|This article's factual accuracy is disputed. (January 2010)|
|Extremaduran language edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia|
|Region||Autonomous community of Extremadura|
|Native speakers||200,0001 (date missing)|
Extremaduran (autonym: estremeñu, IPA: [eʰtɾeˈmeɲu]) is a Romance language, spoken by several hundred thousand people in Spain, in an area covering the north-western part of the autonomous community of Extremadura and adjoining areas in the province of Salamanca.12 It is difficult to establish the boundary between the Extremaduran and the Spanish dialects spoken in most of Extremadura. Most common people in Spain are not aware of its existence and consider it a dialect of Spanish.citation needed
The linguistic varieties of Extremadura are usually classified in three main branches: Northern or "High" (artu estremeñu), Central or "Middle" (meyu estremeñu), and Southern or "Low" (baju estremeñu).2 The northern one is usually considered to be the language proper,3 and is spoken in the north-west of the autonomous region of Extremadura, and the south-west of Salamanca, a province of the autonomous region of Castile and León. The central and southern ones are spoken in the rest of Extremadura, and are not different enough from standard Spanish to be considered anything but dialects of it, since at least the 18th century.
Northern Extremaduran is also spoken in a few villages of southern Salamanca, being known there as the "palra d'El Rebollal", which is now almost extinct.
||This article needs additional citations for verification. (August 2009)|
After the union of the kingdoms of León and Castile (into the "Crown of Castile and León"), the Castilian language slowly replaced Latin as the official language of the institutions, thus relegating Old Leonese to a sign of poverty and ignorance of those who spoke it. Only in Asturias, where the language was born, people were conscious of speaking a language different from Castilian;citation needed but even there only some authors used it in their writings.
Probably the cultural upheaval of Spanish-speaking Salamanca's University was the cause of the quick Castilianisation of the eastern parts of this province, so dividing the Astur-Leonese domain between Asturian, Leonese and the Extremaduran in the south of the old Leonese kingdom.citation needed
The late 19th century saw the first serious attempt to write in Extremaduran, up to then an oral language,4 with the poet José María Gabriel y Galán. Born in Salamanca, he lived most of his life in the north of Cáceres, Extremadura. He wrote in a local variant of Extremaduran, full with dialectal remains, but always with an eye on Spanish usage.
After that, localismes are the pattern in the attempts to defend the Extremaduran language, to the extent that today only a few people try to revive the language and make northern Extremadura a bilingual region,5 whereas the government and official institutions think the best solution is for the northwestern Extremadurans to speak a Castilian dialect without any kind of protection.6 There are also attempts to transform the southern Castilian dialects ("castúo", as some people named them using the word which appeared in Luis Chamizo's poems) into a language, which makes even harder to defend the High Extremaduran, considered more frequently as a "real" language, and makes it easier for the administration to reject co-officiality and normalisation of Extremaduran.7 It is in serious danger of extinction, with only the oldest people speaking it at present, while most of the Extremaduran population ignores the language, since the majority of Extremadurans, and even own speakers regard it a poorly spoken Spanish.8
- In High Extremaduran
- Features related to Astur-Leonese:
- Post-tonic o becomes u. Ex: oru, "gold"
- Post-tonic e becomes i. Ex: calli, "street"
- Latin word-final e, chiefly after d, is not lost. Ex: redi, "net"
- Some cases of palatalization of word-initial n. Ex: ñíu, "nest"
- Conservation of the consonantic group mb in intermediate position. Ex: lambel
- Frequent conservation of word-initial h derived from a Latin f-. This consonant is lost in most Spanish varieties, but is common with much of Andalusia. Ex: higu [ˈhiɣu]
- Occasional conservation of word-initial f. Ex: fogarera
- Features related to southern peninsular Spanish:
- General loss of intervocalic d. Ex: mieu.
- Debuccalization of post-vocalic /s/ into [h] (S-aspiration).:
- Other features:
- Infinitives in -l. Ex: dil, "to go".
- Metathesis of the consonant cluster rl into lr. Ex: chalral, "to talk".
- Occasional interchange of the liquid consonants l/r. Ex: craru 9
- Preservation of some old voiced fricatives, such as some instances of ð corresponding to [θ] in Spanish, or z corresponding to [s] in Spanish. This feature is an archaism preserved from Old Spanish or Old Asturleonese, as it only happens when etymologically justified. When a voiced fricative appears, one also does in languages such as Catalan or Portuguese: Extremaduran tristeza [triʰˈteða] (still voiced in Portuguese tristeza, voice lost in Spanish tristeza [trisˈteθa]), but Extremaduran cabeça [kaˈbeθa] or [kaˈβeθa] (voiceless also in Portuguese cabeça, Spanish cabeza [kaˈβeθa]). This feature is dying out quite fast, but it is found all over the High Extremaduran speaking area.
|This section requires expansion. (August 2009)|
- In High Extremaduran
- Anteposition of the article before the possessive pronoun, as in Old Spanish or in many Romance languages such as Leonese, Portuguese, Catalan or Italian.
- Anteposition of the particle lu (or lo), in some interrogative sentences.
- Use of diminutives inu and ina, as heritage from Leonese (as in Portuguese).
- Occasional formation of gerund, derived from a form of the verb in past tense.
- Usage of a vocative-exclamative case. When nouns are in the vocative, the closing of post-tonic vowels (e into i and o into u) disappears and those vowels open. El Ramiru quíi venil (Ramiro wants to come), but Ramiro, ven pacá (Ramiro, come here!). Sé quién lo vidu, Pepi (I know who saw it, Pepe did), but Sé quién lo vidu, Pepe (I know who saw it, Pepe). This is a charasteristic shared with the Fala language. Extremaduran and the Fala language are actually the only western Romance languages with a distinct form of vocative case for nouns formed with a change in the ending.
- Usage of the preposition a with the verbs andal and estal indicating static temporal location, contrasting with the usage of en. Está a Caçris "He's in Cáceres (for a few days), está en Caçris "He's in Cáceres", Está pa Caçris "He's around Cáceres".
- A very frequent usage of deictic forms to which enclitic pronouns can be added at the end. They can be used in the middle of a sentence: Velaquí la mi casa (Here is my house), velallilu (there he is), Paquí se curtivan velaquí lechugas, millu... (Look, lettuce, corn and so on is grown here).
- Usage of reduplicated forms of plural pronouns with a reciprocal sense (ellus y ellus, vujotrus y vujotrus...): Estaban brucheandu ellus y ellus: They were wrestling with each other.
|This section requires expansion. (September 2009)|
- In High Extremaduran
- Presence of terms, used commonly, that are derived from Andalusian Arabic. Ex: zagal (from Andalusian Arabic zaḡál, "boy").
|This section requires expansion. (November 2009)|
|dicere||dire||dire||decir [de'θir]||dizer||izil [i'ðil]||to say|
|facere||fare||faire||hacer [a'θer]||fazer||hazel [ha'ðel]||to do|
* The words in this table refer only to High Extremaduran
** Extremaduran words in this table are spelled according to Ismael Carmona García's orthography
There exists a regional organization in Extremadura, APLEx,10 which tries to defend the Extremaduran language (and also the Spanish dialects of Extremadura), one journal (Belsana) and one cultural newspaper, Iventia,11 written in the new unified Extremaduran and the old dialect "palra d'El Rebollal".
|El estremeñu es una luenga palrá nel noroesti de la comuniá autónoma d'Estremaúra.||El extremeño es una lengua hablada en el noroeste de la comunidad autónoma de Extremadura.||Extremaduran is a language spoken in the northwest of the autonomous community of Extremadura.|
- Congrese about the Extremaduran language
- Spanish journal Hoy
- Interview to Antonio Viudas
- González Salgado, José Antonio (2003). "La conciencia lingüística de los hablantes extremeños". In C. Alemany Bay. Actas del Congreso Internacional "La lengua, la Academia, lo popular, los clásicos, los contemporáneos..." 2. pp. 725–735. ISBN 84-7908-731-5. Archived from the original on 2003-04-18.
- Congrese about the Extremaduran in Serradilla
- Ismael Carmona García's dictionary 2005 Izionariu castellanu-estremeñu
- Ethnologue report for Extremaduran
- Languages of Spain and map (Spanish)
- Virtual Library Extremaduran Language (Spanish)
- APLEx Extremadura Cultural Society
- Iventia.com — A cultural news site in Extremaduran
- Linguistic cartography of Extremadura, which offers 418 linguistic and ethnographic maps on rural lexicon (Spanish)
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