1936 Summer Olympics
|Host city||Berlin, Germany|
(3,632 men, 331 women)
|Events||129 in 19 sports|
|Opening ceremony||August 1|
|Closing ceremony||August 16|
|Officially opened by||Chancellor and Führer Adolf Hitler|
|Athlete's Oath||Rudolf Ismayr|
|Olympic Torch||Fritz Schilgen|
The 1936 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XI Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event that was held in 1936 in Berlin, Germany. Berlin won the bid to host the Games over Barcelona, Spain, on 26 April 1931, at the 29th IOC Session in Barcelona (two years before the Nazis came to power). It marked the second and final time that the International Olympic Committee would gather to vote in a city which was bidding to host those Games. The only other time this occurred was at the inaugural IOC Session in Paris, France, on 24 April 1894. Then, Athens and Paris were chosen to host the 1896 and 1900 Games, respectively.
To outdo the Los Angeles games of 1932, Germany built a new 100,000-seat track and field stadium, six gymnasiums, and many other smaller arenas. They also installed a closed-circuit television system and radio network that reached 41 countries, with many other forms of expensive high-tech electronic equipment.1 Filmmaker Leni Riefenstahl, a favourite of Adolf Hitler, was commissioned by the German Olympic Committee to film the Games for $7 million.1 Her film, titled Olympia, pioneered many of the techniques now common in the filming of sports.citation needed
Hitler saw the Games as an opportunity to promote his government and ideals of racial supremacy, and the official Nazi party paper, the Völkischer Beobachter wrote in the strongest terms that Jews and Black people should not be allowed to participate in the Games.23 However, when threatened with a boycott of the Games by other nations, he relented and allowed Black people and Jews to participate, and added one token participant to the German team—a German woman, Helene Mayer, who had a Jewish father. At the same time, the party removed signs stating "Jews not wanted" and similar slogans from the city's main tourist attractions. In an attempt to "clean up" Berlin, the German Ministry of the Interior authorized the chief of police to arrest all Romani (Gypsies) and keep them in a "special camp," the Berlin-Marzahn concentration camp.4 Total ticket revenues were 7.5 million Reichsmark, generating a profit of over one million marks. The official budget did not include outlays by the city of Berlin (which issued an itemized report detailing its costs of 16.5 million marks) or outlays of the German national government (which did not make its costs public, but is estimated to have spent US$30 million, chiefly in capital outlays).5
The bidding for these Olympic Games was the first to be contested by IOC members casting their votes for their favorite host city.6 The vote occurred in 1931 during the reign of the Weimar Republic, before Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party rose to power in 1933. There were many other cities around the world that wanted to host this Summer Olympics, but they did not receive any IOC votes. The other cities competing to hold the games were: Alexandria, Barcelona, Buenos Aires, Cologne, Dublin, Frankfurt, Helsinki, Lausanne, Nuremberg, Rio de Janeiro, and Rome.7
|1936 Summer Olympics bidding result8|
Academics cannot agree whether the IOC during this period was a willing collaborator or an organisation that favoured the aesthetics of fascist governments.9 Although the IOC was insulated from the reality of Nazism, elements of Hitler's regime were in parallel alignment with the sporting ideologies of the IOC.9
After the Nazis took control and began instituting anti-Semitic policies, the IOC held private discussions among its delegates regarding changing the decision for Berlin. However Hitler's regime gave assurances Jewish athletes would be allowed to compete in a German Olympic team. In September 1934 the US Olympic committee publicly accepted the invitation to go to the Berlin games halting any further IOC attempts to quietly revise the decision.10
The next scheduled games in 1940 were awarded to Tokyo even though Japan was becoming an aggressive militaristic, nationalist state. Ironically in 1938 the Japanese rejected hosting the games because they saw the Olympics and its pacifist values as 'an effete form of European culture'.9
- Field hockey
- Football (Soccer)
- Modern pentathlon
- Water polo
- Avus Motor Road – Athletics (Marathon, 50 km walk), Cycling (road)
- BSV 92 Field & Stadium – Cycling (track), Handball
- Dietrich Eckert Open-Air Theatre – Gymnastics
- Döberitz – Equestrian (eventing), Modern pentathlon (riding)
- Deutschlandhalle – Boxing, Weightlifting, Wrestling
- Grünau Regatta Course – Canoeing, Rowing
- Haus des Deutschen Sports – Fencing, Modern pentathlon (fencing)
- Hertha-BSC Field – Football
- Hockey Stadion – Field hockey
- Hockey Stadion #2 – Field hockey
- Kiel Bay – Sailing
- Mayfield – Equestrian (dressage), polo
- Mommsenstadion – Football
- Olympic Stadium – Athletics, Equestrian (jumping), Football (final), Handball (final)
- Olympic Swimming Stadium – Diving, Modern pentathlon (swimming), Swimming, Water polo
- Police Stadium – Handball
- Poststadion – Football
- Ruhleben – Modern pentathlon (shooting)
- Tennis Courts – Basketball, Fencing (épée)
- Tennis Stadium – Basketball
- Wannsee Golf Course – Modern pentathlon (running)
- Wannsee Shooting Range – Shooting
The Olympic village was located at Estal in Wustermark, (at ), on the western edge of Berlin. The site, which was 30 kilometres (19 mi) from the centre of the city, consisted of one to two floor dormitories, dining areas, a swimming pool, and training facilities. During the Second World War, it was used as a hospital for injured Wehrmacht soldiers. In 1945 it was taken over by the Soviet Union and became a torture and interrogation centre for SMERSH. Recent efforts have been made to restore parts of the former village, but to no avail.11 Efforts are being made to restore the site into a living museum. The dormitory building used by Jesse Owens has been fully restored, and tours are given daily to small groups and students. The site remains relatively unknown even in Germany, but some tournaments are held at the site in an effort to boost knowledge of the venues.12
Hans von Tschammer und Osten, as Reichssportführer, i.e. head of the Deutscher Reichsbund für Leibesübungen (DRL), the Reich Sports Office, played a major role in the structure and organisation of the Olympics. He promoted the idea that the use of sports would harden the German spirit and instill unity among German youth. At the same time he also believed that sports was a "way to weed out the weak, Jewish, and other undesirables."13
Von Tschammer trusted the details of the organisation of the games to Theodor Lewald and Carl Diem, the former president and secretary of the Deutscher Reichsausschuss für Leibesübungen, the forerunner of the Reich Sports Office. Among Diem's ideas for the Berlin Games was the introduction of the Olympic torch relay between Greece and the host nation (see 1936 Summer Olympics torch relay).14
The German Olympic committee, in accordance with Nazi directives, virtually barred Germans who were Jewish or Roma or had such an ancestry from participating in the Games (Helene Mayer was the only German Jew to compete at the Berlin Games). This decision meant exclusion for many of the country's top athletes such as shotputter and discus thrower Lilli Henoch, who was a four-time world record holder and 10-time German national champion,15 and Gretel Bergmann who was suspended from the German team just days after she set a record of 1.60 meters in the high jump.1617
During the Games, Hauptmann Wolfgang Fürstner, the commandant of the Olympic Village in Wustermark, was abruptly replaced by Oberstleutnant Werner von Gilsa, commander of the Berlin Guard-Regiment. The official reason given by the Nazis was because Fürstner had not acted "with the necessary energy" after 370,000 visitors had passed through the village - between May 1 to June 15 - causing significant damage to the site. However this reason was just a pretext to disparaging the half-Jewish officer and expediting his removal. Fürstner committed suicide shortly after the conclusion of the Berlin Olympics because he learned the Nuremberg Laws classified him as a Jew. As such, the career officer was to be expelled from the Wehrmacht.18
||The examples and perspective in this article may not represent a worldwide view of the subject. (February 2010)|
Prior to and during the Games, there was considerable debate outside Germany over whether the competition should be allowed or discontinued. Ultimately the Games boasted the largest number of participating nations of any Olympics to that point. However, some individual athletes, including Jewish Americans Milton Green and Norman Cahners, chose not to compete in Germany.
The Spanish government led by the newly elected left-wing Popular Front boycotted the Games and organized the People's Olympiad as a parallel event in Barcelona. Some 6,000 athletes from 49 countries registered for the games. However, the People's Olympiad was aborted because of the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War just one day before the event was due to start.
Halet Çambel and Suat Fetgeri Așani, the first Turkish women athletes to participate in the Olympics (fencing) refused an offer by their guide to be formally introduced to Adolf Hitler, saying they would not shake hands with him due to his approach to Jews as stated by Ms Çambel in a "Milliyet" newspaper interview in 2000.20
President Roosevelt demanded the participation of U.S.A. in the Olympics.
However, there were those who voiced their opinions on the debate - including Americans Ernest Lee Jahncke, Judge Jeremiah Mahoney, and future IOC President Avery Brundage. Some within the United States considered requesting a boycott of the Games, as to participate in the festivity might be considered a sign of support for the Nazi regime and its anti-Semitic policies. However, others such as Brundage (see below) argued that the Olympic Games should not reflect political views, but rather should be strictly a contest of the greatest athletes.
Avery Brundage, then of the United States Olympic Committee, opposed the boycott, stating that Jewish athletes were being treated fairly and that the Games should continue. Brundage asserted that politics played no role in sports, and that they should never be entwined. Brundage also believed that there was a “Jewish-Communist conspiracy” that existed to keep the United States from competing in the Olympic Games.21 On the subject of Jewish discrimination, he stated, “The very foundation of the modern Olympic revival will be undermined if individual countries are allowed to restrict participation by reason of class, creed, or race.”22 During a fact-finding trip that Brundage went on to Germany in 1934 to ascertain whether or not German Jews were being treated fairly, Brundage found no discrimination when he interviewed Jews and his Nazi handlers translated for him, and Brundage commiserated with his hosts that he belonged to a sports club in Chicago that did not allow Jews entry, either.23
Unlike Brundage, Jeremiah Mahoney supported a boycott of the Games. Mahoney, the president of the Amateur Athletic Union, led newspaper editors and anti-Nazi groups to protest against American participation in the Berlin Olympics. He contested that racial discrimination was a violation of Olympic rules and that participation in the Games was tantamount to support for the Third Reich.
Most African-American newspapers supported participation in the Olympics. The Philadelphia Tribune and the Chicago Defender both agreed that black victories would undermine Nazi views of Aryan supremacy and spark renewed African-American pride. American Jewish organizations, meanwhile, largely opposed the Olympics. The American Jewish Congress and the Jewish Labor Committee staged rallies and supported the boycott of German goods to show their disdain for American participation.21
Eventually, Brundage won the debate, convincing the Amateur Athletic Union to close a vote in favor of sending an American team to the Berlin Olympics. Mahoney’s efforts to incite a boycott of the Olympic games in the United States failed.
The games were the first to have live television coverage. The German Post Office, using equipment from Telefunken, broadcast over 70 hours of coverage to special viewing rooms throughout Berlin and Potsdam and a few private TV sets, transmitting from the Paul Nipkow TV Station. Unfortunately, they were using three different types of TV cameras, so blackouts would occur when changing from one type to another. Also, the quality was generally poor. As one New York journalist said "...Only the polo game show up fairly clearly when black or chestnut ponies are used."24 The Olympic Flame was used for the third time at these games, but this marked the first time it was brought to the Olympic Village by a torch relay, with the starting point in Olympia, Greece.25 The Republic of China's Three Principles of the People was chosen as the best national anthem of the games.
United States Olympic Committee president Avery Brundage became a main supporter of the Games being held in Germany, arguing that "politics has no place in sport", despite having initial doubts.28 Later Brundage requested that a system be established to examine female athletes for what Time magazine called "sex ambiguities" after observing the performance of Czechoslovak runner and jumper Zdenka Koubkova and English shotputter and javelin thrower Mary Edith Louise Weston. (Both individuals had sex change surgery and legally changed their names to Zdenek Koubek and Mark Weston.).29
Despite not coming from a fascist country, French Olympians gave what appeared to be the Roman salute at the opening ceremony, although some have later claimed that they were just performing the Olympic salute, which was in fact a very similar action.30
American sprinters Sam Stoller and Marty Glickman, the only two Jews on the U.S. Olympic team, were pulled from the 4 × 100 relay team on the day of the competition, leading to speculation that U.S. Olympic committee leader Avery Brundage did not want to add to the embarrassment of Hitler by having two Jews win gold medals.31
In 1937, Hollywood released the film Charlie Chan at the Olympics. The plot concerned members of the Berlin police force helping the Chinese detective apprehend a group of spies (of unnamed nationality) from trying to steal a new aerial guidance system. Despite pertaining to the Berlin Olympics, actual Games' footage used by the filmmakers was edited to remove any Nazi symbols.32
Germany had a prosperous year in the equestrian events, winning individual and team gold in all three disciplines, as well as individual silver in dressage. In the cycling match sprint finals, the German Toni Merkens fouled Arie van Vliet of the Netherlands. Instead of being disqualified, he was fined 100 marks and kept his gold. German gymnasts Konrad Frey and Alfred Schwarzmann both won three gold medals.
Jesse Owens won four gold medals in the sprint and long jump events. His German competitor Luz Long offered Owens advice after he almost failed to qualify in the long jump and was posthumously awarded the Pierre de Coubertin medal for sportsmanship. Mack Robinson, brother to Jackie Robinson, won the 200 meter sprint silver medal behind Owens by 0.4 seconds. Although he did not win a medal, future American war hero Louis Zamperini, lagging behind in the 5,000 meter final, made up ground by clocking a 56-second final lap. This effort caught the attention of Adolf Hitler who personally commended Zamperini on his speed. In one of the most dramatic 800 meter races in history, American John Woodruff won gold after slowing to jogging speed in the middle of the final in order to free himself from being boxed in.33 Glenn Edgar Morris, a farm boy from Colorado, won Gold in the Decathlon. Rower Jack Beresford won his fifth Olympic medal in the sport, and his third gold medal. The U.S. eight-man rowing team from the University of Washington won the gold medal, coming from behind to defeat the Germans and Italians with Adolf Hitler in attendance.
Controversy surrounded from Jesse Owens victory in the 100m Sprint in front of Adolf Hitler. At the time it was widely reported that Hitler 'snubbed' the opportunity to shake hands with Jesse Owens after his victory, and quickly left the Stadium. This was picked up by the press at the time and was used to paint a bad picture about Hitler.
In the marathon, Japan won one gold (Son Kitei) and one bronze (Nan Shoryu) medal; both the runners were ethnic Koreans. British India won the gold medal in the field hockey event once again (they won the gold in all Olympics from 1928 to 1956), defeating Germany 8–1 in the final. However, Indians were considered Indo-Aryans by the Germans and there was no controversy regarding their victory. Rie Mastenbroek of the Netherlands won three gold medals and a silver in swimming. Estonia's Kristjan Palusalu won two gold medals in Men's Wrestling, marking the last time Estonia competed as an independent nation in the Olympics until 1992.
After winning the middleweight class, the Egyptian weightlifter Khadr El Touni continued to compete for another 45 minutes, finally exceeding the total of the German silver medalist by 35 kg. The 20-year-old El Touni lifted a total of 387.5 kg crushing two German world champions, El Touni broke the then Olympic and world records, while the German lifted 352.5 kg. Furthermore, El Touni had lifted 15 kg more than the heavyweight gold medalist, a feat only El Touni has accomplished. El Touni's new world records stood for 13 years. Fascinated by El Touni's performance, Adolf Hitler rushed down to greet this human miracle. Prior to the competition, Hitler was said to have been sure that Rudolf Ismayr and Adolf Wagner would embarrass all other opponents. Hitler was so impressed by El Touni's domination in the middleweight class that he ordered a street named after him in Berlin olympic village.26 The Egyptian held the No. 1 position on the IWF list of history's 50 greatest weightlifters for 60 years, until the 1996 Games in Atlanta where Turkey's Naim Süleymanoğlu surpassed him to top the list.
Italy's football team continued their dominance under legendary head coach Vittorio Pozzo, winning the gold medal in these Olympics between their two consecutive World Cup victories (1934 and 1938). Much like the successes of German athletes, this triumph was claimed by supporters of Benito Mussolini's regime as a vindication of the superiority of the fascist system. Austria won the silver; a controversial win after Hitler called for a rematch of the quarterfinals match to discount Peru's 4–2 win over Austria. The Peruvian national Olympic team refused to play the match again and withdrew from the games. In the quarter-finals of the football tournament, Peru beat Austria 4–2 in extra-time. Peru rallied from a two-goal deficit in the final 15 minutes of normal time. During extra-time, Peruvian fans allegedly ran onto the field and attacked an Austrian player. In the chaos, Peru scored twice and won, 4–2. However, Austria protested and the International Olympic Committee ordered a replay without any spectators. The Peruvian government refused and their entire Olympic squad left in protest as did Colombia.34
A total of 49 nations attended the Berlin Olympics, up from 37 in 1932. Five nations made their first official Olympic appearance at these Games: Afghanistan, Bermuda, Bolivia, Costa Rica and Liechtenstein.
- Haiti also took part in the Opening Ceremony, but its lone athlete (a weightlifter) withdrew from competition.36
These are the top ten nations that won medals at the 1936 Games.
|1||Germany (host nation)||33||26||30||89|
"The sportive, knightly battle awakens the best human characteristics. It doesn't separate, but unites the combatants in understanding and respect. It also helps to connect the countries in the spirit of peace. That's why the Olympic Flame should never die."
"German sport has only one task: to strengthen the character of the German people, imbuing it with the fighting spirit and steadfast camaraderie necessary in the struggle for its existence."— Minister of Propaganda Joseph Goebbels
- 1936 Winter Olympics
- Olympic Games celebrated in Germany
- Summer Olympic Games
- Olympic Games
- International Olympic Committee
- List of IOC country codes
- Olympic Games Decoration
- Berlin 36 (film)
- Olympia (1938 film)
- Parley Parker Christensen, Los Angeles City Council member who blocked payment for sending 1932 Olympic flag to Berlin for the 1936 games.
- Rader, Benjamin G. "American Sports: From the Age of Folk Games to the Age of Televised Sports" --5th Ed.
- Hitlerland. p. 188.
- David Clay Large, Nazi Games: The Olympics of 1936, p. 58.
- "The Facade of Hospitality". United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Retrieved 4 July 2008. "In a move to "clean up" Berlin before the Olympics, the German Ministry of Interior authorized the chief of the Berlin Police to arrest all Gypsies prior to the Games. On 16 July 1936, some 800 Gypsies were arrested and interned under police guard in a special Gypsy camp in the Berlin suburb of Marzahn."
- Zarnowski, C. Frank (Summer 1992). "A Look at Olympic Costs" (PDF). Citius, Altius, Fortius 1 (1): 16–32. Retrieved 24 March 2007.
- "Olympic Vote History". Archived from the original on 25 May 2008. Retrieved 1 July 2008.
- GamesBids' Past Olympic Host City Selection List
- "Past Olympic host city election results". GamesBids. Archived from the original on 17 March 2011. Retrieved 17 March 2011.
- Roche, Maurice (2000). Mega-events and Modernity: Olympics and Expos in the Growth of Global Culture. Taylor & Francis (US). pp. 119–121. ISBN 978-0-4151-5712-4.
- Keßler, Mario (2011). "Berlin 1936 - nur Spiele der Nazis? Olympia zwischen Sport und Politik". Jahrbuch für Forschungen zur Geschichte der Arbeiterbewegung II.
- "Adolf Hitler's Olympic Village of 1936: Can this decaying relic ever escape the ghosts of its past?". Daily Mail. June 30, 2012.
- "Hitler’s Olympic Village Faces Conservation Battle". Voice of America. August 26, 2012.
- Nazification of Sport
- "The Olympic torch's shadowy past". BBC News. April 5, 2008.
- Paul Taylor (2004). Jews and the Olympic Games: the clash between sport and politics: with a complete review of Jewish Olympic medalists. Sussex Academic Press. ISBN 1-903900-88-3. Retrieved 2 November 2011.
- Hipsh, Rami (November 25, 2009). "German film helps Jewish athlete right historical wrong". Haaretz. Retrieved August 19, 2012.
- Sandomir, Richard (7 July 2004). "'Hitler's Pawn' on HBO: An Olympic Betrayal". New York Times. Retrieved 4 July 2008. "And she remembers with restrained anger the isolation she felt as a Jewish athlete denied basic rights in Hitler's Germany, and how, despite equaling a national record in the high jump a month before the 1936 Berlin Summer Games, she was excluded from the German Olympic team because she was a Jew."
- Lehrer, Steven (2006). The Reich Chancellery and Führerbunker Complex. An Illustrated History of the Seat of the Nazi Regime. McFarland: Jefferson, NC. pp. 47–48.
- Richard D. Mandell, The Nazi Olympics, University of Illinois Press, 1987, ISBN 0-252-01325-5; p. 68
- The Nazi Olympics
- Nagorski, Andrew. Hitlerland: American Eyewitnesses to the Nazi Rise to Power. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2012, p. 190.
- Large, Davic Clay (2007). Nazi Games The Olympics of 1936. W.W. Norton & Company, Inc. ISBN 0-393-05884-0.
- "Olympic Flame history". Everything2. Retrieved 23 August 2008. "The carrying of the flame from its origin in Olympia to the site of the games is called the Olympic Torch Relay. Some believe that the relay also began in the Ancient Olympics, but Olympic officials confirm that the tradition of the Modern Olympic Torch Relay began in 1936 at the Berlin Games, to represent a link between the ancient and modern Olympics, and has since remained as an Olympic custom."
- 1936 Olympics book
- El-Tony siganture in arabic in the official 1936 Olymipics book
- Deciding whether to boycott
- "Change of Sex". Time. 24 Aug 1936.
- Opening Ceremony
- Holocaust Museum exhibit, Washington, DC
- Hanke, Ken (2004). Charlie Chan at the Movies: History, Filmography, and Criticism. McFarland. pp. 89–97.
- Litsky, Frank (1 November 2007). "John Woodruff, an Olympian, Dies at 92". The New York Times. Retrieved 26 August 2010.
- Football at Summer Olympics 1936
- Included Korea and Taiwan.
- Complete official IOC report. Part I (PDF). p. 596. Retrieved 17 October 2012. "4,793 competitors representing 50 nations were entered for the competitions of the Olympic Games, 1936."
- Included Koreans.
- http://www.huffingtonpost.com/chris-weigant/the-olympic-torch-relays_b_96648.html Hitle's quote.
- "Berlin 1936". Olympic.org. International Olympic Committee.
- "All the Medallists since 1896". Olympic.org. International Olympic Committee.
- Complete official IOC report. Part I
- Complete official IOC report. Part II
- Berlin 36 a novel in French by Alexandre Najjar, Plon, Paris, 2009. ISBN 978-2-259-21082-9.
- Lehrer, Steven (2002). Hitler Sites: A City-by-city Guidebook (Austria, Germany, France, United States). McFarland. p. 224. ISBN 978-0-7864-1045-3. Retrieved 1 June 2010.
- Lehrer, Steven (2006). The Reich Chancellery and Führerbunker Complex: An Illustrated History of the Seat of the Nazi Regime. McFarland. p. 214. ISBN 978-0-7864-2393-4. Retrieved 1 June 2010.
- Berlin Games – How Hitler Stole the Olympic Dream, by Guy Walters ISBN 978-0-7195-6783-4 (UK) 0060874120 (USA)
- All That Glitters is Not Gold, by William O. Johnson, Jr. ISBN 978-0-399-11008-5 (USA)
- Hitler's Games: The 1936 Olympics, by Duff Hart-Davis, ISBN 978-0-06-015554-4 ISBN 978-0-06-015554-4
- Hitler's Olympics: The 1936 Berlin Olympic Games, by Christopher Hilton
- The Nazi Olympics: Berlin 1936 United States Holocaust Museum, by Susan D. Bachrach
- The Nazi Olympics (Sport and Society), by Richard D. Mandell
- Olympische Spiele Berlin / Olympic Games 1936: Erinnergunsalbum / Album-Souvenir unter dem Patronat des schweizerischen Olympischen Komitees, by Julius, ed., publ. Wagner
- The Nazi Olympics: Sport, Politics, and Appeasement in the 1930s by Arnd Kruger and W. J. Murray
- The Berlin Olympics (World Focus Books), by James P. Barry
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: 1936 Summer Olympics|
- "Berlin 1936". Olympic.org. International Olympic Committee.
- United States Holocaust Memorial Museum – Online Exhibition: Nazi Olympics: Berlin 1936
- United States Holocaust Memorial Museum – Library Bibliography: 1936 Olympics
- Virtual Library: the NAZI Olympics
- Die XI. Olympischen Sommerspiele in Berlin 1936 at Lebendiges Museum Online. In German
- 1936 Olympics and the Struggle for Influence on C-SPAN
|Summer Olympic Games
XI Olympiad (1936)
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