6th millennium BC
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During the 6th millennium BC, agriculture spread from the Balkans to Italy and Eastern Europe, and also from Mesopotamia to Egypt. World population was essentially stable at approximately 5 million, though some speculate up to 7 million.
Black Sea today (light blue) and in 5600 BC (dark blue) according to Ryan's and Pitman's theories, versions of the Black Sea deluge theory
Byzantine Calendar illustrating 1 September 5509 BC (the calendar is from the 12th century CE).
- A massive volcanic landslide off of Mt. Etna, Sicily caused a megatsunami which devastated the eastern Mediterranean coastline on three continents.1
- c. 6000 BC: The Mehrgarh culture reaches its height c. 6000 BC. The Mehrgarh site is one of the most important Neolithic sites in the world. It is located in present-day Pakistan (Baluchistan Province).
- c. 6000 BC: The entire 6th Millennium was a part of the Holocene climatic optimum (so were the 4th, 5th, and 7th Millennia). This was a warm period also known as the Atlantic period. This period was characterized by minimal glaciation and high sea levels. (McEvedy)
- c. 6000 BC: The Copper Age comes to the Fertile Crescent. (Roux 1980) First use of copper in Middle East. (Bailey 1973)
- c. 6000 BC: Fully Neolithic agriculture has spread through Anatolia to the Balkans. (1967 McEvedy)
- c. 6000 BC: Equids disappear from the Americas.
- c. 6000 BC: Junglefowl kept in India.
- c. 6000 BC: Female figurines holding serpents are fashioned on Crete and may have been associated with water, regenerative power and protection of the home.
- c. 5900 BC: Prehistoric Vinca culture emerges on the shores of lower Danube.
- c. 5800 BC: Beginning of the Dadiwan culture in China.
- c. 5800 BC: The Hassuna Period in Mesopotamia <t. 5500 BC>, with the earliest version of stamp seals. (Roux 1980)
- c. 5760 BC: The volcano Puy-de-Dôme in France erupts.
- c. 5677 BC: Cataclysmic volcanic eruption of 12,000-foot (3,700 m) high Mount Mazama creates Oregon's Crater Lake2 when the resulting caldera fills with water. With a Volcanic Explosivity Index of 7, it remains the largest single Holocene eruption in history of the Cascade Range.
- c. 5600 BC: Beginning of the desertification of North Africa, which ultimately lead to the creation of the Sahara desert. It's possible this process pushed some people into migrating to the region of the Nile in the east, thereby laying the groundwork for the rise of Egyptian civilization.
- c. 5600 BC: The Red Paint People become established in the region from present-day Labrador to New York state.
- 5509 BC: The Byzantine calendar dates creation to 1 September of this year.
- c. 5500 BC: Beginning of the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture in the region of modern-day Romania, Moldova, and southwestern Ukraine
- c. 5500 BC: Beginning of the Xinle culture in China.
- c. 5500 BC: Agriculture started in Ancient Egypt.
- c. 5500 BC: Predynastic period (Neolithic) starts in Ancient Egypt (other date is 4350 BC).
- c. 5450 BC: Volcano Hekla eruption.
- c. 5400 BC: Beginning of the Zhaobaogou culture in China.
- c. 5400 BC: Irrigation and the beginning of the Sumerian civilization in Southern Iraq.
- c. 5300 BC: Beginning of the Beixin culture in China.
- c. 5200 BC: Beginning of human inhabitation and settlements in Malta.
- c. 5000 BC: Beginning of the Hemudu culture in China.
- c. 5000 BC: Beginning of the Daxi culture in China.
- c. 5000 BC: Beginning of the Majiabang culture in China.
- c. 5000 BC: Beginning of the Yangshao culture in China.
- c. 5000 BC: Farming reached central and north Europe.
Inventions, discoveries, introductions
- c. 6000 BC: Cycladic people started to use a coarse local type of clay to make a variety of objects.
- c. 6000 BC: Brick building was taking place at modern-day Çatalhöyük, Turkey.3
- Agriculture appears in the valley of the Nile.
- Rice cultivated in Asia.
- c. 6000 BC–5000 BC: Wine is created for the first time in Persia.
- c. 5500 BC: Earliest evidence of cheese-making (Kujawy, Poland).4
- c. 5000 BC: Agriculture began in the Americas perhaps this early, in complete isolation from the Old World.3
- Artifacts of stone were supplemented by those of metal, and the crafts of basketry, pottery, weaving (Africa).
- Dead were buried in a fetal position, surrounded by the burial offerings and artifacts, facing west (Africa).
- Decorated, black-topped clay pots and vases; bone and ivory combs, figurines, and tableware, are found in great numbers (Africa).
- Jewelry of all types and materials (Africa).
- Objects began to be made not only with a function, but also with an aesthetic value. (Africa)
- Organized, permanent settlements focused around agriculture. (Africa)
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