Andaman and Nicobar Islands

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Andaman and Nicobar Isles
Union Territory
Skyline of Andaman and Nicobar Isles
Official logo of Andaman and Nicobar Isles
Seal of Andaman and Nicobar Islands
Location of Andaman and Nicobar Islands (marked in red) in India
Location of Andaman and Nicobar Islands (marked in red) in India
Coordinates (Port Blair): 11°41′N 92°46′E / 11.68°N 92.77°E / 11.68; 92.77Coordinates: 11°41′N 92°46′E / 11.68°N 92.77°E / 11.68; 92.77
Country India
Region East India
Established 1956-11-01
Capital and largest city Port Blair
Districts 3
Area1
 • Total 8,249 km2 (3,185 sq mi)
Population (2012)2
 • Total 380,500
 • Density 46/km2 (120/sq mi)
Time zone IST (UTC+05:30)
ISO 3166 code IN-AN
HDI Increase0.778 (High)
Languages

Official:

Major spoken languages:

Website www.and.nic.in

The Andaman and Nicobar Islands /ˈændəmən/ & /ˈnɪkəbɑr/ (About this sound local ) are a group of islands at the juncture of the Bay of Bengal and Andaman Sea, and are a Union Territory of India.

The territory is 150 km (93 mi) north of Aceh in Indonesia and separated from Thailand and Myanmar (Burma) by the Andaman Sea. It comprises two island groups, the Andaman Islands and the Nicobar Islands, separated by the 10°N parallel, with the Andamans to the north of this latitude, and the Nicobars to the south. The Andaman Sea lies to the east and the Bay of Bengal to the west.

The territory's capital is the Andamanese town of Port Blair. The total land area of the territory is approximately 8,249 km2 (3,185 sq mi). The capital of Nicobar Islands is Car Nicobar. The islands host the Andaman and Nicobar Command, the only tri-service geographical command of the Indian Armed Forces.

History

First inhabitants

The earliest archaeological evidence yet documented goes back some 2,200 years. However, genetic and cultural studies suggest that the indigenous Andamanese people may have been isolated from other populations since the Middle Paleolithic.4 In that time, the Andamanese have diversified into distinct linguistic, cultural and territorial groups.

The Nicobar Islands appear to have been populated by people of various backgrounds. At the time of the European contact, the indigenous inhabitants were the Nicobarese people, speaking a Mon-Khmer language; and the Shompen, whose language is of uncertain affiliation. Both are unrelated to the Andamanese.

Pre-colonial era

Rajendra Chola I (1014 to 1042 CE), one of the Tamil Chola dynasty kings, conquered the Andaman and Nicobar Islands to use them as a strategic naval base to launch a naval expedition against the Sriwijaya Empire (a Hindu-Malay empire based on the island of Sumatra, Indonesia). They called the islands Tinmaittivu ("impure islands" in Tamil).5

The islands provided a temporary maritime base for ships of the Maratha Empire in the 17th century. The legendary admiral Kanhoji Angre established naval supremacy with a base in the islands and is credited with attaching those islands to India.67

Colonial period

The history of organised European colonisation on the islands began when the Danish settlers of the Danish East India Company arrived in the Nicobar Islands on 12 December 1755. On 1 January 1756, the Nicobar Islands were made a Danish colony, first named New Denmark,8 and later (December 1756) Frederick's Islands (Frederiksøerne). During 1754–1756 they were administrated from Tranquebar (in continental Danish India). The islands were repeatedly abandoned due to outbreaks of malaria between 14 April 1759 and 19 August 1768, from 1787 to 1807/05, 1814 to 1831, 1830 to 1834 and gradually from 1848 for good.8

From 1 June 1778 to 1784, Austria mistakenly assumed that Denmark had abandoned its claims to the Nicobar Islands and attempted to establish a colony on them,9 renaming them Theresia Islands.8

In 1789 the British set up a naval base and penal colony on Chatham Island next to Great Andaman, where now lies the town of Port Blair. Two years later the colony was moved to Port Cornwallis on Great Andaman, but it was abandoned in 1796 due to disease.

Denmark's presence in the territory ended formally on 16 October 1868 when it sold the rights to the Nicobar Islands to Britain,9 which made them part of British India in 1869.

In 1858 the British again established a colony at Port Blair, which proved to be more permanent. The primary purpose was to set up a penal colony for dissenters and independence fighters from the Indian subcontinent. The colony came to include the infamous Cellular Jail.

In 1872 the Andaman and Nicobar islands were united under a single chief commissioner at Port Blair.

World War II

During World War II, the islands were practically under Japanese control, only nominally under the authority of the Arzi Hukumate Azad Hind of Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose. Bose visited the islands during the war, and renamed them as "Shaheed-dweep" (Martyr Island) and "Swaraj-dweep" (Self-rule Island).

General Loganathan, of the Indian National Army was made the Governor of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. On 22 February 1944 he along with four INA officers — Major Mansoor Ali Alvi, Sub. Lt. Md. Iqbal, Lt. Suba Singh and stenographer Srinivasan—arrived at Lambaline Airport in Port Blair. On 21 March 1944 the Headquarters of the Civil Administration was established near the Gurudwara at Aberdeen Bazaar. On 2 October 1944, Col. Loganathan handed over the charge to Maj. Alvi and left Port Blair, never to return.10 The islands were reoccupied by British and Indian troops of the 116th Indian Infantry Brigade on 7 October 1945, to whom the remaining Japanese garrison surrendered.

Indian territory

During the independence of both India (1947) and Burma (1948), the departing British announced their intention to resettle all Anglo-Indians and Anglo-Burmese on these islands to form their own nation, although this never materialized. It became part of the Indian country in 1950 and was also declared as a union territory in 1956.11:33

India has been developing defence facilities on the islands since the 1980s. The islands now have a key position in India's strategic role in the Bay of Bengal and the Malacca Strait.12

The 2004 tsunami

On 26 December 2004 the coasts of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands were devastated by a 10 m (33 ft) high tsunami following the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake. More than 2,000 people lost their lives, more than 4,000 children were orphaned or suffered the loss of one parent, and a minimum of 40,000 people were rendered homeless.13 The worst affected Nicobar islands were Katchal and Indira Point; the latter subsided 4.25 metres and was partially submerged in the ocean. The lighthouse at Indira Point was damaged but has been repaired since then. The territory lost a large amount of area which is now submerged. The territory which was at 8,073 km2 (3,117 sq mi) is now merely at 7,950 km2 (3,070 sq mi).

While newer settlers of the islands suffered the greatest casualties from the tsunami, most of the aboriginal people survived because oral traditions passed down from generations ago warned them to evacuate from large waves that follow large earthquakes.14

Geography

Aerial view of the Andaman Islands

There are 572 islands in the territory having an area of 8,249 km2 (3,185 sq mi). Of these, about 34 are permanently inhabited. The islands extend from 6° to 14° North latitudes and from 92° to 94° East longitudes. The Andamans are separated from the Nicobar group by a channel (the Ten Degree Channel) some 150 km (93 mi) wide. The highest point is located in North Andaman Island (Saddle Peak at 732 m (2,402 ft)). The Andaman group has 325 islands which cover an area of 6,170 km2 (2,382 sq mi) while the Nicobar group has only 24 islands with an area of 1,765 km2 (681 sq mi).11:33

The capital of the union territory, Port Blair, is located 1,255 km (780 mi) from Kolkata, 1,200 km (750 mi) from Visakhapatnam and 1,190 km (740 mi) from Chennai.11:33 The northernmost point of the Andaman and Nicobars group is 901 km (560 mi) away from the mouth of the Hooghly River and 190 km (120 mi) from Burma. Indira Point at 6°45’10″N and 93°49’36″E at the southern tip of the southernmost island, Great Nicobar, is the southernmost point of India and lies only 150 km (93 mi) from Sumatra in Indonesia.

Table of Islands

Nr Island Capital Other Cities Area (km²) Populationa
1 Nicobar district Malacca Campbell Bay, Mildera, Mus, Lapati, Perka, Kalatapu 1765 36900
1.1 Battimaly Island North Point 1.95 0
1.2 Bompuka Island Poahat 9.7 21
1.3 Camorta Island Kalatapu Pilpilow, Kakana, Munak, Trinket Camp 133 3151
1.4 Car Nicobar Malacca Mus, Big Lapati, Perka, 126.9 17800
1.5 Chaura Island Chaura Agency Tahaila, Rainion, Kuitasuk, Alhiat, Chongkamong 5.75 1214
1.6 Great Nicobar Campbell Bay Govind Nagar, Joginder Nagar, Vijay Nagar, Laxmi Nagar, Gandhi Nagar, 1020 6735
1.7 Katchal island Mildera Jhoola, Altaful, Kapanga, Uper Katchal, Japan Tikrey 154.5 4670
1.8 Kondul Island Kondul 2.2 0
1.9 Little Nicobar Makahu (Victoria Harbour) Pullollo, Pulobha, Pulopanja 137.84 481
1.10 Nancowry Island Nancowry Champin, Tapong, Hinnunga 50 1010
1.11 Pulomilo Island Pulomilo 0.84 0
1.12 Teressa Island Teressa Kalsi, Minyuk 88.2 1800
1.13 Tillangchong Island Tillangchong Port Cape Maud, Novara Bay, Castle Bay, Winifred Point, 16.3 0
1.14 Trinket Island Trinket Safed Balu, Hockook, Tapiang, Morrel Point, 15.18 18
2 North and Middle Andaman district Mayabunder Adazig, Pahalgaon, Rangat, Diglipur 3530 105550
2.1 Baratang Island Adazig Sunderghar, Udaygarth, Nilampur, Rajatgarh, Wrafters Creek, Baludera, Raglachang, Nayadera, 297.6 4620
2.2 Barren Island Landing Point 8.3 0
2.3 East Island East Island 3.8 17
2.4 Interview Island Interview station 133 20
2.5 Landfall Island Landfall Island 13.93 100
2.6 Long Island Long Town Lalaji Bay, Parkinson Point, 18.24 2185
2.7 Middle Andaman Island Mayabunder Pahalgaon, Tugapur, Karmatang, Harinagar, Pokadera, Rangat, sabari, 1536.4 55720
2.8 Narcondam Island Narcondam Port 6.82 17
2.9 North Andaman Island Diglipur Gandhi Nagar, Laxmipur, Aerial Bay, Ramakrishnagram, Kalighat, Radha Nagar, 1376 42430
2.10 North Reef Island south point east point 3.48 10
2.11 Passage Islands Merk Bay South Passage, Colbrooke Point 22.6 9
2.12 Ross and Smith Islands west Smith marina east Smith town, Ross point, Ross beach 25.1 350
2.13 Spike Island Port Anson 12.12 19
2.14 Stewart Island Stewart Island 7.7 2
2.15 Strait Island Strait Island 2.5 42
2.16 More Islands Avis Island Table Islands, Chatham Island, Point, Paget, west, Peacock, Swamp, talabaicha 62.41 10
3 South Andaman district Port Blair Wrightmyo, Wimberleyganj, Ferrargunj, Herbertabad, Hope Town (Andaman), Manglutan, Garacharma, Birchganj, Little Andaman 2640 238050
3.1 Cinque Islands Landing Point 8.2 6
3.2 Havelock Island Govinda Nagar Vijaynagar, Yatrik, Shyam Nagar, Elephant Beach, Krishna Nagar, Radhanagar, Bejoy Nagar, Kalapathar, 113.93 6104
3.3 Henry Lawrence Island 55 0
3.4 John Lawrence Island John Lawrence Town 40.3 28
3.5 Kyd Island Kyd town 5.1 130
3.6 Little Andaman Kwate-tu-Kwage Hut Bay, Kwachengui, Geinyale, Harminder Bay 734.39 19983
3.7 Neil Island Neil Kendra Bharatpur, Sitapur, Lakshmanpur, Ram Nagar, Tango Beach 16.23 3270
3.8 North Sentinel Island 59.67 unknown
3.9 Ritchie's Archipelago Other Islands Outram Island Button Islands, Wilson Island, Peel Island 52.72 0
3.10 Ross Island Ross Navy Base 0.46 10
3.11 Rutland Island Bada Khari R.M. Point, Bamboo Nallah, Kichad Nallah, Rutland, 137.17 785
3.12 Sir Hugh Rose Island Landing Point 0.75 0
3.13 South Andaman Port Blair Wrightmyo, Wimberleyganj, Ferrargunj, Herbertabad, Hope Town (Andaman), Manglutan, Garacharma, Birchganj, 1347.7 207429
3.14 South Sentinel Island 1.61 0
3.13 Viper Island Viper Island 0.3 5
3.14 More Islands Jolly Buoy Pitman, Malay, Hobday, Red Skin, Tarmugli, Alexander, Ranger, Brothers, FlatBay, 66.47 0
  Andaman and Nicobar Islands Port Blair Malacca, Mayabunder, Rangat, diglipur 7950 380500

The Sentinelese population cannot be officially counted. They are an uncontacted people and current government policy is not to attempt contact. The population estimate is between 50 - 500 people.

Flora

Map of Andaman and Nicobar Islands with an extra detailed area around Port Blair

The Andaman and Nicobar Islands have a tropical rainforest canopy, made of a mixed flora with elements from Indian, Myanmar, Malaysian and endemic floral strains. So far, about 2,200 varieties of plants have been recorded, out of which 200 are endemic and 1,300 do not occur in mainland India.

The South Andaman forests have a profuse growth of epiphytic vegetation, mostly ferns and orchids. The Middle Andamans harbours mostly moist deciduous forests. North Andamans is characterized by the wet evergreen type, with plenty of woody climbers. The North Nicobar Islands (including Car Nicobar and Battimalv) are marked by the complete absence of evergreen forests, while such forests form the dominant vegetation in the central and southern islands of the Nicobar group. Grasslands occur only in the Nicobars, and while deciduous forests are common in the Andamans, they are almost absent in the Nicobars. The present forest coverage is claimed to be 86.2% of the total land area.

This atypical forest coverage is made up of twelve types, namely:

  1. Giant evergreen forest
  2. Andamans tropical evergreen forest
  3. Southern hilltop tropical evergreen forest
  4. Cane brakes
  5. Wet bamboo brakes
  6. Andamans semi-evergreen forest
  7. Andamans moist deciduous forest
  8. Andamans secondary moist deciduous forest
  9. Littoral forest
  10. Mangrove forest
  11. Brackish water mixed forest
  12. Submontane hill valley swamp forest

Fauna

This tropical rain forest despite its isolation from adjacent land masses is surprisingly rich with a diversity of animal life.

About 50 varieties of forest mammals are found to occur in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Some are endemic, including the Andaman Wild Boar. Rodents are the largest group with 26 species, followed by 14 species of bat. Among the larger mammals there are two endemiccitation needed varieties of wild boar, Sus scrofa andamanensis from Andaman and Sus scrofa nicobaricus from Nicobar, which are protected by the Wildlife Protection Act 1972 (Sch I). Saltwater crocodile is also found in abundance. The State animal of andaman is the dugong, also known as the sea cow, which can be found in Little Andaman. Around 1962 there was an attempt to introduce the leopard, which was unsuccessful because of unsuitable habitat. These were ill-considered moves as exotic introductions can cause havoc to island flora and fauna.

About 270 species of birds are found in the territory; 14 of them are endemic, the majority to the Nicobar island group. The islands' many caves are nesting grounds for the Edible-nest Swiftlet, whose nests are prized in China for bird's nest soup.15

The territory is home to about 225 species of butterflies and moths, including some of the larger and most spectacular of the world. Ten species are endemic to these Islands. Mount Harriet National Park is one of the richest areas of butterfly and moth diversity on these Islands.

The islands are well known for of prized shellfishs, especially from the genera Turbo, Trochus, Murex and Nautilus. Earliest recorded commercial exploitation began during 1929. Many cottage industries produce a range of decorative shell items. Giant clams, green mussels and oysters support edible shellfishery. The shells of scallops, clams, and cockle are burnt in kilns to produce edible lime.

Demographics

As of 2011 Census of India, the population of the Union Territory of Andaman and Nicobar Islands was 379,944, of which 202,330 (53.25%) were male and 177,614 (46.75) were female. The sex ratio was 878 females per 1,000 males.17 Only 10% of the population lived in Nicobar islands.

The areas and populations (at the 2001 and 2011 Censuses) of the three districts 18 are:

Name Area (km2) Population
Census 2001
Population
Census 2011
Capital
Nicobar Islands 1,841 42,068 36,842 Car Nicobar
North and Middle Andaman 3,736 105,613 105,597 Mayabunder
South Andaman 2,672 208,471 238,142 Port Blair
Totals 8,249 356,152 380,581

Bengali is the dominant language and most spoken language in the Andaman-Nicobar Islands with 25.71% of the population speaking Bengali, the other major languages spoken in the Andaman-Nicobar Islands are Hindi (18.23%), Tamil (17.68%), Telugu (12.81%), Malayalam (8.11%) and Nicobarese (8.04%) according to 2001 Census of India.3 Other minor spoken languages are Kurukh/Oraon, Munda and Kharia. Andaman Creole Hindi is widely used as a trade language in the Andamans. Presently there remain only approximately 400–450 indigenous Andamanese in the Andaman islands, the Jarawa and Sentinelese in particular maintaining a steadfast independence and refusing most attempts at contact. In the Nicobar islands, the indigenous people are the Nicobarese, or Nicobari, living throughout many of the islands; and the Shompen, restricted to the hinterland of Great Nicobar. More than 2,000 people belonging to the Karen tribe live in the Mayabunder tehsil of North Andaman district, almost all of whom are Christians. Despite their tribal origins, the Karen of Andamans have Other Backward Class (OBC) status in the Andamans. The majority of schools and educational institutions are available in Bengali language on the islands, Tamil and Telugu languages are also used in few institutions. Hindi is never used despite its being one of the official languages of the islands, with English.3

The majority of people of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands are Hindus, with significant Christian population consisting 21.7% of the total population of the Union Territory according to the 2011 census of India. Small but significant Muslim and Sikh minorities also exist on the islands.

Administration

In 1874, the British had placed the Andaman and Nicobar Islands in one administrative territory headed by a Chief Commissioner as its judicial administrator. On 1 August 1974, the Nicobar islands were hived off into another revenue district with district headquarters at Car Nicobar under a Deputy Commissioner. In 1982, the post of Lieutenant Governor was created who replaced the Chief Commissioner as the head of administration. Subsequently a "Pradesh council" with Counselors as representatives of the people was constituted to advise the Lieutenant Governor.11

Administrative divisions

The Andaman and Nicobar Islands is divided into three districts. Each district is sub-divided into sub-divisions and taluks:

North and Middle Andaman

South Andaman

Nicobar

Economy

Little Andaman Island seen by Spot satellite
Ross Island a couple of days before the tsunami of December 2004.

Agriculture

A total of 48,675 hectares (120,280 acres) of land is used for agriculture purposes. Paddy, the main food crop, is mostly cultivated in Andaman group of islands, whereas coconut and arecanut are the cash crops of Nicobar group of islands. Field crops, namely pulses, oilseeds and vegetables are grown, followed by paddy during Rabi season. Different kinds of fruits such as mango, sapota, orange, banana, papaya, pineapple and root crops are grown on hilly land owned by farmers. Spices such as pepper, clove, nutmeg, and cinnamon are grown under a multi-tier cropping system. Rubber, red oil, palm, noni and cashew are grown on a limited scale in these islands.

Industry

There are 1,374 registered small-scale, village and handicrafts units. Two units are export-oriented in the line of fish processing activity. Apart from this, there are shell and wood based handicraft units. There are also four medium sized industrial units. SSI units are engaged in the production of polythene bags, PVC conduit pipes and fittings, paints and varnished, fibre glass and mini flour mills, soft drinks and beverages, etc. Small scale and handicraft units are also engaged in shell crafts, bakery products, rice milling, furniture making, etc.

The Andaman and Nicobar Islands Integrated Development Corporation has spread its wings in the field of tourism, fisheries, industries and industrial financing and functions as authorised agents for Alliance Air/Jet Airways. The Islands have become a tourist destination, due to the draw of their largely unspoiled virgin beaches and waters.19

Tourism

Andaman & Nicobar Islands are developing into a major Tourism hub with its exotic looking beaches and pristine islands having equally exotic names, wonderful opportunities for adventure sports like snorkeling and sea-walking.20

According to official estimates, the flow of tourists doubled to nearly 300,000 in 2012 from 130,000 in 2008-09. The Radha Nagar beach of Andamans was chosen as Asia’s best Beach in 2004.20

Macro-economic trend

This is a chart of trend of gross state domestic product of Andaman and Nicobar Islands at market prices, estimated by the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, with figures in millions of Indian Rupees.21

Year Gross State Domestic Product (In Millions of Rupees)
1985 590
1990 1,100
1995 4,000
2000 7,750
2005 10,560
2010 16,130

Andaman and Nicobar Islands' gross state domestic product for 2004 was estimated at $354 million in current prices.

The Sisters (Andaman)

The Sisters are two small uninhabited islands in the Andaman Archipelago, at the northern side of the Duncan Passage, about 6 km southeast of Passage Island and 18 km north of North Brother: East Sister Island (Andaman) West Sister Island (Andaman) The islands are about 250 m apart, connected by a coral reef. They are covered by forests, and have rocky shores except for a beach on the NW side of East Sister. They belong to the Andaman and Nicobar Islands Territory of India.

Before the British established a colony on the Andaman, the Sister islands were visited occasionally by the Onge people of Little Andaman Island for fishing. They may have been a waystation for their temporary settlement of Rutland Island between 1890 and 1930. The islands have been a wildlife refuge since 1987, with 0.36 km2.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ The Islands' area and population data retrieved from the 2012 census

References

  1. ^ "Andaman & Nicobar Administration". And.nic.in. Retrieved 2013-07-08. 
  2. ^ Census of India, 2011. Census Data Online, Population.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h "Report of the Commissioner for linguistic minorities: 47th report (July 2008 to June 2010)". Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities, Ministry of Minority Affairs, Government of India. pp. 122–126. Retrieved 16 February 2012. 
  4. ^ Palanichamy, Malliya G. Suraksha Agrawal, Yon-Gang Yao, Quing-Peng Kong, Chang Sun, Faisal Khan, Tapas Kumar Chaudhuri, and Ya-Ping Zhang. 2006. Comment on "Reconstructing the Origin of Andaman Islanders. Science 311:470 (27th January 2006). Paramjeet saluja is minister of Andaman and Nicobar
  5. ^ Government of India (1908). The Andaman and Nicobar Islands: Local Gazetteer. Superintendent of Government Printing, Calcutta. "... In the great Tanjore inscription of 1050 AD, the Andamans are mentioned under a translated name along with the Nicobars, as Nakkavaram or land of the naked people." 
  6. ^ "Andaman & Nicobar Origin | Andaman & Nicobar Island History". Andamanonline.in. Retrieved 2013-07-08. 
  7. ^ "Welcome to Alibag / Alibaug. Sarkhel Kanhoji Angre". Marathiecards.com. Retrieved 2013-07-08. 
  8. ^ a b c ben cahoon. "Provinces of British India". Worldstatesmen.org. Retrieved 2013-07-08. 
  9. ^ a b Ramerini, Marco. "Chronology of Danish Colonial Settlements". ColonialVoyage.com. Retrieved January 2010. 
  10. ^ "Black Days in Andaman and Nicobar Islands" by Rabin Roychowdhury, [Pub. Manas] Pubs. New Delhi
  11. ^ a b c d Planning Commission of India (2008). Andaman and Nicobar Islands Development Report. State Development Report series (illustrated ed.). Academic Foundation. ISBN 81-7188-652-3. Retrieved 12 March 2011. 
  12. ^ David Brewster. "India’s Defence Strategy and the India-ASEAN Relationship. Retrieved 24 August 2014". 
  13. ^ Carl Strand and John Masek, ed. (2007). Sumatra-Andaman Islands Earthquake and Tsunami of December 6, 2004: Lifeline Performance. Reston, VA: ASCE, Technical Council on Lifeline Earthquake Engineering. ISBN 9780784409510. 
  14. ^ "Tsunami folklore 'saved islanders'". BBC News. 20 January 2005. Retrieved 23 April 2010. 
  15. ^ R. Sankaran (1999), The impact of nest collection on the Edible-nest Swiftlet in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Sálim Ali Centre for Orithology and Natural History,Coimbatore, India.
  16. ^ "Census Population" (PDF). Census of India. Ministry of Finance India. Archived from the original on 19 December 2008. Retrieved 18 December 2008. 
  17. ^ "Census of India". Retrieved 13 April 2012. 
  18. ^ source: The Office of Registrar General & Census Commissioner of India
  19. ^ "Andaman and Nicobar Islands - Unexplored Beauty of India". The Indian Backpacker. December 2012. Retrieved 2 January 2013. 
  20. ^ a b "How Andaman & Nicobar can fully capitalize its Tourism Potential?". IANS. news.biharprabha.com. Retrieved 6 March 2014. 
  21. ^ [1]dead link

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