World War II.30 Fort Wayne was hit by the Great Depression beginning in 1929, with most factories cutting their workforce.31 The stock market crash however did not discourage plans to build the city's first skyscraper and Indiana's tallest building at the time, the Art Deco Lincoln Bank Tower.32 By 1935, the New Deal's WPA put over 7,000 residents back to work through various local infrastructure improvements, including the construction of new parks, bridges, viaducts, and a $5.2 million sewage treatment facility. In 1940, the city provided 25 parks totaling 865 acres (350 ha).33
The post-World War II economic boom helped the city prosper once again, but began a slow trend shifting business from downtown to the suburbs. Between 1950 and 1955, more than 5,000 homes were built, many in large subdivisions in rural Allen County.34 Suburban strip malls followed, with the city's first, Anthony Wayne Village, opening in 1947.34 In 1950, Fort Wayne's first bypass, Coliseum Boulevard, opened on the north side of the city, bringing new opportunities for suburban expansion.35 The city's first arena, War Memorial Coliseum, further lured business from downtown when it opened September 28, 1952 on the bypass, becoming home to the NBA's Fort Wayne Pistons. Fort Wayne's first enclosed shopping malls, Glenbrook Square (1965) and Southtown Mall (1969), along with the completion of I-69 in rural areas north and west of the city proper, further drove the exodus of retail from downtown through the 1960s.36 According to 1970s Fort Wayne Home Builders Association estimates, more than 80 percent of new home construction occurred outside the city proper.37
Like many cities in the Rust Belt, the 1980s brought urban blight, increased crime, notably drug and gang-related violence, and a decrease in blue-collar manufacturing jobs that had helped the city flourish for over a century.38 Downtown and its surrounding neighborhoods continued to decline as more residents and businesses moved further out into rural Allen County.39 The city endured further battering as a flood inundated Fort Wayne in March 1982. Devastation was widespread, with over 2,000 buildings damaged, costing $56.1 million, and prompting a visit from President Ronald Reagan.40 However, a herculean civilian effort was launched to beat rising waters; as clay dikes along the Maumee River began to fail, residents worked around the clock to reinforce the dike with sandbags. In the end, 1,860 homes in the Northside neighborhood were spared from damage.41 The efforts by thousands of volunteers earned Fort Wayne the distinction of The City That Saved Itself.42
The 1990s marked a turnaround for the area, as officials focused on crime reduction, economic diversification, and downtown redevelopment efforts. The addition of 30 police officers, an anti-gang unit, expanded take-home police car program, and neighborhood watch program combated Fort Wayne's crime rate; by 1999, the city's crime rate decreased to levels not seen since 1974.43 Fort Wayne's economy recovered, with the unemployment rate hovering at 2.4 percent in 1998.43 Clearing blighted buildings while greening downtown became a priority, with the opening of One Summit Square (1991), the Courthouse Green (1999), and Headwaters Park, built at a cost of $16.9 million between 1995 and 1999. Headwaters has since become the premier community gathering space and centerpiece in the city's $50 million flood control project.4344 Fort Wayne celebrated its bicentennial in 1994.43
Fort Wayne continued focusing on downtown redevelopment and investment in the 2000s.45 The decade saw the beginnings of a transformation, with the renovations and expansions of the Main Library Branch, Grand Wayne Convention Center, and Fort Wayne Museum of Art. In 2006, the $130 million Harrison Square development was announced, containing a new baseball stadium, parking garage, apartments, retail, and hotel.46 Parkview Field opened in April 2009 and Courtyard by Marriott in September 2010.47 In 2011, the underused Anthony Wayne Building began its conversion into 50 condominiums and retail space, costing $15 million.48 Suburban growth continued, with the opening of Fort Wayne's first lifestyle center, Jefferson Pointe, in 2001 and the $536 million Parkview Regional Medical Center in 2012.49
According to the 2010 census, the city has a total area of 110.83 square miles (287.0 km2), of which 110.62 square miles (286.5 km2) (or 99.81%) is land and 0.21 square miles (0.54 km2) (or 0.19%) is water.50
Fort Wayne is located at 51 For a regional summit, Fort Wayne lies on fairly flat land, with the exception of few hills and depressions throughout the region. Marshes and wetlands are prevalent in portions of southwest Fort Wayne and Allen County, as well as some quarries. West of the city lies the Tipton Till Plain while land east of the plain is the former Black Swamp. The St. Marys River cuts through the southeast section of Allen County, flowing northward, while the St. Joseph River cuts through the northeast section of the county, flowing southward. Both rivers converge roughly in the center of the county to form the Maumee River, which flow northeastward, eventually emptying into Lake Erie.(41.07253, −85.13937).
Fort Wayne lies in the humid continental climate zone (Dfa), experiencing four distinct seasons. Typically, summers are hot and humid and winters are generally cold with moderate snowfall. Precipitation is fairly evenly distributed throughout the year.
The National Weather Service reports the highest recorded temperature in the city at 106 °F (41 °C), most recently on June 28, 2012, and the lowest recorded temperature at −24 °F (−31 °C) on January 12, 1918.52 The wettest month on record was July 1986, with 11.00 inches (279 mm) of precipitation recorded. The greatest 24-hour rainfall was 4.93 in (125 mm) on August 1, 1926. The average annual precipitation is 37.9 in (960 mm), recorded at Fort Wayne International. During the winter season, snowfall accumulation averages 32.9 in (84 cm) per year. The snowiest month on record was 29.5 in (75 cm) in January 1982. The greatest 24-hour snowfall was 13.6 in (35 cm) on March 10, 1964.53 Lake effect snow is not uncommon to the region, but usually appears in the form of light snow flurries.
Severe weather is common, particularly in the spring and summer months.54 Fort Wayne is especially vulnerable to flooding due to its relatively flat topography, heavy clay soils, and the convergence of three rivers and dozens of other streams.55
The most devastating natural disaster to hit the city was the Flood of 1913. Deluged by several days of heavy spring rainstorms, the three rivers spilled over their banks, causing seven deaths, leaving 15,000 homeless, and damaging over 5,500 buildings.56 The disaster marked a turning point in the city's approach to flood control.57 The costliest natural disaster, the Flood of 1982, exceeded $56 million in damages to over 2,000 buildings, and forced the evacuation of 9,000.40 The most severe tornado, an EF2, struck northern Fort Wayne on May 26, 2001, injuring three and causing extensive damage along the Coliseum Boulevard corridor and a subdivision.58 The city was paralyzed in the days following the Great Blizzard of 1978, with snow drifts up to 20 feet (6.1 m) driven by 55 mph wind gusts.59 Fort Wayne experienced 91 mph wind gusts in the June 2012 North American derecho, knocking out power to 78,000 and costing $2.5 million.60
|Climate data for Fort Wayne, Indiana (Fort Wayne Int'l), 1981–2010 normals, extremes 1897–present|
|Record high °F (°C)||69
|Average high °F (°C)||32.3
|Average low °F (°C)||17.8
|Record low °F (°C)||−24
|Precipitation inches (mm)||2.26
|Snowfall inches (cm)||10.5
|Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in)||12.6||10.1||12.2||12.9||13.0||10.9||9.8||9.4||9.1||9.7||11.2||13.0||134.0|
|Avg. snowy days (≥ 0.1 in)||9.5||6.7||4.1||1.0||0||0||0||0||0||.2||2.6||8.2||32.3|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||148.8||161.0||207.7||252.0||313.1||339.0||347.2||319.3||258.0||207.7||123.0||108.5||2,785.3|
|Source: NOAA,61 HKO (sun only, 1961−1990) 62|
- Allen County Courthouse, Beaux-Arts government building, Brentwood S. Tolan, 1897–1902
- Arts United Center, Modern theater, Louis Kahn, 1973
- Canal House, warehouse, John Brown, 1852
- Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception, Gothic church, Rev. Msgr. Julian Benoit, 1860
- Center School, restored schoolhouse, 1893
- Chief Jean Baptiste de Richardville House, Greek Revival and Federal-style residence, 1827
- Concordia Theological Seminary, Modern university campus, Eero Saarinen, 1953
- Crooks House, Postmodern residence, Michael Graves, 1976
- E. Ross Adair Federal Building and United States Courthouse, Art Deco government building, Guy Mahurin, 1932
- Embassy Theatre, movie palace, John Eberson, 1928
- Engine House No. 3, Romanesque fire station, John F. Wing and Marshall S. Mahurin, 1893
- Forest Park Boulevard Historic District, Colonial Revival and Tudor Revival-style neighborhood, 1910–1954
- Fort Wayne City Hall, Richardsonian Romanesque government building, John F. Wing and Marshall S. Mahurin, 1893
- Hanselmann House, Postmodern residence, Michael Graves, 1967
- Hugh McCulloch House, Greek Revival residence, Henry Williams, 1843
- J.B. Franke House, Prairie School residence, Francis Barry Byrne, 1914
- John D. Haynes House, Usonian residence, Frank Lloyd Wright, 1952
- John H. Bass Mansion (Brookside), Romanesque university library, John F. Wing and Marshall S. Mahurin, 1902
- Lincoln Bank Tower, Art Deco highrise, Alvin M. Strauss, 1930
- McCulloch-Weatherhogg House, Victorian Gothic residence, Thomas J. Tolan, 1881
- Oakdale Historic District, Colonial Revival, Tudor Revival, American Craftsman, and American Foursquare-style neighborhood, 1873–1950
- Pennsylvania Railroad Station (Baker Street Station), American Craftsman train station, 1914
- Saint Paul's Evangelical Lutheran Church, Gothic church, John F. Wing and Marshall S. Mahurin, 1889
- Snyderman House, Postmodern residence, Michael Graves, 1972
- South Wayne Historic District, American Craftsman, Colonial Revival, and American Foursquare-style neighborhood, 1893–1940
- The Landing Historic District, Italianate, Renaissance, and Romanesque commercial lowrises, 1868–1943
- Thomas W. Swinney House, Federal-style residence, 1844
- Trinity Episcopal Church, Gothic Revival church, Charles Crosby Miller, 1865
- West Central Historic District, Greek Revival and Gothic Revival, neighborhood, 1840–1934
- Williams-Woodland Park Historic District, Queen Anne and Colonial Revival-style neighborhood, 1875–1940
|First District||Tom Smith|
|Second District||Russ Jehl|
|Third District||Thomas F. Didier|
|Fourth District||Mitch Harper|
|Fifth District||Geoff Paddock|
|Sixth District||Glynn A. Hines|
Fort Wayne has a mayor-council government.63 Common Council has nine elected members, one representative from each of the city's six council districts and three at-large members, serving four-year terms. The district members represent the constituents living within the boundaries of their jurisdiction, while the at-large members represent the citizens as a whole.63
Democrat Tom Henry has been Fort Wayne's mayor since 2008.64 Mark Becker was appointed to the position of Deputy Mayor in 2012. Becker previously held the position from 2005–2008.65 Sandra Kennedy has held the city clerk position since 1983.66
Under the Unigov provision of Indiana Law, City-County consolidation would have been automatic when Fort Wayne's population exceeded 250,000 and became a first class city in Indiana.67 Fort Wayne nearly met the state requirements for first class city designation on January 1, 2006 when 12.8 square miles (33 km2) of neighboring Aboite Township (and a small section of Wayne Township) including 25,094 people were annexed.68 However, a 2004 legislative change raised the population requirements from 250,000 to 600,000, which ensured Indianapolis' status as the only first class city in Indiana.69
Municipal and State laws are enforced by the Fort Wayne Police Department, an organization of 460 officers.70 In 2006, Fort Wayne's crime rate was 5104.1 per 100,000 people, slightly above the national average of 4479.3.71 There were 18 murders, 404 robberies, and 2,128 burglaries in 2006.71 Rusty York has served as Police Chief since 2000.72
|U.S. Census Bureau75
The first census was performed in 1744 on the order by the governor of Louisiana, revealed a population of approximately forty Frenchmen and one thousand Miami.20
According to the 2010 Census, there were 253,691 people and 113,541 households. The racial makeup of the city is 73.62% White, 15.41% Black or African American, 0.37% Native American, 3.3% Asian (1.4% Burmese, 0.4% Indian, 0.3% Vietnamese, 0.2% Chinese, 0.2% Filipino, 0.1% Korean, 0.1% Laotian, 0.1% Thai), 0.06% Pacific Islander, 3.72% from other races, and 3.52% from two or more races. 7.96% of the population are Hispanic or Latino of any race. Among the Hispanic population, 6.1% are Mexican, 0.4% Puerto Rican, and 0.3% Guatemalan.77 Non-Hispanic Whites were 70.3% of the population in 2010,78 down from 87.7% in 1970.79
There were 101,585 households out of which 30.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.3% were married couples living together, 14.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.9% had a male householder with no wife present, and 38.0% were non-families. 31.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.44 and the average family size was 3.09.
The median age in the city was 34.5 years. 26.4% of residents were under the age of 18; 10.2% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 26.5% were from 25 to 44; 24.9% were from 45 to 64; and 12% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 48.4% male and 51.6% female.
According to the census of 2000, there were 90,915 housing units at an average density of 1,151.5 per square mile (444.6/km²). There were 83,333 households out of which 31.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.9% were married couples living together, 14.6% had a female householder with no husband present, and 39.2% were non-families. 32.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.41 and the average family size was 3.08.
In the city the population is spread out with 27.0% under the age of 18, 10.7% from 18 to 24, 30.2% from 25 to 44, 19.7% from 45 to 64, and 12.5% who are 65 years of age or older. The median age is 33 years of age. For every 100 females there are 94.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 90.4 males.
The median income for a household in the city is $36,518, and the median income for a family is $45,040. Males have a median income of $34,704 versus $25,062 for females. The per capita income for the city is $18,517. 12.5% of the population and 9.6% of families are below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 17.5% of those under the age of 18 and 7.6% of those 65 and older are living below the poverty line.
Fort Wayne is sometimes informally called the City of Churches, an unofficial moniker stretching back to the late-19th century when the city was the hub of regional Catholic, Lutheran, and Episcopal faiths.80 Today, there are approximately 360 churches in the city.13 As of December 2012, four national Christian denominations were headquartered in Fort Wayne: the American Association of Lutheran Churches, Fundamental Baptist Fellowship Association, Missionary Church, Inc., and Fellowship of Evangelical Churches.
Saint Paul's Evangelical Lutheran Church was founded in 1837 as Fort Wayne's first Lutheran church and second Lutheran congregation in Indiana.81 The first Episcopal congregation was established in 1839, attracting New Englanders along with English, Irish, and Canadian immigrants to the city. Trinity Episcopal Church opened in 1850 as the first permanent Episcopal church in Fort Wayne. On the site of today's Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception, St. Mary's opened as the city's first Catholic parish between 1834 and 1835. Today, Fort Wayne is the principal city of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Fort Wayne-South Bend, covering 14 counties in northeastern and north central Indiana.
Fort Wayne's Reform Judaism population is served by Congregation Achduth Vesholom, the oldest Jewish congregation in Indiana, founded in 1848.82 In addition, Congregation B'nai Jacob serves the area's Conservative Jewish population. Both congregations participate in the Fort Wayne Jewish Federation. There is an increasing religious minority found among Fort Wayne's immigrant communities, which include Hinduism, Islam, and Buddhism.83
Manufacturing is deeply rooted in Fort Wayne's economic history, dating to the earliest days of the city's growth as an important trade stop along the Wabash and Erie Canal. Railroads, introduced shortly after the canal's arrival, strengthened and eased travel from Fort Wayne to other booming industrial centers along the Great Lakes, such as Chicago, Detroit, Toledo, and Cleveland. Throughout the early and mid-20th century, manufacturing dominated the city's economic landscape. From 1900 to 1930, Fort Wayne's industrial output had expanded by 747 percent, with total production valued at $95 million in 1929, up from $11 million in 1899.84 The total workforce also increased dramatically, from 18,000 in 1900 to nearly 50,000 in 1930.84
Firms with locations in the city included Dana Corporation, Fruehauf Corporation, General Electric, International Harvester, Magnavox, Old Crown Brewing Corporation, and Tokheim, among several others, producing such items as refrigerators, washing machines, automatic phonographs, meat-packing products, televisions, garbage disposals, automotive parts and motors, trailers, gasoline pumps, trucks, beer, tents and awnings.85 Magnet wire production became an especially vital component to the city's economy. In 1960, Fort Wayne was at the center of the United States magnet wire industry, home to New Haven Wire and Cable Company, Phelps Dodge, Rea Magnet Wire, Superior Essex, and a wire operation at Fort Wayne's General Electric plant, producing nearly 90 percent of North America's magnet wire.86
The 1970s and 1980s were times of economic depression in Fort Wayne. As much of the city's manufacturing foundation eroded and the blue-collar workforce shrank, Fort Wayne joined several other cities reeling economically within the Rust Belt.87 The biggest blow to the city's economy came September 27, 1982 when International Harvester announced it would close its Fort Wayne assembly plant, which had employed 10,600 at its peak. Amid other area plant closures, coupled with the early 1980s recession, the city lost 30,000 jobs and had reached a 12.1 percent unemployment rate.88 General Motors' arrival to Allen County in 1987 helped fill the void left by International Harvester and aided in the area's recovery, employing 3,000.89
Through the 1990s and into the 2000s, the city continued to diversify its economy; manufacturing now employs 16.9 percent of Allen County's workforce.11 Other important sectors include distribution, transportation, and logistics (23.1 percent), health care (17.9 percent), professional and business services (12.1 percent), leisure and hospitality (11.1 percent), and financial services (6.3 percent).11 The leisure and hospitality sector has especially grown, with 5.7 million tourists spending more than $466 million in Fort Wayne in 2009.90 The city has become a center for the defense contracting industry, employing thousands in the city at such companies as BAE Systems (1,015), ITT Exelis (1,203), and Raytheon Systems (950).12 In 2011, the county's workforce was 179,007 with an unemployment rate of 9.1 percent.11
Fort Wayne serves as headquarters for such companies as Do It Best, Franklin Electric, Genteq, Indiana Michigan Power, Medical Protective, North American Van Lines, Rea Magnet Wire, Steel Dynamics, Sweetwater Sound, and Vera Bradley. Steel Dynamics is the only Fortune 500 company headquartered in the city, ranking 318th.91
According to the Fort Wayne–Allen County Economic Development Alliance, as of February 2013, the ten largest employers in the county were:92
|Rank||Employer||# of employees|
|1||Parkview Health System||4,710|
|2||Lutheran Health Network||4,301|
|3||Fort Wayne Community Schools||4,230|
|5||City of Fort Wayne||2,003|
|6||Lincoln Financial Group||1,970|
|7||Allen County Government||1,605|
|10||Indiana University–Purdue University Fort Wayne||1,255|
- BBQ RibFest is a four-day event held in mid-June at Headwaters Park, showcasing barbecue rib cooks and vendors and live entertainment. The event attracts around 40,000 visitors annually.93
- Fort4Fitness debuted in 2008 to motivate residents in creating healthier lifestyles. The festival includes a certified half marathon, 4-mile (6.4 km) run/walk, health fair, and healthy food expo. Over 9,000 participated in the 2011 half marathon.94 In 2012, Fort4Fitness debuted its first Spring Cycle, Bike-the-Fort, which included three bicycling tours with over 1,000 participants.95
- Germanfest, first celebrated in 1981, commemorates Fort Wayne's largest ethnic group with events like the Germanfest Bake Off and National Weiner Dog Finals. German cuisine, dance, and fashion are showcased in this eight-day celebration, held the first week of June at Headwaters Park.96
- Greek Fest is a four-day event held at the end of June at Headwaters Park. The festival, which started in 1980, celebrates Fort Wayne's local Greek population and heritage through Greek food, music, culture, and dancing.
- HolidayFest begins the day before Thanksgiving, with the lighting of the PNC Santa and Reindeer light display, Wells Fargo Holiday Display, and Indiana Michigan Power Christmas Wreath, ending with a fireworks finale at Parkview Field.97 Other events through the season include the Festival of Gingerbread at The History Center, the Festival of Trees at the Embassy Theatre, the Reindeer Romp 5K, and the Headwaters Park Ice Rink.
- IPFW Riverfest is a single-day festival held at IPFW along the St. Joseph River. The festival, which debuted in 2010, includes kayak and canoe races, a zip line across the river, boat show, fireworks display, live entertainment, and food vendors.98
- Johnny Appleseed Festival is a two-day festival held in the third week of September at Johnny Appleseed Park, where American folklore legend John Chapman is believed to be buried. The event features traditional food, crafts, and historical demonstrations recalling the era of Johnny Appleseed, with an estimated annual attendance of 300,000.99
- National Soccer Festival is staged at IPFW's Hefner Soccer Complex where 20 collegiate soccer programs, including all Big Ten Conference schools, compete over four days near the end of August. Other activities include youth games, live entertainment, and food vendors.100
- Three Rivers Festival is the paramount of northeast Indiana festivals, annually attracting an estimated 400,000 event-goers.101 The festival annually spans nine days in mid-July, featuring over 200 events, including a community parade, midway, food alley, hot dog eating contest, bed race, arts fair, and fireworks spectacular.
The John and Ruth Rhinehart Music Center opened in 2007 on the Indiana University–Purdue University Fort Wayne campus to hold community concerts and university events. The 85,000-square-foot (7,900 m2) auditorium includes 1,600 seats.102 The University of Saint Francis Performing Arts Center, located on the Downtown Campus, contains a 2,086-seat auditorium.103 The open-air Foellinger Theatre, located in Franke Park near the zoo, seats approximately 2,500, offering seasonal acts and outdoor concerts during warmer months.104
Located in downtown's burgeoning Cultural District,105 Arts United Center, located adjacent to the Fort Wayne Museum of Art, houses the Fort Wayne Civic Theater, Fort Wayne Dance Collective, and Fort Wayne Youtheatre, with seating for 660.106 Hall Community Arts Center anchors the east side of the district, housing Cinema Center, which features independent, foreign, classic, and documentary films.107
The Embassy Theatre is a 2,471-seat performing arts theater originally built in 1928 as a movie palace. The Embassy presents shows ranging from concert tours, Broadway musicals, dance, community events, and lectures, serving over 200,000 patrons annually.108 The Embassy often plays host to the Fort Wayne Philharmonic Orchestra. The Grand Wayne Center, though used mainly for exhibitions and conventions, also plays host to dance or choir productions, such as the annual FAME Festival (The Foundation for Art and Music in Elementary Education), which showcases local school choirs and dancers.
In 2010, the Voices of Unity choir traveled to Shaoxing, China to participate in the 2010 World Choir Games. Directed by Marshall White, the choir won two gold medals, including the overall champions in the Gospel and Spiritual category.109
The African/African–American Historical Museum, which opened near downtown in 2000, contains two floors and ten exhibits relating to slavery in the United States, the Underground Railroad, African–American inventors, and the history of the local African–American community.110 The Greater Fort Wayne Aviation Museum at Fort Wayne International Airport highlights aviation history in the region and displays memorabilia relating to historical aviation figures, such as Fort Wayne's own Art Smith and World War I Ace Paul Baer.111
Established in 1921, the Fort Wayne Museum of Art (FWMoA) is accredited by the American Alliance of Museums, specializing in exhibiting and collecting works of American art.112 Located just south of the FWMoA, the Auer Center for Arts and Culture was dedicated in 2011 to house local arts and cultural organizations, including Artlink and Fort Wayne Ballet. The History Center, located in Fort Wayne's Old City Hall, manages a collection of more than 23,000 artifacts recalling the region's history.113 The center is overseen by the Allen County–Fort Wayne Historical Society, which also maintains the Chief Jean Baptiste de Richardville House, one of two National Historic Landmarks in the city.
Located at downtown's Engine House 3, the Fort Wayne Firefighters Museum exhibits artifacts from the Fort Wayne Fire Department dating back to 1839 as well as showcasing four early previously-used fire engines.114 Opened in 1995, Science Central is an interactive science museum geared toward children. Located in Lawton Park just north of downtown Fort Wayne, the center contains permanent displays as well as temporary exhibitions.115
Fort Wayne is currently home to three minor league sports franchises. These include the Fort Wayne Komets of the East Coast Hockey League, Fort Wayne Mad Ants of the NBA Development League, and Fort Wayne TinCaps of baseball's Midwest League. The city is also home to the Fort Wayne Derby Girls of the Women's Flat Track Derby Association. Intercollegiate sports in the city include IPFW in the NCAA's Division I Summit League as well as NAIA schools Indiana Tech and University of Saint Francis.
The city has formerly been home to three professional sports franchises. These include the NBA's Fort Wayne Pistons (now in Detroit), the Fort Wayne Daisies of the All-American Girls Professional Baseball League, and the Fort Wayne Kekiongas of the National Association of Professional Base Ball Players (the first major league).
Fort Wayne has been home to a few sports firsts; the first professional baseball game was played May 4, 1871 between the Fort Wayne Kekiongas and the Cleveland Forest Citys.116 It was rained-out in the top of the ninth inning, with the Kekiongas ahead 2–0.117 On June 2, 1883, Fort Wayne hosted the Quincy Professionals for one of the first lighted baseball games ever recorded.116118 Fort Wayne is also credited as the birthplace of the NBA when Fort Wayne Pistons coach Carl Bennett brokered the merger of the BAA and the NBL in 1948 from his Alexander Street home.119116120 Also, on March 10, 1961, Wilt Chamberlain became the first player in the NBA to reach 3,000 points in a single season while competing at Memorial Coliseum.116
|Professional Sports in Fort Wayne|
|Fort Wayne Derby Girls||Roller derby||Women's Flat Track Derby Association||2005||Allen County War Memorial Coliseum||0|
|Fort Wayne Komets||Hockey||East Coast Hockey League||1952||Allen County War Memorial Coliseum||7 (IHL), 1 (UHL), 1 (CHL)|
|Fort Wayne Mad Ants||Basketball||NBA Development League||2007||Allen County War Memorial Coliseum||0|
|Fort Wayne TinCaps||Baseball||Midwest League||1993||Parkview Field||1|
Fort Wayne is served by two primary newspapers, The Journal Gazette and Pulitzer Prize-winning The News-Sentinel. The two dailies have separate editorial departments, but under a joint operating agreement, printing, advertising, and circulation are handled by Fort Wayne Newspapers, Inc. The city is also served by several free weekly and monthly alternative and neighborhood newspapers, including Aboite & About, Dupont Valley Times, Frost Illustrated, Ink, The Macedonian Tribune, St. Joe Times, whatzup Entertainment Newspaper, and The Waynedale News. The Greater Fort Wayne Business Weekly, a newspaper dedicated to covering local and regional business news, debuted on March 14, 2005 serving Fort Wayne and the 15-county region. Michiana Business Publications produces glossy magazines including Fort Wayne Living, BusinessWomen of Northeast Indiana, and This is Fort Wayne.
The Fort Wayne radio market is the 83rd-largest in the nation, according to Arbitron. Beginning broadcasting in 1925, Fort Wayne's second radio station, WOWO, is now an independent news/talk radio station, featuring local and network news talkshows. Two National Public Radio stations, WBNI and WBOI, are based in the city.
Fort Wayne is the 107th-largest television media market in the nation. Broadcast network affiliates include WANE-TV (CBS), WFFT-TV (Fox), WISE-TV (NBC/MyNetworkTV), WPTA (ABC/The CW), and WFWA, the region's PBS member station. Religious broadcasters include WINM and W07CL.
Fort Wayne Parks and Recreation maintains 86 public parks and playgrounds, totaling 2,805 acres (11 km2).13 Allen County Parks include Cook's Landing County Park, Fox Island County Park, Metea County Park, and Payton County Park, all four of which cover nearly 900 acres (3.6 km2).123 The county is also home to 27 nature preserves, totaling over 5,000 acres (20.2 km2).124 Northeast of Fort Wayne, near Grabill, is Hurshtown Reservoir, the largest body of water in Allen County, at 240 acres (1.0 km2). Franke Park, on the city's near-northwest side, is the most extensive park, at 316.4 acres (1.3 km2). Franke is also home to Shoaff Lake and the Fort Wayne Children's Zoo and its 1,500 animals and 300 species, drawing about 500,000 visitors annually.125 Downtown Fort Wayne is home to the Foellinger-Freimann Botanical Conservatory and Lawton Skatepark.
Southwest of the city proper, Little River Wetlands Project (LRWP) contains nearly 1,200 acres (5 km2) of wetland restoration with walking and hiking trails. LRWP's initial restoration is complete at Eagle Marsh and nearby Arrowhead Marsh and Prairie, with many native plants and wildlife flourishing.126 Over 200 animal species have been spotted at Eagle Marsh since its establishment.127
Since the 1970s, Fort Wayne developed a 24 miles (39 km) system of walking and biking trails along the riverbanks, known as the Rivergreenway, beautifying the riverfronts and promoting healthier living habits for residents.128 As of 2013, the Rivergreenway had expanded with additional trails to encompass 70 miles (110 km) throughout the city and county.129 The Rivergreenway was designated a National Recreation Trail in 2009.130
In 2007, INDOT awarded the city nearly $1 million to aid in construction of an extension of the Fort Wayne Trail Network, called the Pufferbelly Trail, that would link the Fort Wayne Children's Zoo and northern suburbs of Fort Wayne with the rest of the trail system. The project is a rails to trails initiative, following the abandoned Penn Central right-of-way.131 The final plan includes joining Pokagon State Park near Angola, Indiana in the north, and Ouabache State Park in the south near Bluffton, Indiana.132
With the expansion of trails in recent years, cycling has become important to residents. In 2009, officials announced plans for bicycle lane placement on streets throughout the city133 and installed more than 250 bike parking places, in accordance with the city's newly adopted comprehensive plan, Bike Fort Wayne.134 In 2012, the League of American Bicyclists rated the city as Bronze Level for "providing safe accommodation and facilities for bicyclists and encouraging residents to bike for transportation and recreation."135
The Fort Wayne Trail Network was used by over 480,000 residents in 2012.129
Fort Wayne is home to Indiana University–Purdue University Fort Wayne (IPFW), with an enrollment of 14,190, it is the fifth largest public university in Indiana.14 The city also holds the main campus of the Northeast Region of Ivy Tech Community College, the second largest public community college campus in Indiana. Indiana University is the third largest public higher educational facility in the city with the Fort Wayne Center for Medical Education, a branch of the Indiana University School of Medicine.
The city is home to three private universities, including Concordia Theological Seminary, Indiana Institute of Technology, and the University of Saint Francis. Private universities with regional branches located in the city include Indiana Wesleyan University, Manchester University College of Pharmacy, Trine University, with the recent additions of Crossroads Bible College and Grace College, both sharing the former Taylor University–Fort Wayne campus. Other colleges include Brown Mackie College, Harrison College, International Business College, ITT Technical Institute, MedTech College, National College, and Ross Medical Education Center.
Four separate districts provide public education in the city; East Allen County Schools, Fort Wayne Community Schools, Northwest Allen County Schools, and Southwest Allen County Schools. Fort Wayne Community Schools is the largest public school district in Indiana,136 enrolling 31,022 students as of the 2011-2012 academic year.137 Private education is offered largely through Lutheran Schools of Indiana, which operates 15 schools within Allen County and the Roman Catholic Diocese of Fort Wayne-South Bend, which operates 15 schools within the county. Blackhawk Christian School and Canterbury School also offer private K-12 education in Fort Wayne. Amish Parochial Schools of Indiana has schools through eighth grade in rural eastern Allen County.138
Founded in 1895, the Allen County Public Library (ACPL) includes 14 branches throughout Allen County. The entire library system underwent an $84.1 million overhaul from 2002–2007.139 The centerpiece Main Library Branch now covers 367,000 square feet (34,100 m2), featuring an art gallery, bookstore, café, and auditorium. In 2009, over 7.4 million materials were borrowed by patrons with over 3 million visits made throughout the library system.140 The Fred J. Reynolds Historical Genealogy Department, located in the Main Library Branch, is the largest public genealogy collection in the country, home to more than 350,000 printed volumes and 513,000 items of microfilm and microfiche.141142
Fort Wayne International Airport is the state's third-busiest airport behind Indianapolis International Airport and South Bend Regional Airport, serving almost 650,000 passengers in 2010.143 Fort Wayne International shares the distinction with O'Hare International Airport and Detroit Metropolitan Wayne County Airport as one of three Midwest commercial airports containing a 12,000-foot (3,700 m) runway.143 Fort Wayne International is also home to the 122d Fighter Wing's Fort Wayne Air National Guard Station.144 Smith Field, in northern Fort Wayne, is used primarily for general aviation.145
Fort Wayne is served by a single Interstate (Interstate 69) along with an auxiliary beltway (Interstate 469, Ronald Reagan Expressway). I-69 runs south, terminating at Interstate 465 in Indianapolis and north, terminating at the Canadian border at Port Huron, Michigan.
Unlike most cities comparable to its size, Fort Wayne does not have an urban freeway system. In 1946, city planners proposed the construction of a $27 million federally-funded freeway, crossing east-west and north-south through downtown.146 Opponents successfully campaigned against the proposal, expressing concerns with the demolition of nearly 1,500 homes at the time of the post-World War II housing shortage, while playing on fears that the project would force displaced minorities into white neighborhoods.147148 In 1947, Fort Wayne residents voted down the referendum that would have allowed for the construction of the freeway, dubbed the Anthony Wayne Parkway.149
However, I-69 was constructed around the western and northern suburban areas of the city from 1962 to 1971.150 The I-469 beltway around the southern and eastern fringes of Fort Wayne and New Haven was constructed between 1988 and 1995 as the largest public works project in Allen County history, at $207 million.149 Completion of I-469 rerouted most federal and state highways around the city instead of through.
Four U.S. Routes intersect the city, including US 24, US 27, US 30, and US 33. Five Indiana State Roads also intersect the city, including State Road 1, State Road 3, State Road 14, State Road 37, State Road 930. An extension of Airport Expressway, a four lane divided highway, was opened in 2001 directly linking Fort Wayne International Airport with I-69 at a cost of $9.8 million.151
Fort Wayne's mass transit system is managed by the Fort Wayne Public Transportation Corporation. Citilink provides bus service via 12 routes through the cities of Fort Wayne and New Haven.152 CampusLink, which debuted in 2009, is a free shuttle service for students, faculty, and general public traveling between Ivy Tech's Coliseum and North campuses, IPFW and its student housing on the Waterfield Campus, and shopping and residential areas.153 The system's annual ridership is 2.2 million.153
Until November 10, 1990, Fort Wayne was served by Amtrak's Broadway Limited (Chicago—Pittsburgh—New York). Conrail's proposed abandonment of a line between Gary, Indiana and Valparaiso, Indiana forced Amtrak to reroute its line further north through Nappanee, Indiana.155 Amtrak's nearest station to Fort Wayne is in Waterloo, located some 25 miles (40 km) to the north. Thruway Motorcoach, a dedicated bus service between Fort Wayne and Waterloo, ended in 1994.156 Recently, there has been momentum to bring passenger rail service back to the city in the form of Amtrak or other high-speed rail service.157
Freight service is provided by Norfolk Southern, which has two major routes crossing the city. Norfolk Southern also maintains a switching yard, service, maintenance, and dispatching operation in nearby New Haven. The Chicago, Fort Wayne and Eastern Railroad, a part of RailAmerica, also serves Fort Wayne via a lease of CSX Transportation's former Pennsylvania Railroad line. Fort Wayne is also the headquarters and the main operations hub of Norfolk Southern's Triple Crown Services subsidiary, the nation's largest user of roadrailer equipment. Triple Crown's terminal is located in the former Pennsylvania Railroad Piqua Yard southeast of downtown.
Fort Wayne is served by six hospitals; Dupont Hospital, Lutheran Hospital of Indiana, Parkview Regional Medical Center, Parkview Hospital Randallia, Rehabilitation Hospital of Fort Wayne, and St. Joseph Hospital, encompassing over 1,463 patient beds.13 These six hospitals belong to either of the two health networks serving the region: Parkview Health System or Lutheran Health Network.
Electricity is provided to Fort Wayne residents by Indiana Michigan Power.158 Northern Indiana Public Service Company provides residents with natural gas.158 The City of Fort Wayne supplies residents with 72 million US gallons (270,000 m3) of water per day via the Three Rivers Water Filtration Plant and Saint Joseph River.159 Hurshtown Reservoir, in northeast Allen County, contains 1.8 billion US gallons (6,800,000 m3) of water to be rationed in the event of a drought or disaster at the three rivers.160 The City of Fort Wayne also provides residents with sewage treatment and offers a full waste collection service.158
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- Beaty, John D., History of Fort Wayne & Allen County, Indiana, 1700–2005, M.T. Publishing Company, 2006, ISBN 1-932439-44-7
- Bushnell, Scott M., Historic Photos of Fort Wayne, Turner Publishing Company, 2007, ISBN 978-1-59652-377-7
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- Griswold, Bert J., Fort Wayne, Gateway of the West, AMS Press, 1973, ISBN 0-404-07133-3
- Hawfield, Michael C., Fort Wayne Cityscapes: Highlights of a Community's History, Windsor Publications, 1988, ISBN 0-89781-244-1
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- Violette, Ralph, Fort Wayne, Indiana, Arcadia Publishing, 2000, ISBN 0-7524-1309-0
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Fort Wayne|
|Wikivoyage has travel information related to: Fort Wayne|
- City of Fort Wayne official website
- Fort Wayne–Allen County Economic Development Alliance
- Greater Fort Wayne Chamber of Commerce
- The Downtown Improvement District
- Visit Fort Wayne
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