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The Balto-Slavic language group traditionally comprises the Baltic and Slavic languages, belonging to the Indo-European family of languages. Baltic and Slavic languages share several linguistic traits not found in any other Indo-European branch, which points to a period of common development. Most Indo-Europeanists classify Baltic and Slavic languages into a single branch, even though some details of the nature of their relationship remain in dispute1 in some circles, usually due to political controversies.2 Some linguists, however, have recently suggested that Balto-Slavic should be split into three equidistant nodes: Eastern Baltic, Western Baltic and Slavic.34
A Proto-Balto-Slavic language is reconstructable by the comparative method, descending from Proto-Indo-European by means of well-defined sound laws, and out of which modern Slavic and Baltic languages descended. One particularly innovative dialect separated from the Balto-Slavic dialect continuum and became ancestral to the Proto-Slavic language, from which all Slavic languages descended.5
The nature of the relationship of the Balto-Slavic languages has been the subject of much discussion from the very beginning of historical Indo-European linguistics as a scientific discipline. A few are more intent on explaining the similarities between the two groups not in terms of a genetic relationship, but by language contact and dialectal closeness in the Proto-Indo-European period.
Baltic and Slavic share more close phonological, lexical, morphosyntactic and accentological similarities than do any other language groups within the Indo-European language family.citation needed The notable early Indo-Europeanist August Schleicher (1861) proposed a simple solution: From Proto-Indo-European descended Proto-Balto-Slavic, out of which Proto-Baltic and Proto-Slavic emerged. The Latvian linguist Jānis Endzelīns thought, however, that any similarities among Baltic and Slavic languages were a result of an intensive language contact, i.e., that they were not genetically related and that there was no common Proto-Balto-Slavic language. Antoine Meillet (1905, 1908, 1922, 1925, 1934), the distinguished French Indo-Europeanist, in reaction to a second simplified theory of Schleicher's, propounded a view according to which all similarities of Baltic and Slavic occurred accidentally, by independent parallel development, and that there was no Proto-Balto-Slavic language. In turn, the Polish linguist Rozwadowski suggests that the similarities among Baltic and Slavic languages are a result of not only genetic relationship, but also of later language contact. Thomas Olander corroborates the claim of genetic relationship in his research in the field of comparative Balto-Slavic accentology.6
Even though some linguists still reject a genetic relationship, most scholars accept that Baltic and Slavic languages experienced a period of common development. Beekes (1995:22), for example, states expressly that "[t]he Baltic and Slavic languages were originally one language and so form one group".7 Gray and Atkinson's (2003) application of language-tree divergence analysis supports a genetic relationship between the Baltic and Slavic languages and dating the split of the family to about 1400 BCE. That this was found using a very different methodology than other studies lends some credence to the links between the two.8
The Balto-Slavic languages are most often divided into Baltic and Slavic branches.910 However, another division was proposed in the 1960s by Vyacheslav Ivanov and Vladimir Toporov: that the Balto-Slavic proto-language split from the start into West Baltic, East Baltic and Proto-Slavic.11 Thus Ivanov and Toporov questioned not only Balto-Slavic unity,contradiction but also Baltic unity. In their framework, Proto-Slavic is a peripheral and innovative Balto-Slavic dialect which suddenly expanded, due to a conjunction of historical circumstances, and effectively erased all the other Balto-Slavic dialects, except in the marginal areas where Lithuanian, Latvian and Old Prussian developed. This model is supported by glottochronologic studies by V.V.Kromer12 although both of the most recent computer-generated family trees have a Baltic node parallel to the Slavic node.13 Onomastic evidence shows that Baltic languages were once spoken in much wider territory than the one they cover today, all the way to Moscow, and were later replaced by Slavic.
The sudden expansion of Proto-Slavic in the sixth and the seventh century (around AD 600, uniform Proto-Slavic with no detectable dialectal differentiation was spoken from Thessaloniki in Greece to Novgorod in Russia) is according to some connected to the hypothesis that Proto-Slavic was in fact a koiné of the Avar state, i.e. the language of the administration and military rule of the Avar khaganate in Eastern Europe.14 It is well-known from historical sources that Slavs and Avars jointly attacked the Byzantine Empire and laid siege to Constantinople.15 According to that interpretation, Avars were a thin layer of military aristocracy in that state/alliance, while the Slavs were a military caste – warriors (i.e. not a nation or ethnicity in the proper sense of that word). Their language – at first possibly only one local speech – once koinéized, became a lingua franca of the Avar state. This might explain how Proto-Slavic spread to the Balkans and the areas of the Danubian basin,16 and would also explain why the Avars were assimilated so fast, leaving practically no linguistic traces, and that Proto-Slavic was so unusually uniform. However, such a theory fails to explain how Slavic spread to Eastern Europe, an area which had no historical links with the Avar Khanate.17
That sudden expansion of Proto-Slavic erased most of the idioms of the Balto-Slavic dialect continuum, which left us today with only two branches: Baltic and Slavic (or East Baltic, West Baltic, and Slavic in the minority view). This secession of the Balto-Slavic dialect ancestral to Proto-Slavic is estimated on archaeological and glottochronological criteria to have occurred sometime in the period 1500–1000 BCE.18
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The close relationship of the Baltic and Slavic languages is indicated by a series of exclusive isoglosses representing innovations not shared with any other branch of the Indo-European (IE) language family (especially in their phonology)5 and by the fact that the relative chronology of these innovations can be established, which is the most important criterion for establishing genetic relationship in historical linguistics.citation needed The most important of these isoglosses are:
- Winter's law (lengthening of vowels before Proto-Indo-European (PIE) voiced consonants, probably only in a closed syllable)
- Hirt's law (retraction of PIE accent to the preceding syllable closed by a laryngeal)
- close reflexes of PIE syllabic sonorants
- rise of the Balto-Slavic acute before PIE laryngeals in a closed syllable
- replacement of PIE genitive singular of thematic nouns -*es(y)o with ablative ending *-ōd or -ād (Slav. vlьka, Lith. vil̃ko, Lett. vìlka), this may be an archaism; but OPrus has another ending, perhaps stemming from the IE Genitive: deiwas "god's", tawas "father's"
- Inst. Sg. *-ān in ā-stems, in contrast to Old Indian -ayā, archaic Vedic -ā; Lith. rankà is ambiguous, but the correspondence with East Lith. runku, Lett. rùoku point to Balt. *-ān; Lith. adjective mažąja (the form of adjective 'small'); OCS rǫkojǫ close to Old Indian -ayā; OCS form rǫkǫ is perhaps archaic (van Wijk, Geschichte der altkirschenslavischen Sprache, §45 gives philological reasoning that it is rather an innovation).
- ending for instrumental plural of *-miHs; e.g. Lith. sūnumìs, OCS synъmi "with sons" (the respective OInd. ending is -bhis, as in pad-bhis; OInd. -bh- corresponds to Balto-Slavic and German -m- in Dat., Abl. and Instr. Pl.; thus, this feature is not very significant)
- generalization of the PIE neuter *to- stem to the nominative singular of masculine and feminine demonstratives instead of PIE *so-, i.e. PIE demonstrative *só, *séh₂, *tód ("this, that") became PBSl. *tos, *ta, *tod (this generalization is rather natural so the feature is not very significant)
- formation of so-called definite adjectives with a construction that includes adjective and a relative pronoun, e.g. Lith. geràsis 'the good' as opposed to gẽras 'good', OCS dobrъjь 'the good' as opposed to dobrъ 'good'
- usage of genitive to state the object of a negated verb, e.g. Russ. knigi (ja) ne čital, Lith. knygos neskaičiau 'Book, haven't read'.19
Common Balto-Slavic innovations include several other prominent, but non-exclusive, isoglosses, such as the Satemization, Ruki, change of PIE */o/ to PBSl. */a/ (shared with Germanic, Indo-Iranian and Anatolian branch) and the loss of labialization in PIE labiovelars (shared with Indo-Iranian, Armenian and Tocharian).
Baltic and Slavic languages also show some correspondence in vocabulary; about 100 words are shared by Baltic and Slavic languages, either being a common innovation (i.e. not of PIE origin) or sharing the same semantic development from PIE root.20 For example:
- PBSl. *lḗjpā 'tilia' > Lith. líepa, Old Pr. līpa, Latv. liẽpa, Latg. līpa; PSl. *léjpā > Common Slavic *lipa (OCS lipa, Russ. lipa, Pol. lipa)
- PBSl. *ránkā 'hand' > Lith. rankà, Old Pr. rānkan (A sg.), Latv. rùoka, Latg. rūka; PSl. *ránkā > Common Slavic *rǭkà (OCS rǫka, Russ. ruká, Pol. ręka)
- PBSl. *galwā́ 'head' > Lith. galvà, Old Pr. galwo, Latv. galva, Latg. golva; PSl. *galwā́ > Common Slavic *golvà (OCS glava, Russ. golová, Pol. głowa)
Among Balto-Slavic archaisms notable is the retention of free PIE accent (with many innovations).
- "Balto-Slavic languages. Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online". Encyclopædia Britannica Inc. Retrieved 10 December 2012. "Those scholars who accept the Balto-Slavic hypothesis attribute the large number of close similarities in the vocabulary, grammar, and sound systems of the Baltic and Slavic languages to development from a common ancestral language after the breakup of Proto-Indo-European. Those scholars who reject the hypothesis believe that the similarities are the result of parallel development and of mutual influence during a long period of contact."
- Fortson (2010:414)
- Kortlandt, Frederik (2009), Baltica & Balto-Slavica, p. 5, "Though Prussian is undoubtedly closer to the East Baltic languages than to Slavic, the characteristic features of the Baltic languages seem to be either retentions or results of parallel development and cultural interaction. Thus I assume that Balto-Slavic split into three identifiable branches, each of which followed its own course of development."
- Derksen, Rick (2008), Etymological Dictionary of the Slavic Inherited Lexicon, p. 20, ""I am not convinced that it is justified to reconstruct a Proto-Baltic stage. The term Proto-Baltic is used for convenience’s sake."
- Young (2006)
- Olander (2002)
- Beekes & 1995 (22)
- Gray & Atkinson (2003)
- James Clackson, Indo-European Linguistics, An Introduction (2007, Cambridge)
- Benjamin W. Fortson IV, Indo-European Language and Culture, An Introduction (2nd ed, 2010, Wiley-Blackwell)
- Иванов, В. B. & Toпоров, B. H. 1958, On the Relations between Slavic and Baltic Languages, 4th International Congress of Slavic Studies, Moscow
- Kromer, Victor V. (2003). "Glottochronology and problems of protolanguage reconstruction". arXiv:cs/0303007 cs.CL.
- James Clackson, Indo-European Linguistics, An Introduction (2007, Cambridge)--the so-called "Pennsylvania Tree" (pg. 12) and the so-called "New Zealand Tree" (pg. 19)
- cf. Holzer (2002) with references
- Later historical sources, such as De Administrando Imperio by Constantine Porphyrogenitus, often mix Avars and Slavs, after a few centuries making no clear distinction between them.
- Slavic languages were spoken till the year 800 all the way to line Trieste-Hamburg. Later they were pushed back to the east.
- Curta (2004): It is possible that the expansion of the Avar khanate during the second half of the eighth century coincided with the spread of... Slavic into the neighbouring areas of Bohemia, Moravia and southern Poland. (but) could hardly explain the spread of Slavic into Poland, Ukraine, Belarus and Russia, all regions that produced so far almost no archaeological evidence of Avar influence
- cf. Novotná & Blažek (2007) with references. "Classical glottochronology" conducted by Czech Slavist M. Čejka in 1974 dates the Balto-Slavic split to -910±340 BCE, Sergei Starostin in 1994 dates it to 1210 BCE, and "recalibrated glottochronology" conducted by Novotná & Blažek dates it to 1400–1340 BCE. This agrees well with Trziniec-Komarov culture, localized from Silesia to Central Ukraine and dated to the period 1500–1200 BCE.
- Matasović (2008:56–57) "Navedimo najvažnije baltoslavenske izoglose...Upotreba genitiva za izricanje objekta zanijekanog glagola"
- Mažiulis, Vytautas. "Baltic languages". Britannica Online Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2008-10-10.
- Barschel; Kozianka; Weber (eds.) (1992), Indogermanisch, Baltisch und Slawisch, Kolloquium in Zusammenarbeit mit der Indogermanischen Gesellschaft in Jena, September 1989 (in German), Munich: Otto Sagner, ISBN 3-87690-515-X
- Beekes, Robert (1995), Comparative Indo-European Linguistics, Amsterdam: John Benjamins, ISBN 90-272-2151-0 (Europe), ISBN 1-55619-505-2 (U.S.)
- Curta, Florin (2004), "The Slavic Lingua Franca. (Linguistic Notes of an Archaeologist Turned Historian)", East Central Europe/L'Europe du Centre-Est (31): 125–148
- Fortson, Benjamin W. (2010), Indo-European Language and Culture: An Introduction (2nd ed.), Malden, Massachusetts: Blackwell, ISBN 978-1-4051-8896-8
- Gray, R.D.; Atkinson, Q.D. (2003), "Language-tree divergence times support the Anatolian theory of Indo-European origin", Nature 426 (426): 435−439, Bibcode:2003Natur.426..435G, doi:10.1038/nature02029, PMID 14647380
- Holzer, Georg (2001), "Zur Lautgeschichte des baltisch-slavischen Areals", Wiener slavistisches Jahrbuch (in German) (47): 33–50
- Holzer, Georg (2002), "Urslawisch" (PDF), Enzyklopädie des Europäischen Ostens (in German), Klagenfurt: Wieser Verlag, retrieved 2008-10-01
- Holzer, Georg (2007), Historische Grammatik des Kroatischen. Einleitung und Lautgeschichte der Standardsprache (in German), Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang, ISBN 978-3-631-56119-5
- Kortlandt, Frederik (1978), "I.-E. palatovelars before resonants in Balto-Slavic" (PDF), Recent Developments in Historical Phonology: 237–243
- Kortlandt, Frederik (2009), Baltica & Balto-Slavica, Amsterdam-New York: Rodopi, ISBN 978-90-420-2652-0
- Matasović, Ranko (2005), "Toward a relative chronology of the earliest Baltic and Slavic sound changes" (PDF), Baltistica 40/2
- Matasović, Ranko (2008), Poredbenopovijesna gramatika hrvatskoga jezika (in Croatian), Zagreb: Matica hrvatska, ISBN 978-953-150-840-7
- Novotná, Petra; Blažek, Václav (2007), "Glottochronolgy and its application to the Balto-Slavic languages" (PDF), Baltistica, XLII (2): 185–210
- Olander, Tomas (2002), Det baltoslaviske problem – Accentologien (pdf) (in Danish) Thomas Olander's Ph.D. thesis on the existence of Balto-Slavic genetic node solely on the basis of accentological evidence
- Olander, Thomas (2009), Balto-Slavic Accentual Mobility, Berlin & New York: Mouton de Gruyter, ISBN 978-3-11-020397-4
- Stang, Christian (1957), Slavonic accentuation, Oslo: Universitetsforlaget, ISBN 978-82-00-06078-9
- Szemerényi, Oswald (1957), "The problem of Balto-Slav unity", Kratylos 2: 97–123
- Young, S (2009), "Balto-Slavic languages", Concise encyclopedia of languages of the world, ISBN 978-0-08-087774-7
- Balto-Slavic Accentuation, by Kortlandt; a very idiosyncratic approach to Balto-Slavic accentuation
- Трубачев О., Бернштейн С. (2005), "Отрывки о балто-южнославянских изоглосах", Сравнительная грамматика славянских языков (in Russian), Moscow: Наука (Bernstein and Trubachev on the Balto-South-Slavic isoglosses)
- Biennial International Workshop on Balto-Slavic Natural Language Processing
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