The Church Street Marketplace pedestrian mall is the centerpiece of downtown Burlington (2013)
|Nickname(s): The Queen City|
Location in Vermont
|Coordinates: Coordinates: 1|
|• Mayor||Miro Weinberger (D)|
|• City||15.5 sq mi (40.1 km2)|
|• Land||10.6 sq mi (27.4 km2)|
|• Water||4.9 sq mi (12.7 km2)|
|Elevation1||200 ft (61 m)|
|• City||42,282 (US: 864th)|
|• Density||3,682.0/sq mi (1,421.6/km2)|
|• Urban||108,740 (US: 285th)|
|• Urban density||1,760.8/sq mi (679.8/km2)|
|• Metro||213,701 (US: 203rd)|
|Time zone||EST (UTC-5)|
|• Summer (DST)||EDT (UTC-4)|
|ZIP code||05401-05402, 05405-05406, 05408|
|GNIS feature ID||145666313|
Burlington is the largest city in the State of Vermont and the shire town (county seat)4 of Chittenden County.5 It lies 45 miles (72 km) south of the U.S.-Canadian (Vermont-Quebec) border and 94 miles (151 km) south of Montreal.
Burlington had a population of 42,417 at the 2010 census. The city is the hub of the Burlington-South Burlington metropolitan area, consisting of the three northwestern Vermont counties of Chittenden, Franklin and Grand Isle and encompassing the cities of Burlington, South Burlington, and Winooski; the towns of Colchester, Essex, and Williston; and the village of Essex Junction. According to the 2012 U.S. Census estimates, the metro area had an estimated population of 213,701, approximately one third of Vermont's total population.6
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Geography and climate
- 4 Transportation
- 5 Demographics
- 6 Economy
- 7 Government
- 8 Health and social services
- 9 Education
- 10 Religion
- 11 Culture
- 12 Landmarks and buildings
- 13 Media
- 14 Sports
- 15 Notable people
- 16 Sister cities
- 17 In popular culture
- 18 References
- 19 External links
Two theories have been put forward for the origin of Burlington's name. The first is that it was named after Richard Boyle, 3rd Earl of Burlington, while the second is that the name honors the politically prominent and wealthy Burling family of New York. While no family members are listed as grantees of the town, the family held large tracts of land in other nearby towns, some of which were granted on the same day as Burlington.7
One of the New Hampshire grants, the land which became Burlington was awarded by Governor Benning Wentworth on June 7, 1763 to Samuel Willis and 63 others.8 In the summer of 1775 land clearing began and two or three log huts were erected, but the Revolution delayed permanent settlement until 1783, when Stephen Lawrence arrived with his family. The town was organized in 1785.8
The War of 1812 was unpopular in Vermont. Along with the rest of New England, Vermont did not provide militia units or financial support. Vermont voted for the Federalist party, which opposed the war.9 Nevertheless, 5,000 troops were stationed there at one point during the War of 1812, outnumbering residents; about 500 of them died of disease.10 Some soldiers were quartered in the main building at the University of Vermont, where a memorial plaque commemorates them.11
In a skirmish on August 2, 1813, the British shelled Burlington. This has either been cited as a bold stroke by the British with an ineffectual response from the Americans, or a weak sally by the British, properly ignored by the Americans, depending on who relates the story. The cannonade lasted for about ten minutes and did not affect the outcome of the war. The American side was commanded by Naval Lieutenant Thomas Macdonough, later hero of the Battle of Lake Champlain.9
The town's position on Lake Champlain helped it develop into a port of entry and center for trade, particularly after completion of the Champlain Canal in 1823, the Erie Canal in 1825, and the Chambly Canal in 1843. Wharves allowed steamboats to connect freight and passengers with the Rutland & Burlington Railroad and Vermont Central Railroad. Burlington became a bustling lumbering and manufacturing center, and incorporated as a city in 1865. Its Victorian era prosperity left behind much fine architecture, including buildings by Ammi B. Young, H. H. Richardson and McKim, Mead & White.
The ice cream enterprise Ben & Jerry's was founded in Burlington in 1978 in a renovated gas station.
In 2007, the city was named one of the top four "places to watch" in the United States by the American Association of Retired Persons (AARP).14 The ratings were based on what was perceived as ideal for older residents. Criteria included the factors which make a community livable: new urbanism, smart growth, mixed-use development, and easy-living standards.
|Climate chart (explanation)|
Burlington is situated on the eastern shore of Lake Champlain, north of Shelburne Bay. It was built on a strip of land extending about 6 miles (9.7 km) south from the mouth of the Winooski River along the lake shore, and rises from the water's edge to a height of 300 feet (91 m).17
A large ravine in what is now downtown was filled in with refuse and raw sewage in the 19th century to make way for further development.18
Burlington has a humid continental climate (Köppen Dfb), with cold winters and very warm, humid summers. The monthly daily average temperatures ranges from 18.7 °F (−7.4 °C) in January to 70.6 °F (21.4 °C) in July. The annual precipitation of 36.8 inches (935 mm) is well-distributed throughout the year, but the summer months are the wettest. The city's location east of Lake Champlain sometimes accounts for localized snow squalls, producing up to 13 inches (33 cm) in 12 hours on rare occasions.19 Annual snowfall averages 85 inches (216 cm), but this figure can fluctuate greatly from one year to another. Extremes have ranged from −30 °F (−34 °C) on January 15, 1957 and February 12, 1979 to 101 °F (38 °C) on August 11, 1944.20 The most snowfall from a single storm is 33.1 inches (84.1 cm), which fell January 2–3, 2010.21
|Climate data for Burlington, Vermont (Burlington Int'l), 1981–2010 normals|
|Record high °F (°C)||66
|Average high °F (°C)||27.2
|Average low °F (°C)||10.2
|Record low °F (°C)||−30
|Precipitation inches (mm)||2.05
|Snowfall inches (cm)||22.0
|Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in)||14.5||11.2||12.9||12.8||14.2||13.3||12.0||12.3||11.3||12.9||14.0||14.4||155.8|
|Avg. snowy days (≥ 0.1 in)||14.8||10.9||8.9||3.1||.1||0||0||0||0||.4||4.7||11.9||54.8|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||127.1||146.9||192.2||207.0||251.1||270.0||300.7||257.3||201.0||158.1||90.0||93.0||2,294.4|
|Source #1: NOAA,23The Weather Channel 20|
|Source #2: Hong Kong Observatory (sun only 1961–1990)24|
Burlington is the central focus of the Chittenden County Transportation Authority (CCTA), providing bus service to and from the surrounding communities (and the shopping districts of South Burlington and Williston).
On June 15, 2011, the CCTA announced that it had changed its charter, effective July 1, 2011, to allow municipalities outside Chittenden County to join CCTA as member communities, thereby allowing CCTA to become Vermont’s first regional transit authority. As part of its expansion, the CCTA will merge with the Green Mountain Transit Authority (GMTA), which provides bus service in the Barre/Montpelier area and surrounding communities in central Vermont.25
Greyhound provides intercity bus service from the Burlington International Airport to other communities in Vermont as well as to Montreal's Gare d'autocars de Montreal, Boston's South Station and Logan International Airport, while Megabus provides non-stop service between Burlington and Boston and service to New York City with intermediate stops in Saratoga Springs, New York or Amherst, Massachusetts and Hartford, Connecticut.
From the late nineteenth century to 1953 the Rutland Railroad provided passenger service on the Green Mountain Flyer and the Mount Royal from Burlington to Chatham, New York, with connecting service to New York City via the New York Central Railroad. The last train north to Alburgh in the extreme northwest of the state was in 1948. From 1916 this service was provided at the new Union Station on the Lake Champlain waterfront.26 From 2000 to 2003 the Champlain Flyer was a commuter service from Burlington south to Charlotte.
In January 2013 Vermont Governor Peter Shumlin proposed extending the Ethan Allen Express from Rutland to Burlington, the state's largest city. The proposal would create a regional rail corridor connecting Albany, Saratoga Springs, Rutland and Burlington and their combined metro populations of around 1.25 million inhabitants.27
Air carriers at Burlington International Airport provide the area with commercial service to major regional hubs and international airports. While scheduled carriers have not traditionally offered scheduled commercial flights to destinations outside the United States, there is a Customs Port of Entry for unscheduled flights.28 In December 2011, Porter Airlines began offering seasonal scheduled service from Toronto, Ontario, Canada.29
Burlington is served by one major Interstate highway, along with its spur route into the southern part of the city, and is at the junction of two U.S. highways. Several Vermont state highways also provide routes into and through the Burlington area.
- Interstate 89 - Though it does not directly enter the Burlington city limits, I-89 has interchanges in neighboring South Burlington, Winooski, and Colchester that provide access to downtown.
- Interstate 189 - Interstate 189 will be expanded from its current terminus in South Burlington to Downtown Burlington in the near future.30
- U.S. Route 2 is the main east-west route entering Burlington. After entering the city from the east, westbound U.S. 2 turns north to run concurrently with U.S. 7 towards Winooski and Colchester. The intersection with Interstate 89 is used by 42,000 cars daily.31
- U.S. Route 7 is the main north-south route through Burlington. Northbound U.S. 7 joins westbound U.S. 2 in downtown Burlington, and the two routes run concurrently north to Colchester.
Burlington is the headquarters of the Lake Champlain Transportation Company with seasonal service provided between Burlington's King Street ferry terminal and Port Kent, New York to the west, across Lake Champlain.
As of the census of 2010, there were 42,417 people residing in the city. The racial makeup of the city was 88.9% White, 3.9% Black or African American, 0.3% Native American, 3.6% Asian, and 2.6% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.7% of the population.
There were 16,851 households and the average number of persons per household was 2.13.34
At the 2005-2007 American Community Survey Estimates, the city's population was 94.4% White (91.1% non-Hispanic White alone), 3.5% Black or African American, 0.8% American Indian and Alaska Native, 2.0% Asian, 1.0% from some other race and 1.7% from two or more races. About 30% of the population has French or French-Canadian ancestry, the largest group of the total population. 2.4% of the total population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
Burlington's economy centers on education, health services, trade, transportation and utilities. There is also some manufacturing. The city has the 6th lowest unemployment rate of all metro areas (2011) at just 4.8%. Real wages were $39,980 in 2006 constant dollars and remained there to 2010; the state was $33,385; the nation, $36,871.35
In 2009, Moody's confirmed the city's bond rating at AA3, "high" quality, the second best rank,36 but in 2010, the city-owned Burlington Telecom cable provider was unable to pay the city of Burlington $17 million it owed. As a result, Moody's downrated the debt for the city two notches to A2, "upper medium". Moody's also downrated the credit rating for Burlington International Airport.37
As of the census of 2000, the median income for a household in the city was $33,070, and the median income for a family was $46,012. Males had a median income of $30,144 versus $25,270 for females. The per capita income for the city was $19,011. About 10.4% of families and 20.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.4% of those under age 18 and 10.5% of those age 65 or over.
There were 4,989 single-family owner-occupied homes. Their median value was $131,200.
The largest employers in the city proper are Fletcher Allen Health Care and The University of Vermont, employing 6823 and 3137 people, respectively. Other companies in Burlington include the G.S. Blodgett Company, one of the oldest and largest commercial oven companies in the country, which manufactures restaurant equipment. Its history dates back to the mid-19th century. General Electric develops software for the healthcare industry in South Burlington at the former headquarters of IDX Systems, which it purchased in 2006.General Dynamics Armament and Technical Products division employs 450 workers locally. A solely owned subsidiary, the division is based here.38 Dealer.com, a leading automotive internet marketing company, employed over 450 employees as of March 2011.39
Ben & Jerry's began in 1978 when Ben Cohen and Jerry Greenfield opened their first ice cream scoop shop in an old gas station in Burlington.40 Vermont Teddy Bear Company whose founder started on a cart on a Burlington street now ships custom teddy bears worldwide.
One measure of economic activity is retail sales. Burlington was fifth in the state in 2007 with $242.2 million.41
The Church Street Marketplace, a four-block pedestrian mall in the heart of the city, is the site of festivals throughout the year. Events such as the "South End Art Hop" and public galleries such as The Firehouse Gallery and Pine Street Art Works, provide a forum for the visual arts in the South End. The American Planning Association named the Marketplace one of America's "Great Public Spaces" for 2008.42
A "Festival of Fools" had an estimated 25,000 attendees at the Marketplace in 2009.43 The "Vermont Brewers Festival" had 9,600 attendees in 2009,43 and the "Giant Pumpkin Regatta and Festival" had 5,000 attendees that same year; Saturday Night Live satirized the event.43 One of the largest year-round farmers markets in the state is located in the city.
In 2008, vacancy rates for office space reached 4.5%, high for the city but low compared to the surrounding suburbs.
Burlington has a city council-mayor form of government.44 Democrats and the Progressive Party make up the majority of the council. Miro Weinberger, the current mayor,45 is a Democrat who was elected in 2012.46 The City Council has fourteen seats, which are currently occupied by seven Democrats (all Ward 5, 6, & 7, and one in Ward 4), five Progressives (all Ward 2 & 3 and one in Ward 1), one Independents (Ward 1) and one Republican (Ward 4).47
Current U.S. Senator Bernie Sanders was the mayor of Burlington from 1981 to 1989. Peter Clavelle, Burlington's longest serving mayor, held that office from 1989 to 1993, and again from 1995 to 2006.48
The large transient student population votes in local, as well as state and national elections, resulting in a considerable impact on local elections.49 The city signed up 2,527 new voters in the six weeks from September 1, 2008, the highest number for that time frame in over nine years.49
The city was ranked "average" nationally in political involvement in 2008. Criteria included percentage registered to vote, percentage participating in most recent elections and campaign contributions.50
As a non-profit institution, The University of Vermont pays no real estate taxes, though like many other schools, it does make an annual payment in lieu of taxes. In 2007, the college agreed to raise this from $456,006 to $912,011 in 2010 plus a "public works" supplement rising from $180,040 to $191,004 over the same time frame.51
The city maintains three parks on Lake Champlain. One is free, while the other two have parking fees.
The Fletcher Free Library at 235 College Street at the corner of South Winooski Avenue was established in 1873, endowed by Mary Martha Fletcher, the daughter of a local businessman, but outgrew its initial building on Church Street by 1901. A new building was constructed in 1901-04 with funds provided by industrialist and philanthropist Andrew Carnegie, making it the first of the four Carnegie libraries in the state. It was designed in the Beaux-Arts style by Walter R. B. Willcox of Burlington, who won a competition to receive the commission.52
The building had major settling problems in 1973 where it had been built over a former railroad ravine, which had been improperly filled in, and the library's collection was moved elsewhere. The possible razing of the building was stopped by a citizens' committee, which successfully had it added to the National Register of Historic Places, and a grant allowed the stabilization and repair of the building. A new modern addition was completed in 1981.5253
The largest public library in Vermont, and listed on the National Register of Historic Places, the Fletcher Free Library had a budget of over $1 million in 2002. It circulated more books, had more visitors, and had more computers, than any other library in Vermont.54 In addition to its primary services as Burlington's public library, it is also a community center, a cultural resource for newly arrived immigrants to the Burlington area, and the City's only free public access computer center.
The city has municipal fiber broadband, which provides telephone, broadband internet, and television.55 In 2008, cable management tried to drop Al-Jazeera English from the lineup. This was successfully thwarted by protesters and the station was, in 2009, one of three "small cable operators" in the nation to carry this channel.5657
Like many Vermont municipalities, Burlington owns its own power company, Burlington Electric Department. In 2009, the department announced that it would purchase 40% of the 40 MW Sheffield wind-generated electricity when it becomes available.58
In 2006, Burlington was rated the ninth-best city to live in. The criteria were health, quality of life, and fitness.59 In 2007, it was rated 11th out of 100, for auto safety. The criteria were observing speed limits, accident infrequency, and seatbelt use.60 In 2008 it was ranked second out of 100 for "greenest driving."61 Criteria included gasoline consumption, and air quality.
In 2008, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported that Burlington ranks high among U.S. metropolitan areas by having the largest proportion of people – 92 percent – who say they are in good or great health. The report went on to rate it best in exercise and lowest in obesity, diabetes, and other measures of ill health. In 2009, Children's Health Magazine rated Burlington the best city in the country to raise a family.62
In 2010, the government banned smoking within 25 feet (7.6 m) of the city's parks and recreational areas.63
The HowardCenter, headquartered in Burlington, provides social services to state residents, and runs Vermont's first and the area's only methadone maintenance program, the Chittenden Clinic.
Burlington School District operates the city's public schools.
- Burlington High School
- The Sustainability Academy (at Lawrence Barnes Elementary)
- Edmunds Elementary School, named for George F. Edmunds, a U.S. Senator for 25 years, from 1866 to 1891.
- Edmunds Middle School
- Hunt Middle School
- Flynn Elementary
- Champlain Elementary School
- C. P. Smith Elementary
- The Integrated Arts Academy (at H.O. Wheeler Elementary)
In Burlington, students have two choices of magnet schools: the Integrated Arts Academy at H.O. Wheeler (IAA) and the Sustainability Academy at Lawrence Barnes (SA).64
At IAA, students learn through the lens of the four art forms: movement, drama, music and visual arts.65
At SA, students learn through the lens of sustainability - by exploring our diverse society, our local economy and the environment through hands-on projects.66
- Rice Memorial High School
- Mater Christi School
- Christ the King School
- Lake Champlain Waldorf School
- The Renaissance School (at Shelburne Farms)
- Vermont Commons School
- Rock Point School
The University of Vermont (UVM), Burlington College, and Champlain College are located in this college town. The Community College of Vermont had a site located in Burilngton, until 2010, when a new building in the neighboring town of Winooski was constructed for the college. Saint Michael's College is in nearby Colchester.
Churches in Burlington include the North Avenue Alliance Church, First Baptist Church, First Congregational Church, the Episcopal Cathedral Church of St. Paul, the First United Methodist Church, Christ Church (Presbyterian), the Roman Catholic Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception – the episcopal see for the Diocese of Burlington – and the Co-Cathedral of St. Joseph, the First Unitarian Universalist Society, the College Street Congregational Church (United Church of Christ), The Burlington Church of Christ, and the non-denominational Church at the Well. The Conservative Ohavi Zedek synagogue is also located in the city, and there is an active Meeting of the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers).
The Howard Mortuary Chapel in Lakeview Cemetery was built in 1882 as a gift to the City of Burlington from Hannah Louisa Howard, a local philanthropist. A native of the city, she was the daughter of John Howard, a successful Burlington hotelier. The chapel was designed in the High Victorian Gothic style by Alfred Benjamin Fisher, on cemetery grounds designed by E. C. Ryer in 1871.67
The Ira Allen Chapel on the grounds of the University of Vermont campus, was completed in 1926, and was designed in the Georgian Revival style by McKim, Mead & White. The chapel's flashing beacon provides a nighttime landmark for those approaching Burlington from Lake Champlain. The chapel is part of the University Green Historic District.68
Both of the cathedrals in Burlington – the Episcopal Cathedral Church of St. Paul and the Roman Catholic Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception – are modern structures built after their predecessors were destroyed by arson fires in 1971-72.69 The Episcopal Cathedral was completed in 1973 and was designed by Burlington Associates (now TruexCollins) in the Brutalist style, while the Roman Catholic Cathedral was built in 1974-77 and was designed by Edward Larrabee Barnes, with the park-like grounds designed by landscape architect Dan Kiley.69
The Burlington waterfront along the shore of Lake Champlain has bench swings and paths for walking and biking. ECHO Lake Aquarium and Science Center,70 housed in Vermont's first Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Certified Green Building, is located at the waterfront and harbors over seventy species of fish, amphibians, invertebrates, and reptiles.
Burlington's own drag troupe, the House of LeMay,74 performs several shows a year, hosts the annual "Winter is a Drag Ball,"75 and raises funds for numerous charities. The House of LeMay is the subject of the documentary, "Slingbacks and Syrup" which premiered at the 2008 Vermont International Film Festival in Burlington.
The Emily Post Institute, an etiquette organization, is headquartered here.
The city has, over the years, supported a number of local bands as various "scenes" waxed and waned, and has even launched a handful of national acts. The most famous of these is Phish, which originated at The University of Vermont circa 1983.
Other acts with ties to the city include Strangefolk, The Essex Green, RAQ, James Kochalka, The Jazz Mandolin Project, Pork Tornado, Anais Mitchell, Greg Davis, Koushik, Grace Potter and the Nocturnals, Dispatch, Prydein, Eugene Hutz of Gogol Bordello, Morgan Page and KT Tunstall.
The "South End Art Hop", is an annual event presented by the South End Arts and Business Association. Artists join businesses, artist studios, and galleries, which in turn open their doors to the public throughout the post-industrial section of Burlington, known as the "South End". The first Art Hop in 1993 had a little more than thirty artists and a dozen sites participating. In 2008, over 600 artists showcased their works in over 100 sites throughout the South End of Burlington. The event takes place on the Friday and Saturday following Labor Day in September.
Many of Burlington's historic buildings and sites have been recognized by their inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP). In addition to 28 buildings, three shipwrecks and the Burlington Breakwater, the city encompasses 17 historic districts.76
The Ethan Allen Homestead (1784), listed in the NRHP
The former Howard Opera House (1878), now used for retail and commercial purposes, is part of the Church Street Historic District
The Old Ohavi Zedek Synagogue (1885) is the oldest Jewish congregation in Vermont, listed on the NRHP
The Daniel Webster Robinson House (1885–86), listed on the NRHP
The former U.S. Post Office and Custom House (1906), now the Chittenden County Courthouse, listed on the NRHP
- Ethan Allen Homestead Museum77
- Chittenden County Historical Society & Museum78
- ECHO Lake Aquarium & Science Center79
- Robert Hull Fleming Museum, University of Vermont80
- Flynn Center for the Performing Arts81
- The 1885 building of Ohavi Zedek one of the oldest synagogue buildings still standing in the United States.82
Besides being the smallest U.S. city to be the largest city in its state, Burlington is also the home of the shortest "tallest building" in any of the 50 US states, Decker Towers.
The five tallest buildings in Burlington are:83
ft / m
|1||Decker Towers||124 / 37.8||11||1970|
|2||Burlington Square||116 / 35||8|
|3||Westlake Residential||107.5 / 33||9|
|4||Key Bank||105 / 32||8|
|5||Cathedral Square||103.33 / 31||10|
Burlington is the media center of northern and central Vermont. It is served by the
- Burlington Free Press a daily newspaper which is delivered throughout Vermont84
- Seven Days, a free weekly newspaper, delivered in bulk to pickup points throughout the Burlington metropolitan area and central Vermont, emphasizing arts and culture85
- Vermont Business Magazine86
Major radio stations that are based in Burlington and serve the region:
- WBTZ (The Buzz) - 99.9 FM (modern rock)
- WOKO – 98.9 FM (country)
- WIZN (The Wizard) – 106.7 FM (classic rock)
- WEZF (Star 92.9) – 92.9 FM (hot adult contemporary)
- WRUV (University of Vermont) – 90.1 FM (variety)
- WOXR (Vermont Public Radio) - 90.9 FM (classical)
- WVPS (Vermont Public Radio) - 107.9 FM (news & information)
- WVMT - 620 AM (news/talk)
- WJOY - 1230 AM (adult standards)
- WNCS and W227AQ (The Point) - 104.7 and 93.3 FM, respectively (Triple-A)
There are four network-affiliated television stations in the city. They include WFFF channel 44 (Fox), WFFF's digital subchannel 44-2 (independent), its sister station, WVNY channel 22 (ABC), WPTZ channel 5 (NBC, with Me-TV and The CW on DT2), and WCAX channel 3 (CBS). WCAX, WFFF, and WPTZ operate news departments. WCAX is the only Burlington-based news department, while WPTZ is based in Plattsburgh, New York with a bureau in nearby Colchester. WFFF and WVNY are also based in Colchester.
|Vermont Lake Monsters||Baseball||Minor league baseball (New York-Penn League) Class A (Short Season)||Centennial Field|
|Vermont Catamounts||College Ice Hockey, Basketball, Track & Field, Swimming & Diving, Field Hockey||Hockey East, America East||Gutterson Fieldhouse|
The Vermont Lake Monsters of the New York – Penn League, a Class A short-season (June to September) minor league baseball team, were formerly called the Vermont Expos. The team changed its name in 2007 after its parent Major League Baseball club, the Montreal Expos of the National League, moved from Montreal to Washington, D.C. and became the Washington Nationals. In 2010, the Lake Monsters ended its 17-year association with the Expos/Nationals and became the Class A affiliate of the Oakland Athletics of the American League.90 The Lake Monsters play on the campus of the University of Vermont at Centennial Field.
Burlington has a rich hockey history, and was the location of the first known international ice hockey match, held between the Montreal Crystals and employees of the Van Ness House, a local hotel, during the 1886 Burlington Winter Carnival. The University of Vermont's men's hockey team, the Catamounts,91 play their home games at the 4,007-seat Gutterson Field House on the UVM campus.92
A professional basketball franchise, the Vermont Frost Heaves, played half of their season in the city. The team, which originally was part of the American Basketball Association – not to be confused with the 1970s-era major basketball league of the same name that merged with the National Basketball Association – moved to the Premier Basketball League in 2008 and split their regular-season home games between Burlington and Barre. The Frost Heaves, owned by Sports Illustrated writer Alexander Wolff, played their Burlington games at the Memorial Auditorium, on South Union Street, at the corner of Main. However, the franchise folded in early 2011.
There is also a rugby union team, the Burlington RFC.
Daniel W. Fish, a former member of the Air Force's Wings of Blue, was the first person to obtain a permit to skydive in the city of Burlington.
Burlington is twinned with:
- "Burlington". Geographic Names Information System, U.S. Geological Survey.
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- Coolidge, A. J. and Mansfield, J. B. A History and Description of New England. Boston, 1859
- Johnson, Tim. "1812: A look back at Burlington's 20-minute war". Burlington Free Press (July 29, 2007) p.4A
- Logan, Lee. "Grant may help Burlington reclaim War of 1812 heritage" Burlington Free Press (July 8, 2007)
- dead link
- Pine Street Barge Canal
- Evaluation of Pine Street Canal
- retrieved on July 24, 2007
-  retrieved September 6, 2010
- "Climatography of the United States No. 20: BURLINGTON INTL AP, VT 1971−2000". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2010-04-20.
- Maptech MapServer IIdead link
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- dead link
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- John Curran (2010-01-04). "'Tremendous' Snow Hits Northeast; Cold Grips South". sphere.com. Associated Press.
- "NowData - NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2011-12-26.
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- "CCTA Announces Regional Transition". Burlington, Vermont: CCTA. 15 June 2010.
- "Rutland Railroad" http://www.r2parks.net/RUT.html
- Thursday, January 31, 2013, Vermont governor seeks more Amtrak service, Written by Douglas John Bowen, http://www.railwayage.com/index.php/passenger/intercity/vermont-governor-seeks-more-amtrak-service.html?channel=41
- Port Of Entry – Burlington International Airport
- "Porter Airlines debuts in Burlington, Vermont". Prnewswire.com. 2011-12-15. Retrieved 2013-03-26.
- Wash, Molly. "Champlain Parkway Inches Forward in Burlington".
- Baird, Joel Banner (10 June 2010). "Planners propose US 2 realignment". Burlington, Vermont: Burlington Free Press. pp. 2C.
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- Briggs, John (21 June 2010). "25 years of numbers". Burlington, Vermont: Burlington Free Press. pp. 1B, 4B.
- Burlington Free Press (August 1, 2009)
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|url=missing title (help).
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- City of Burlington: Moss Point Relief Timeline. In the fall of 2005, the city decided to help out Moss Point which was devastated by Hurricane Katrina, and held a concert called Hurricane Benefete to raise money.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Burlington, Vermont.|
|Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Burlington (Vermont).|
- City of Burlington, Vermont
- Fletcher Free Library
- City of Burlington Sister Cities
- Preservation Burlington
- Article on Burlington Community Land Trust in Dollars & Sense magazine
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