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Farmhouse is a general term for the main house of a farm. It is a type of building or house which serves a residential purpose in a rural or agricultural setting. Historically common were farmhouses which were combined with space for animals called a housebarn. Other farm houses may be connected to one or more barns, built to form a courtyard, or each farm building was built separately.
Historically there were three main types of German farmhouse, many of which still survive today. The Low German house or Niedersachsenhaus (Lower Saxony house) is found mainly on the North German Plain, but also in large parts of the Netherlands. It is a large, unit structure with a large, sweeping roof supported by two to four rows of internal posts. The great gateway at the gable end opens into a large hall or Deele, with cattle stalls and barns to either side and living accommodation at the end. The Middle German house may also be a single unit, but access is from the side and the roof is supported by the outside walls. Later this type of mitteldeutsches Haus was expanded to two or more buildings around a rectangular farmyard, often with a second story. The South German house is found in southern Germany and has two main variants: the Swabian or Black Forest house and the Bavarian farmstead.1
Norwegian farmhouses used timber or logs and built using Scandinavian vernacular architecture. The first examples are traced back to the 13th century. In some cases farmhouses are built on steep hillsides of the fjords such as the Me-Åkernes farm.
- Alqueria, a farm complex named from the historical, Muslim region Al-Andalus. This term also means a type of small village.
- Masia in the Catalan Countries
- Baserri found in the Basque Country in Northern Spain and Southwestern France.
- Haciendas sometimes involved farming.
- Palloza, a primitive dwelling.
Canadian farmhouses were influenced by European settlers. In Quebec, the style varied from Gothic to Swiss. In Ontario, the farmhouses of the late 19th century was of Victorian influence. Earlier ones used clapboard and later variations had brick. Many had porches out front. A dirt road would lead to the nearest concession road. As for out west, dwellings varied from single story wooden homesteads to straw huts. Wooden houses were built later as railroads allowed wood to be shipped from the Rockies (Alberta, BC) by 1915 they could be purchased as kits from Eaton's catalog. Canadian homes often differ from their American counterparts in that the porch is enclosed.
The typical American farmhouse was usually built utilizing the local prevailing building style and materials, although with agricultural adaptations that differentiated it from its urban counterparts. Forms and styles varied greatly. The styles varied from region to region, but most often remained simplistic to serve the basic needs and budget of the owners. The most rudimentary American farmhouses were the log cabin and sod house. As areas became settled, traditional folk forms such as the saltbox, hall and parlor, center hall, Cape Cod, I-house, or dogtrot plan appeared. From the 19th century onward, many featured vernacular interpretations of the more formal architectural styles, such as Greek Revival, Italianate, Carpenter Gothic, and Queen Anne.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Farmhouses|
- Traditional French-Canadian ( Quebec ) Architecture
- Canadian Heritage Gallery
- The Homestead House
- Farmhouses of Hälsingland, Sweden
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