Close back unrounded vowel
|Close back unrounded vowel|
The close back unrounded vowel, or high back unrounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ɯ⟩. Typographically a turned letter m, given its relation to the sound represented by the letter u it can be considered a u with an extra "bowl". The sound is sometimes referred to as "unrounded u".
The IPA prefers terms "close" and "open" for vowels, hence the name of this article. However, a large number of linguists, perhaps a majority, prefer the terms "high" and "low", and these are the only terms found in introductory textbooks on phonetics such as those by Peter Ladefoged.
|IPA vowel chart|
|Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded|
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IPA help • IPA key • chart • chart with audio • view
- Its vowel height is close, also known as high, which means the tongue is positioned as close as possible to the roof of the mouth without creating a constriction that would be classified as a consonant.
- Its vowel backness is back, which means the tongue is positioned as far back as possible in the mouth without creating a constriction that would be classified as a consonant.
- It is unrounded, which means that the lips are not rounded.
|Acehnese||eu||[ɯ]||'see'||Durie1 describes this sound as such, while Asyik2 and Al-Ahmadi Al-Harbi3 describe it as closer to [ɨ].|
|Chinese||Mandarin||字 zì||[t͡sɯ˥˩] (help·info)||'word'||See Mandarin phonology|
|Irish||Ulster||caol||[kʰɯːl̪ˠ]||'narrow'||See Irish phonology|
|Korean4||음식 eumsik||[ɯːmɕik̚]||'food'||See Korean phonology|
|Scottish Gaelic||caol||[kʰɯːl̪ˠ]||'thin'||See Scottish Gaelic phonology|
|Thai5||ขึ้น6||[kʰɯn˥˩]||'to go up'|
|Turkish||ılık||[ɯˈɫɯk]||'warm'||See Turkish phonology|
|Vietnamese||tư||[tɯ]||'fourth'||See Vietnamese phonology|
- Lee, Hyun Bok (1999), "Korean", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association:A Guide to the Use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge University Press, pp. 120–123, ISBN 0-521-63751-1
- Tingsabadh, M.R. Kalaya; Abramson, Arthur S. (1993), "Thai", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 23 (1): 24–26, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004746
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