List of sovereign states and dependent territories in Europe
The list below includes all entities falling even partially under any of the various common definitions of Europe, geographical or political. Fifty sovereign states are listed with territory in Europe and/or membership in international European organisations, six states with limited or no recognition and eight areas that are not integral parts of a European state or have special political status.
Under the commonly used definition, the border between Asia and Europe stretches along the Ural Mountains,1 Ural River, and Caspian Sea in the east,2 the Greater Caucasus range3 and the Black Sea, with its outlets, the Bosporus and Dardanelles, in the south.455 Based on that division, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Russia and Turkey have territory both in Europe and Asia.
The island of Cyprus in Southwest Asia is approximate to Anatolia (or Asia Minor) and is on the Anatolian Plate 6 but is often considered part of Europe as a current member of the European Union (EU). Armenia is entirely in Southwest Asia but is a member of certain European organisations.7
Although the Mediterranean Sea provides a clearer divide between Africa and Europe, some traditionally European islands such as Sicily and Malta are located on the African continental plate.8 The island of Iceland is part of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, straddling the Eurasian Plate and the North American Plate.9
Some territories geographically outside Europe have strong connections with European states. Greenland has sociopolitical connections with Europe and is part of the Kingdom of Denmark, but is grouped with the continent of North America.10
Other territories are part of European countries but are geographically located in other continents, such as the French overseas departments,11 the Spanish cities of Ceuta and Melilla on the coast of Africa,12 and the Dutch Caribbean territories of Bonaire, Saba and Sint Eustatius.13
A sovereign state is a political association with effective sovereignty over a population for whom it makes decisions in the national interest.14 According to the Montevideo convention, a state must have a permanent population, a defined territory, a government, and the capacity to enter into relations with other states.15
There are 50 internationally recognised sovereign states with territory located within the common definition of Europe and/or membership in international European organisations, of which 44 have their capital city within Europe. All except the Vatican City are members of the United Nations (UN),16 and all except Belarus, Kazakhstan and Vatican City are members of the Council of Europe.17 Since 2007, 27 of these countries are also member states of the EU, which means they are highly integrated with each other and share their sovereignty with EU institutions.
Each entry in the list below has a map of its location in Europe. Territory in Europe is shown in dark-green; territory not geographically in Europe is shown in a lighter shade of green. The lightest shade of green represents states in the EU and is shown on the maps of all territories within the EU.
|*||= Member of the EU18|
|Flag||Map||English short and formal names
|Domestic short and formal names
Republic of Albania
|Albanian: Shqipëri / Shqipëria — Republika e Shqipërisë||Tirana
|3,002,859||28,748 km2 (11,100 sq mi)|
Principality of Andorra
|Catalan: Andorra — Principat d'Andorra||Andorra la Vella
Catalan: Andora la Vella
|85,082||468 km2 (181 sq mi)|
Republic of Armenia
|Armenian: Հայաստան — Հայաստանի Հանրապետություն (Hayastan — Hayastani Hanrapetut'yun)||Yerevan
Armenian: Երևան (Yerevan)
|2,970,495||29,743 km2 (11,484 sq mi)|
Republic of Austria
|German: Österreich — Republik Österreich||Vienna
|8,219,743||83,871 km2 (32,383 sq mi)|
Republic of Azerbaijan
|Azerbaijani: Azǝrbaycan — Azǝrbaycan Respublikası||Baku
|9,493,600||86,600 km2 (33,436 sq mi)|
Republic of Belarus
|Belarusian: Беларусь — Рэспубліка Беларусь
Russian: Беларусь — Республика Беларусь (Bielarus' — Respublika Belaruś)
Belarusian: Мінск (Minsk)
|9,643,566||207,600 km2 (80,155 sq mi)|
Kingdom of Belgium
|German: Belgien — Königreich Belgien
French: Belgique — Royaume de Belgique
Dutch: België — Koninkrijk België
|10,438,353||30,528 km2 (11,787 sq mi)|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian Latin: Bosna i Hercegovina
Bosnian, Serbian Cyrillic: Босна и Херцеговина
Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian Latin: Sarajevo
Bosnian, Serbian Cyrillic: Сарајево
|3,879,296||51,197 km2 (19,767 sq mi)|
Republic of Bulgaria
|Bulgarian: България — Република България (Bǎlgarija — Republika Bǎlgarija)||Sofia
Bulgarian: София (Sofia)
|7,037,935||110,879 km2 (42,811 sq mi)|
Republic of Croatia
|Croatian: Hrvatska — Republika Hrvatska||Zagreb
|4,480,043||56,594 km2 (21,851 sq mi)|
Republic of Cyprus
|Greek: Κύπρος — Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία (Kýpros — Kypriakí Dimokratí)
Turkish: Kıbrıs — Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti
Greek: Λευκωσία (Lefkosia)
|1,138,071||9,251 km2 (3,572 sq mi)|
|Czech Republic*||Czech: Česko — Česká republika||Prague
|10,513,209||78,867 km2 (30,451 sq mi)|
Kingdom of Denmark
|Danish: Danmark — Kongeriget Danmark||Copenhagen
|5,543,453||43,094 km2 (16,639 sq mi)|
Republic of Estonia
|Estonian: Eesti — Eesti Vabariik||Tallinn
|1,274,709||45,228 km2 (17,463 sq mi)|
Republic of Finland
|Finnish: Suomi — Suomen tasavalta
Swedish: Finland — Republiken Finland
|5,262,930||338,145 km2 (130,559 sq mi)|
|French: France — République française||Paris
|65,630,692||643,427 km2 (248,429 sq mi)|
|Georgia[b]||Georgian: საქართველო (Sak'art'velo)||Tbilisi / T'bilisi
Georgian: თბილისი (T'bilisi)
|4,570,934||69,700 km2 (26,911 sq mi)|
Federal Republic of Germany
|German: Deutschland — Bundesrepublik Deutschland||Berlin
|81,305,856||357,022 km2 (137,847 sq mi)|
|Greek: Ελλάς — Ελληνική Δημοκρατία (Ellás — Elliniki Dimokratia)||Athens
Greek: Αθήνα (Athína)
|10,767,827||131,957 km2 (50,949 sq mi)|
|9,958,453||93,028 km2 (35,918 sq mi)|
Republic of Iceland
|Icelandic: Ísland — Lýðveldið Ísland||Reykjavík
|313,183||103,000 km2 (39,769 sq mi)|
Irish: Baile Átha Cliath
|4,722,028||70,273 km2 (27,133 sq mi)|
|Italian: Italia — Repubblica Italiana||Rome
|61,261,254||301,340 km2 (116,348 sq mi)|
Republic of Kazakhstan
|Kazakh: Қазақстан — Қазақстан Республикасы (Qazaqstan — Qazaqstan Respūblīkasy)
Russian: Казахстан — Республика Казахстан (Kazahstan — Respublika Kazahstan)
Russian: Астана (Astana)
|17,522,010||2,724,900 km2 (1,052,090 sq mi)|
Republic of Latvia
|Latvian: Latvija — Latvijas Republika||Riga
|2,191,580||64,589 km2 (24,938 sq mi)|
Principality of Liechtenstein
|German: Liechtenstein — Fürstentum Liechtenstein||Vaduz
|36,713||160 km2 (62 sq mi)|
Republic of Lithuania
|Lithuanian: Lietuva — Lietuvos Respublika||Vilnius
|3,525,761||65,300 km2 (25,212 sq mi)|
Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
|German: Luxemburg — Großherzogtum Luxemburg
French: Luxembourg — Grand-Duché de Luxembourg
|509,074||2,586 km2 (998 sq mi)|
Republic of Macedonia
|Macedonian: Македонија — Република Македонија (Makedonija — Republika Makedonija)||Skopje
Macedonian: Скопје (Skopje)
|2,082,370||25,713 km2 (9,928 sq mi)|
Republic of Malta
|English: Malta — Republic of Malta
Maltese: Malta — Repubblika ta' Malta
|409,836||316 km2 (122 sq mi)|
Republic of Moldova
|Romanian: Moldova — Republica Moldova||Chişinău
|3,656,843||33,851 km2 (13,070 sq mi)|
Principality of Monaco
|French: Monaco — Principauté de Monaco||Monaco
|30,510||2 km2 (0.8 sq mi)|
|Montenegro||Serbian: Црна Гора (Crna Gora)||Podgorica
Serbian: Подгорица (Podgorica)
|657,394||13,812 km2 (5,333 sq mi)|
Kingdom of the Netherlands
|Dutch: Nederland — Koninkrijk der Nederlanden||Amsterdam (capital)
The Hague (seat of government)
Dutch: 's-Gravenhage / Den Haag
|16,730,632||41,543 km2 (16,040 sq mi)|
Kingdom of Norway
|Bokmål: Norge — Kongeriket Norge
Nynorsk: Noreg — Kongeriket Noreg
|5,042,402||323,802 km2 (125,021 sq mi)|
Republic of Poland
|Polish: Polska — Rzeczpospolita Polska||Warsaw
|38,415,284||312,685 km2 (120,728 sq mi)|
|Portuguese: Portugal — República Portuguesa||Lisbon
|10,781,459||92,090 km2 (35,556 sq mi)|
|21,848,504||238,391 km2 (92,043 sq mi)|
|Russian: Росси́я — Российская Федерация (Rossija — Rossijskaja Federacija)||Moscow
Russian: Москва (Moskva)
|142,517,670||17,098,242 km2 (6,601,668 sq mi)|
Republic of San Marino
|Italian: San Marino — Repubblica di San Marino||San Marino
Italian: San Marino
|32,140||61 km2 (24 sq mi)|
Republic of Serbia
|Serbian: Србија — Република Србија (Srbija — Republika Srbija)||Belgrade
Serbian: Београд (Beograd)
|7,276,604||88,361 km2 (34,116 sq mi)|
|Slovak: Slovensko — Slovenská republika||Bratislava
|5,483,088||49,035 km2 (18,933 sq mi)|
Republic of Slovenia
|Slovene: Slovenija — Republika Slovenija||Ljubljana
|1,996,617||20,273 km2 (7,827 sq mi)|
Kingdom of Spain
|Spanish: España — Reino de España||Madrid
|47,042,984||505,370 km2 (195,124 sq mi)|
Kingdom of Sweden
|Swedish: Sverige — Konungariket Sverige||Stockholm
|9,514,406||450,295 km2 (173,860 sq mi)|
|German: Schweiz — Schweizerische Eidgenossenschaft
French: Suisse — Confédération Suisse
Italian: Svizzera — Confederazione Svizzera
Romansh: Svizra — Confederaziun svizra
|Bern / Berne
|7,925,517||41,277 km2 (15,937 sq mi)|
Republic of Turkey
|Turkish: Türkiye — Türkiye Cumhuriyeti||Ankara
|79,749,461||783,562 km2 (302,535 sq mi)|
|Ukraine||Ukrainian: Украïна (Ukraina)||Kiev
Ukrainian: Київ (Kyiv)
|44,854,065||603,550 km2 (233,032 sq mi)|
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
|English: United Kingdom — United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland||London
|63,047,162||243,610 km2 (94,058 sq mi)|
Vatican City State
|Italian: Città del Vaticano — Stato della Città del Vaticano
Latin: Sancta Sedes27
Italian: Città del Vaticano
|836||0.44 km2 (0.17 sq mi)|
The following six entities in Europe have partial diplomatic recognition by one or more UN member states (and therefore are defined as states by the constitutive theory of statehood) or have no diplomatic recognition by any UN member state but are defined as states by the declarative theory of statehood and are recognised by one or more Non-UN member states. None are members of the UN, Council of Europe or EU.
|Flag||Map||English short and formal names||Status||Domestic short and formal names||Capital||Population[a]||Area[a]|
Republic of Abkhazia
|Claimed as an autonomous republic of Georgia. Recognised by six UN states.||Abkhaz: Аҧсны (Apsny)
Russian: Абха́зия (Abhazia)
Abkhaz: Аҟəа (Akwa)
|250,000 28||8,660 km2 (3,344 sq mi)29|
Republic of Kosovo19
|Recognised by 101 UN member states; Serbia does not recognise the 2008 Kosovo declaration of independence, and claims it as an autonomous province.||Albanian: Kosova / Kosovë — Republika e Kosovës
Serbian: Косово — Република Косово (Kosovo — Republika Kosovo)
Albanian: Prishtina, Prishtinë
Serbian: Приштина (Priština)
|1,836,52924||10,887 km2 (4,203 sq mi)25|
|Claimed as part of Azerbaijan. Recognised by 3 non-UN states.||Armenian: Լեռնային Ղարաբաղ — Լեռնային Ղարաբաղ Հանրապետություն (Lernayin Gharabaghi — Lernayin Gharabaghi Hanrapetut’yun)30||Stepanakert
Armenian: Ստեփանակերտ (Khankendi)
|141,40031||7,000 km2 (2,703 sq mi)32|
Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus
|Claimed as part of the Republic of Cyprus. Recognised by Turkey.||Turkish: Kuzey Kıbrıs — Kuzey Kıbrıs Türk Cumhuriyeti||Nicosia
|285,35633||3,355 km2 (1,295 sq mi)25|
|Transnistria / Trans-Dniester
Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic
|Claimed as a territorial unit of Moldova. Recognised by 3 non-UN states.||Moldovan: Нистрянэ — Република Молдовеняскэ Нистрянэ (Transnistria — Republica Moldovenească Nistreană)
Russian: Приднестрóвье — Приднестрóвская Молдáвская Респýблика (Pridnestrov'ye — Pridnestrovskaya Moldavskaya Respublika)
Ukrainian: Придністров'я — Придністровська Молдавська Республіка (Prydnistrov'ya — Pridnistrovs'ka Moldavs'ka Respublika)
|530,00034||3,500 km2 (1,351 sq mi)35|
Republic of South Ossetia
|Claimed as part of Georgia. Recognised by five UN states.||Ossetic: Хуссар Ирыстон — Республикæ Хуссар Ирыстон (Khussar Iryston — Respublikæ Khussar Iryston)
Russian: Южная Осетия — Республика Южная Осетия (Yuzhnaya Osetiya — Respublika Yuzhnaya Osetiya)
Ossetic: Цхинвал or Чъреба (Chreba)
|70,00036||3,900 km2 (1,506 sq mi)37|
|*||= Part of the EU, although there may be special arrangements|
|Flag||Map||English short and formal names1921||Legal status||Domestic short and formal names||Capital22||Population24||Area25|
|Akrotiri and Dhekelia [c]
Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekeliacitation needed
|British overseas territory||English: Akrotiri and Dhekelia — Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia||Episkopi Cantonment
English: Episkopi Cantonment
|15,700||254 km2 (98 sq mi)|
|Faroe Islands / Faeroe Islands||Constituent country of the Kingdom of Denmark||Faroese: Føroyar
|49,267||1,393 km2 (538 sq mi)|
|Gibraltar*39||British overseas territory||English: Gibraltar||Gibraltar
|28,956||6.5 km2 (2.5 sq mi)|
Bailiwick of Guernsey
|Crown Dependency of The Crown in Right of the United Kingdom||English: Guernsey — Bailiwick of Guernsey
French: Guernesey — Bailliage de Guernesey
Guernésiais: Guernesey — Bailliage de Guernesey
|Saint Peter Port
English: Saint Peter Port
French: Saint Pierre Port
Guernésiais: Saint Pierre Port
|65,068||78 km2 (30 sq mi)|
|Isle of Man[h]||Crown Dependency of The Crown in Right of the United Kingdom||English: Isle of Man
Manx: Mannin — Ellan Vannin
|84,655||572 km2 (221 sq mi)|
Bailiwick of Jersey
|Crown Dependency of The Crown in Right of the United Kingdom||English: Jersey — Bailiwick of Jersey
French: Jèrri — Bailliage de Jèrri
Jèrriais: Jèrri — Bailliage de Jèrri
English: Saint Helier
Jèrriais: Saint Hélyi
|94,161||116 km2 (45 sq mi)|
The following places are considered integral parts of their controlling state, but have a political arrangement which was decided through an international agreement.
|*||= Part of the EU, although there may be special arrangements|
|Flag||Map||English short and formal names||Legal status||Domestic short and formal names||Capital||Population||Area|
|Self-governing area of Finland, determined by the result of the Åland crisis41||Swedish: Åland — Landskapet Åland||Mariehamn21
|27,50042||6,787 km2 (2,620 sq mi)42|
|Svalbard19||Special territory of Norway, determined by the Svalbard Treaty43||Bokmål: Svalbard||Longyearbyen2122
|2,01924||62,045 km2 (23,956 sq mi)25|
- ^ a b c d e f Area and population numbers include integral areas located outside of Europe. The area and population of states with separatist regions includes that of the separatist regions.
- ^ a b c d e f Part of Transcaucasian Region, at the crossroads of Europe and Asia. Physiographically, Armenia falls entirely in Western Asia, while Georgia and Azerbaijan are mostly in Asia with small portions north of the Caucasus Mountains divide in Europe.
- ^ a b c The island of Cyprus is located on the Cyprian arc on the edge of the Asian Anatolian Plate and is physiographically associated with Asia, but it is part of European organisations such as the EU.
- ^ The terms Republic of Ireland and Poblacht na hÉireann are not official long names and are used only as a legal description meant to differentiate the state from the island.
- ^ a b c Kazakhstan, Russia and Turkey have territory in both Europe (dark green) and Asia (light green).
- ^ a b Denmark and the Netherlands are constituent countries of the Kingdom of Denmark and the Kingdom of the Netherlands respectively. Both are members of the EU; however, the other constituent countries of their kingdoms are not. In international organisations, the terms Denmark and Netherlands are often used as short forms of their respective kingdoms as a whole.
- ^ The Netherlands is also known as "Holland", but this is the improper name of the whole country as it refers only to a small region inside the country. See Netherlands (terminology).
- ^ a b c d The United Kingdom consists of the countries of England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales. The UK is responsible for the foreign relations and ultimate good governance of the Crown dependencies of Guernsey, the Isle of Man and Jersey, which are otherwise separate. The mainlands of England, Scotland and Wales make up the island of Great Britain (or simply Britain), which is sometimes used synonymously with the United Kingdom.
- Lists of European countries:
- International organisations in Europe
- List of former sovereign states in Europe
- Predecessors of sovereign states in Europe
- Timeline of European nations
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